Announcements No Class on MONDAY 2/19 Today Stages

Announcements No Class on MONDAY 2/19 Today Stages

Announcements No Class on MONDAY 2/19 Today Stages of acquisition Order Characteristics Readings: 9.4 - 9.6

Innateness Language acquisition is a biologicallycontrolled behavior Has a critical period Has a regular sequence of milestones during development Stages of acquisition

All (normal) children go through same stages of acquisition in same order Age at which they reach each stage and the rate of progression through the stages can vary greatly Stages of acquisition Crying (0-1 month) Cooing (2-3 months)

vowel-like, coo/goo, gurgling Vocal play (3-6 months) cries, burps, grunts raspberries, squeals, yells Social Precursors for language

http://www.vocaldevelopment.com/ Cross-section of babys mouth Babys vocal tract Adult vocal tract Babbling Babbling (6-12 months):

CV monosyllables: (e.g., ma, pa, da, di) Canonical babbling: repeated CVCV (e.g., mamama, papapa, dididi) Variegated babbling: different CV syllables (e.g., badigu, potaki, tamami) Jargon babbling: meaningless word-like units w/ intonation Functions of babbling Provides motor practice

Stimulates adult-infant interactions Decoding of language into phonological units Sign-learning childrens babbling has a unique signature http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6T24-4BBMVF91&_user=582538&_coverDate=08%2F31%2F2004&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000029718&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=582538&md5=c6ed1ed69e7910a03614cef3010a63c8 Is babbling linguistic or biological?

All babies babble same sounds up to 6-10 mos., then focus on native sounds Hearing children of deaf parents babble Deaf babies orally babble until ~6 mos., then only babble with hands babbling smiling non-babbling http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/297/5586/1515/DC1

Babies open their mouths wider on right than on left when babbling wider on left than on right when smiling equally on both sides when making other sounds One-word stage 1 - 1 1/2 years:

Lexicon < 50 words (avg. ~ 15) At first, words for people, objects and things (mommy, doggie, bottle) Later, verbs and other useful words (go, mine, no), and holophrases (one-word phrases, e.g., gimme, whassat, allgone) Simplified phonology (but rule-governed) Two-word stage 1 1/2 - 2 years:

Lexicon > 50 words 2-word combinations indicate semantic rather than syntactic relations, e.g., Noun + verb (baby sleep) Verb + object (kick ball) Noun + preposition (baby up) Possessor + possession (Mommy book) No inflections

Telegraphic stage 2+ years: Can combine more than 2 words Speech contains primarily content words w/ no function morphemes Syntactically organized Word inflections

2+ years: Progressive -ing (eating) Plural s (blankets) Possessive s (babys

bottle) 3rd person singular s (Daddy walks) Past tense (Mommy walked) Negatives

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