United States History EOC study guide In thanks to Miss White and Ms. Martinez Anaconda Plan The Anaconda Plan is the name applied to an outline strategy for suppressing the Confederacy at the beginning of the American Civil War. Proposed by General-in-Chief Winfield Scott, the plan emphasized the blockade of the Southern ports, and called for an advance down the Mississippi River to cut the South in
two. Carpetbaggers In United States history, a carpetbagger was a Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, during the Reconstruction era (1865 1877). White Southerners denounced them fearing they would loot and plunder the defeated South.
Sharecropping Sharecropping is a system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant (usually AfricanAmericans) to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on their portion of land. 14th Amendment The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to all persons born or naturalized in the United States, which included former slaves recently freed. Civil Rights Act of 1866- granted freedmen rights of citizenship,
overturning the Black codes Jim Crow Laws Jim Crow laws were state and local laws enforcing racial segregation in the Southern United States. Enacted after the Reconstruction period, these laws continued in force until 1965. Reservation systems An Indian reservation is a legal designation for an area of
land managed by a Native American tribe under the US Bureau of Indian Affairs, rather than the state governments of the United States in which they are physically located. Each of the 326 Indian reservations in the Unite d States are associated with a particular Nation. Immigration: Old vs New
Old Immigrant English-speakers from Northern or Western Europe Protestant Christians White Familiar with English political traditions and law
New Immigrants Non-English speakers from Southern and Eastern Europe Different Alphabets: Greek, Cyrillic, and Arabic Catholic, Jewish, Orthodox Christians, and Muslims Unfamiliar with
English political traditions and law Industrialization Industrialization is the process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services. 1st factory was a textile mill
Causes: 1. Large number of people 2. Natural Resource: Coal, iron ore, and oil 3. Capital: lots of money 4. Transportation: canals, trains, ships Chinese Exclusion act The Chinese Exclusion Act was a United States federal law signed by President Chester A. Arthur on May 6, 1882. It was one of the
most significant restrictions on free immigration in US history, prohibiting all immigration of Chinese laborers. Child Labor Used because they could be paid less than an adult and could get into small spaces 1 out of 5 children (under the age of 15) were working outside the home Many of them suffered from the same diseases and injuries as the adults working the factories: black lung disease, malnutrition, mutilations, etc 1907: John Spargo (18761966) published 'The Bitter Cry of the Children' on child labor conditions in the coal mines and the plight of the "breaker boys". 1916: The Keating-Owen Child Labor Act limits how many hours children are
allowed to work - also refer to Child Labor in America Government regulations Munn v. Illinois-Supreme court ruled that state could regulate businesses affecting the public interest, such as railroads Wabash v. Illinois-Supreme court ruled that states could not regulate railroads running through several states since that was interstate commerce. Only Congress could regulate interstate commerce. Interstate Commerce Act- In response to the Wabash case, Congress passed this law against unfair railroad practices by railroads. All customers were required to pay the same rates, which were to be reasonable and just. Finally, a special regulatory commission was established to enforce the act. Sherman Anti-trust Act- Congress forbade all trusts, combinations, and conspiracies that limited or restricted interstate trade. The language was extremely vague, weakening its effect. In the
1890s, it was even used against labor unions instead of against Big Business. U.S. v. E.C. Knight Company-Supreme Court ruled that the Sherman Anti-trust act could not be used to break up a monopoly controlling over 90% of all U.S. sugar refining. The court held that this was a manufacturing monopoly and therefore not within the congressional power to control interstate trade. Government Regulations Laissez-Faire-government doesnt interfere with the relationship between consumers and business owners Pure Food and Drug Act-prohibited the adulteration of foods or the use of poisons as preservatives Clayton Anti-Trust Act-prohibited certain unfair business practices. It also stated that the anti-trust laws could not be used against labor unions. Federal Trade Commission Act-a regulatory agency with the powers to
investigate corporate activities and to issue orders forcing a corporation to discontinue a business practice until its fairness was decided in court Roosevelt as Trust-Buster Political machines An organization , usually controlled by a strong leader or boss, that gets citizens to vote for its candidates on election day. People worked for the machine in exchange for political favors and other rewards in New York, Boss Tweed, gained a lot of money from contracts and kickbacks by encouraging immigrants to vote for certain government officials in exchange for a job George Washington Plunkitt, bought property that he knew the government was about to purchase, and then sold it at very high prices
Women's Suffrage National Womens Suffrage Association was founded in 1869. they represented millions of women and were active during the Progressive Movement. Susan B. Anthony co-founded the organization. Under the U.S. Constitution, individual states actually controlled the requirements for voting, even in federal elections. Carrie Chapman Catt: activist in Iowa, 2nd president of National Womens Suffrage Association, after Susan B. Anthony. She, also, fought for womens rights oversees and for international peace Alice Paul brought back militant tactics back to the U.S. from England. She organized a march in Washington D.C. on behalf of womens rights. With a small group she picketed the White House and was arrested. She went on a hunger strike and had to be force-fed. Her actions helped to persuade President Wilson to pass womens suffrage.
