The Global Circuit Intensity: Its measurement and variation

The Global Circuit Intensity: Its measurement and variation

The Global Circuit Intensity: Its measurement and variation over the last 50 years Ralph Markson (2007) February 23, 2017 Karly Reimel ATS 780 Why do we want to measure global circuit intensity? There is a possibility that monitoring the global circuit could be a tool to monitor global temperature change The intensity of the global circuit can be measured with a single measurement Convective clouds are modulated by heating of the Earths surface Convective clouds maintain the global circuit and associated fair weather field

Ionospheric potential (Vi) is proportional to the intensity and variation of Earths electric field. Measuring global circuit intensity Constant altitude time series measurements of electric field or air-Earth current over a diurnal cycle at remote fair weather locations with few or no clouds above or below the measurement Time series of Vi soundings over a full day or substantial portion of the day Simultaneous measurements of Vi at remote locations Soundings of Vi Should be taken in clean-air ocean regions with no clouds or only scattered clouds Electric field decreases quasi-exponentially with height, so soundings do not need to reach high altitudes Potential difference between the ground and sounding top

is measured directly The remainder of the sounding can be extrapolated since the variation of the electric field with altitude has a known exponential decrease with altitude above the lower atmosphere Add the integrated potential to the computed increment to get Vi Ocean Aircraft Sounding: E= electric field sounding V= integrated potential variation with height Exchange layer occurs at 1.4km Conductivity rapidly increases since aerosol are confined to the boundary layer Exponential decrease in E due to the increase in cosmic ray ionization with altitude

(Markson 2007) (Markson 2007) Balloon Sounding: Taken in clean air in Hawaii Unusual electrode space charge layer near the ground Inversion at 1km followed by the characteristic exponential decrease in E Enhanced E near 3km most likely due to a thin cloud layer that creates lower conductivity The Electrode Layer:

a layer of positive space charge near the surface Always observed over the ocean but rarely observed over land Caused by accumulation of positive ions drifting downward in the fair-weather electric field Electrode layers are uncommon over land because Earths land surface contains uranium and radon which both ionize air molecules close to the ground Since Hawaii is volcanic, there is no uranium or radon in the ground (Markson2007) Variation of Ionospheric Potential (1955 2004) Aircraft and balloon soundings of Vi were completed by multiple groups over a 50 year time span Soundings were normalized to account for the diurnal variation in Vi The Carnegie curve percent deviation

from its mean value was added or subtracted from the measured Vi depending on the time of the measurement Vi measurements averaged for each year Atmospheric Nuclear Testing After WWII, atmospheric nuclear testing occurred from the 1950s through 1962 The frequency in this testing rose significantly just before the test ban treaty went into effect in 1963 Average of all years: 254kV Average after 1966: 240kV Ground Level SR-90 Correlations between Vi and SR-90

Both ground level and stratospheric SR-90 showed the highest correlation with a lag time of 1 year On average it takes 1 year for nuclear fallout to reach the ground or settle in the troposphere when it originates from the stratosphere Stratospheric SR-90 shows a higher correlation to variation in Vi than ground based SR-90 measurements Stratospheric SR-90 (Markson 2007) Effects of Nuclear Testing on Vi Nuclear material in the stratosphere is a better measure of the ionization in the upper troposphere that could affect the conductivity above thunderstorms and their ability to maintain the global circuit Nuclear fallout near the ground causes enhanced ionization that leads to an increase in conductivity

The enhancement of Vi by as much as 40% from 1960-1965 was caused by nuclear radiation in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere Cosmic Radiation and the Global Circuit Previous studies have found: Negative correlation between solar wind velocity and Vi (Markson and Muir 1980) Positive correlation between galactic cosmic radiation and Vi (Markson 1981) Solar wind velocity is inversely correlated with cosmic radiation Conclude that cosmic ionizing radiation must increase Vi by affecting the generator part of the circuit Markson 2007 supports this conclusion through finding that atmospheric nuclear radiation is positively correlated with Vi Nuclear radiation enhances ionization in the

same way as cosmic radiation would (Markson 1981) Annual Variation of Vi Relatively constant Vi over time Approximately a 10% increase occurs moving toward a maximum in August Vi values level out in September and October and then decreases back down to its quasi-stable value Unable to identify a month that represents the minimum value, but the winter months appear to have the lowest values of Vi (Markson 2007) A study of the relationship between Vi and temperature

Compared Vi measurements from balloon soundings in Weston, Massachusetts to high temporal resolution temperature data in equatorial and tropical Africa and South America Found significant positive correlations between the temperatures between and analysis of the balloon soundings Over Africa, the correlation maximized when the temperature 5 hours before the sounding was used Correlation maximized 2 hours before the sounding in South America A similar experiment was completed using 19 balloon soundings over Orlando, Florida Demonstrated that temperature controls Vi variation Showed that a negative feedback mechanism exists High positive correlation in the morning High negative correlation in the midafternoon through evening Morning and midday convective development leads to the overdevelopment of clouds, reduced temperature due to shading, and minimal thermal activity later (Markson 2007)

