Words and phrases of the same category can be combined using conjunctions (e.g., and, but, or) NP NP conj NP VP VP conj VP S S conj S Cats and dogs are furry. He will run and jump. You can run but you cant hide.
Ungrammatical coordination Different categories cannot be conjoined Julia wrote a memo. Julia wrote to the dean. *Julia wrote [a memo] and [to the dean]. NP PP
Coordination test Laura loves linguistics. Laura teaches enthusiastically. Laura loves linguistics and teaches enthusiastically. Conclusion: [loves linguistics] and [teaches enthusiastically] are the same kind of constituent: VP Coordination test Reveals information about
whether a group of words is a constituent I [VP slept]. I [[slept] and [dreamed about Linguistics]]. *I [slept and dreamed] about Linguistics.
what kind of constituent it is I saw [deer and florp] in the meadow. I want to go [run and florp] in the meadow. Tests for Constituent structure
Substitution Movement Deletion Substitution Only constituents can be substituted for with shorter words/phrases Substitution: NP
Substitute for NPs with pronouns (he, she, it, they, etc.) e.g., Laura will buy the Battlestar Galactica DVD tomorrow. Rita will buy it Wednesday. She will buy V for Vendetta next week. NP
[the BSG DVD] NP [Laura] Coordination and Substitution [The professor and a TA] were talking to [several students and some faculty] about [the joy of syntactic analysis].
[They] were talking to [them] about [it]. [She and a TA] were talking to Substitution: VP
Substitute for VPs with as, so, do/done so e.g., Laura has eaten lots of Halloween candy. [eaten lots of Halloween candy] As has Julie. So has George. Matt has done so too.
VP VP substitution cont. AUX (has, will, etc.) is outside the VP constituent. John will [study linguistics and love it] Mary will [do so] too. *Mary [do so] too VP substitution and coordination
John will [VP [go to the linguistics lecture] and [learn about syntax]]. Mary will [do so] too. Mary will [[go to the lecture] and [do so]] too.
Movement Constituents can move to positions in the sentence other than where they would normally go Obligatory: Question formation Optional: Topicalization
Word Order English is an SVO language: Subject Verb Object Harry rides brooms. Ron makes jokes. Trevor eats flies. Obligatory Movement
Question formation: Laura will drive her car on the weekend. What will Laura drive (her car) on the weekend? When will Laura drive her car (on the weekend)? Optional Movement Topicalization: optional movement used to emphasize something
I dont like peas, but peanuts I like _____. O-S-V They didnt think he could win the election, but win the election he did __________. Coordination and Movement
John ate [NP beans and rice] What did John eat ___ ? *What did John eat [NP beans and ____ ]? Constituent tests The cow attacked the farmer with the axe.
Substitution test The cow attacked him. NP: [the farmer with the axe] The cow attacked him with it. him: NP[the farmer] it: NP[the axe]
Movement test the farmer with the axe Who did the cow attack _______________? the farmer Who did the cow attack__________ with the axe? Deletion A constituent can be deleted from a
phrase when there is an identical constituent in the discourse to supply its meaning Deletion: VP Imelda is going to [see The Nutcracker].
see The Nutcracker too. Emmett is going to ____________ going to see The Nutcracker Thaddeus is _________________ too. John will [go to the store on the corner], and Mary will __ too.
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