Chapter 1: The Earths Atmosphere Overview of the Earths atmosphere Vertical structure of the
atmosphere Weather and climate Overview of the Earths Atmosphere The atmosphere, when scaled to the size of an apple, is no thicker than the skin on an apple Water vapor molecules are invisible: clouds;
condensation; evaporation Fig.1.2 Composition of the Atmosphere permanent gases roles of nitrogen
and oxygen variable gases role of water vapor Fig. 1.4 Table 1-1, p. 3
Composition of the Atmosphere Carbon dioxide and the greenhouse gases
ozone aerosols pollutants Ozone at high altitudes (stratosphere) is good; ozone at low altitudes (troposphere) is bad. FIGURE 1.3 The main components of the atmospheric carbon dioxide cycle. The gray
lines show processes that put carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, whereas the red lines show processes that remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Stepped Art Fig. 1-3, p. 4 The Early Atmosphere the first atmosphere: hydrogen, helium outgassing and the second
atmosphere water vapor, carbon dioxide, nitrogen evolution the The evolutionof of life andatmosphere: the atmosphere are closely
linked. carbon dioxide and oxygen Vertical Structure of the Earths Atmosphere Radiosonde launched twice a day to measure temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure of the lowest 30 km above surface
A Brief Look at Air Pressure and Air Density air density air pressure sea-level pressure Baseballs travel farther in higher-altitude air (Denver)
than they do in lower-altitude air. Surface pressure: 1013 mb = 1013 hPa = 29.92 in.Hg Fig. 1-7, p. 8 Fig. 1-8, p. 9 Layers of the Atmosphere
vertical temperature profile Troposphere lapse rate: 6.5degC/1km; temperature inversion stratosphere mesosphere
thermosphere The Ionosphere electrified regions of the atmosphere D, E and F regions radio waves When the radio was invented by G. Marconi in the
early 20th century, it was not known how radio waves traveled long distances through the atmosphere. Fig. 1-11, p. 13 Weather and Climate Satellites Radar Radiosonde
Aircraft Weather station Elements of Weather
air temperature air pressure humidity clouds precipitation visibility wind Certain weather elements, like clouds, visibility and wind, are
of particular interest to pilots. Climate average weather extremes A Satellites View of the Weather
geostationary satellites Atmospheric observation from satellites was an important technological development in meteorology. Other important developments include computers, internet, and Doppler radar.
Storms of all Sizes midlatitude cyclonic storms hurricanes and tropical storms thunderstorms tornadoes
Storms are very exciting, but they also play an important role in moving heat and moisture around throughout the atmosphere. Fig. 1.17 Fig. 1.15 A Look at a Weather Map
wind speed and direction cyclones and anticyclones fronts Wind direction is defined in the opposite way as ocean currents: a southerly current means water is moving towards the south. Fig. 1-13, p. 17 Weather and Climate in
our Lives wind chill, frostbite and hypothermia heat exhaustion and heat stroke cold spells, dry spells and heat waves
severe and flash The thunderstorms mathematical formula for determining the wind floods chill temperature has recently been revised due to new experiments. Fig. 1-16, p. 19 Fig. 1.19
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