(Markson 2007) Warmer noontime temperatures lead to smaller increases in temperature in the midafternoon Earlier convection due to warmer noontime temperatures increases cloud cover, reducing the heating of the surface through longwave radiation On a diurnal time scale, this relationship should stabilize temperatures On a longer time scale, a positive feedback should result from increased thunderstorm activity adding more water vapor to the air (Price 2000) Deep Convective Clouds and Global Warming Most of the reported global warming signal comes from warmer nighttime temperatures Residue clouds and water vapor from daytime thunderstorms and deep convection inhibit nighttime radiational cooling Deep convection transports water vapor to higher

altitudes where it is much more effective as a greenhouse gas than at the surface ELF/Schumann resonances are highly correlated with water vapor in the upper troposphere Increased convective activity should increase nighttime temperatures and contribute to the global warming signal Sensitivity of Vi to temperature An 8C increase in temperature corresponds to 100-kV increase in Vi A 1% increase in temperature results in a 16% increase in Earths electric field intensity Global Warming Implications (Markson 2007) It is not possible to compare the long-term variation

of Vi to global warming due to the ratio of Vi to temperature The reported 0.4C increase in global temperature over the past four decades would coincide with a only a 4kV increase in Vi Perhaps with the further refinement of measurements in the future, Vi variation may provide a relatively simple method to study global change Conclusions: 1. Atmospheric nuclear testing was highly correlated with an increase in global circuit intensity by as much as 40% from 1960-1964 2. Following the nuclear test period, Vi has remained relatively constant, averaging about 240kV 3. Positive correlation between atmospheric nuclear radiation and Vi supports the hypothesis that galactic cosmic radiation modulates the intensity of the global circuit through changing the ionization properties near deep convective clouds 4. The maximum variation of Vi and annual variation observed of lightning occurs in August; the minimum in Vi occurs during Northern

Hemisphere winter Conclusions: 5. Temperature over Africa and South America are positively correlated with Vi in the morning and negatively correlated in the afternoon most likely due to enhanced morning convection creating clouds that shield the ground from solar radiation later in the day 6. Convection transports water vapor to the upper troposphere and stratosphere contributes to global warming signal due to water vapor acting as a greenhouse gas 7. Nocturnal clouds and water vapor from previous days convection reduce the rate of radiational cooling at night 8. A 1% change in global temperature leads to a 16% change in Vi currently the temperature change is too small to notice a variance in Vi, but with further refined measurements, Vi could provide a method to study global change one day

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Body Composition - Lenape Regional High School District

    Body Composition - Lenape Regional High School District

    If you went to the doctor today and they told you that you needed to lower your body composition, what 3 realistic changes could you make? Somatotype. Your body type. 3 different Somatotypes: ... You are born with an inherited...
  • Elements of Poetry

    Elements of Poetry

    Examples of Tone. Mood . Feeling created in the reader by a literary work or passage. Similar to tone. Examples of Mood. Organization of Poetry . Structure. Lines. Stanza. Couplet. ... Quatrain. A stanza of four lines; one having alternate...
  • Dialogue systems II - University of Manchester

    Dialogue systems II - University of Manchester

    Dialogue systems II Understanding speakers' intentions Cooperative responses ... act Locution Literal use of an utterance Illocution Intending meaning of the utterance hence "illocutionary force" Perlocution What is achieved by the utterance Types of illocutionary act Assertives Stating ...
  • Funding and Monitoring Team To maximise the external

    Funding and Monitoring Team To maximise the external

    Recent survey of funders carried out by Grantnet revealed the failure of applications could be attributed to: applicant ineligibility - 67% gave this as the main reason. ineligible activities - 61% gave this as the main reason. organisational viability -...
  • Housing Treasury  Financing Risk B3: Managing derivatives in

    Housing Treasury Financing Risk B3: Managing derivatives in

    All standardised OTC derivative contracts should be traded on exchanges or electronic trading platforms, where appropriate, and cleared through central counterparties by end-2012 at the latest. OTC derivative contracts should be reported to trade repositories. Non-centrally cleared contracts should be...
  • Meshless Elasticity Model and Contact Mechanics-based ...

    Meshless Elasticity Model and Contact Mechanics-based ...

    Meshless Elasticity Model and Contact Mechanics-based Verification Technique. ... since the shape function of standard finite elements are piecewise polynomials and strong and weak discontinuities can be incorporated only along element edge. ... as the sum of the squared differences...
  • New era of Penalty Provisions under Income Tax Law

    New era of Penalty Provisions under Income Tax Law

    Position of penalty on: Addition under deeming fictions like section 50C , section 2(22)(e), section 56 etc vis a vis penalty provisons. Impact of admission of substantial question of law u/s 260A and admission of SLP before Supreme court vis...
  • TERM 3 OUTLINE:  Mortal Engines - Analytical essay

    TERM 3 OUTLINE: Mortal Engines - Analytical essay

    Mortal Engines . Mortal Engines was written Philip Reeve in 2002. A science-fiction novel that is futuristic, steampunk version of London and it set far into the future. The novel follows a young hero named Tom who joins forces with...