Big Stick policy Monroe Doctine-instituted by President Monroe, stated to European countries to stay out of the Western Hemispere Roosevelt Corollary (Theodore Roosevelt) expanded the Monroe Doctrine. The U.S. would intervene and collect the debts for European powers in the Western Hemispere. Big Stickpolicy was another name for the Roosevelt Corollary and thus Roosevelts foreign policy. He would send troops into the West Indie and Central American countries repeatedly.
Panama canal Was built by the U.S. so to cut down on shipping time. It took ten years and $400 million dollars to build. U.S. controlled the canal until October 1, 1979, with the signing of Torrijos-Carter Treaty, by the U.S. President Jimmy Carter. Problems: Yellow Fever and Malaria, which were passed by mosquitos. U.S. spent money eradicating these insects, so keep the death rate down of the workers. Many of the workers were from the
Carribean. Causes of WWI Militarism-Glorification of the military, military planning, and arms races. Germany and England competed to build the largest, most powerful navy Alliances-Europe was divided into 2 parts. On one side Germany and AustriaHungary; on the other Russia, France, and Great Britain. Disputes with one country involved all of their allies. Imperialism-competing economic interests threatened nationalism and alliances. Imperialism also created an atmosphere of tension Nationalism-pride in ones nation. This led to rivalries between the European Great Powers, such as Germany and England. It also led to some ethnic groups to demand their own nation-state. Austria-Hungary was made up of many ethnicities that wanted their own country.
Causes of U.S. entrance into WWI German submarine warfare in open water. Lusitania, a British passenger ship that had sailed from New York and was just off the Irish coast was shot. A 128 Americans were killed. Sussex Pledge, the German government pledged not to sink any more ocean liners or merchant ships without prior warning or making provisions for passenger. Zimmerman Telegram-secret telegram was discovered and decoded by the British, from the German Foreign Minister, promising the return of New Mexico, Arizona, and Texas to Mexico if it allied with Germany against the U.S. Espionage Act and Sedition acts Espionage Act- created procedures for detecting and imprisoning spies. It allowed the
federal government to censor the mail and to arrest anyone interfering with the enforcement of the draft. Sedition act of 1918- it is a crime to use disloyal or abusive language about the government, the flag, or the Constitution. Eugene Debs- a socialist, gave an anti-war speech in Ohio and was arrested. Debs claimed that he had a right to exercise his free speech, which was protected by the 1 st Amendment. Emma Goldman and Bill Haywood were imprisoned for the same offense. Charles Schenck was imprisoned for passing out leaflets advising men that they should resist the draft The U.S. Supreme court supported both of these convictions on the basis that they a clear and present danger to the U.S. African-Americans in WWI 369th, all-black regiment, they fought
so fiercely that the Germans called them Hell Fighters. They were the first unit to cross the Rhine into Germany; they performed well at Chateau-Thierry and Belleau Wood Great Migration- Many African Americans left the south for jobs in the northern factories. They wanted to the leave the black codes, KKK, and Jim Crow of the south. 14 points President Wilsons blueprint for peace He wanted to eliminate the causes of war:
End Secret meetings and alliances Freedom of the seas Reduce armaments He wanted to ensure the right to self-determination for ethnic groups He wanted an international organization called the League of Nations that would ensure peace. Members would agree to protect one anothers independence and territorial integrity. These points were not easily accepted by France or Great Britain. The United States Congress would not agree to joining the League of Nations. WWI Homefront Women joined the workforce Committee on Public Information-help sell the war
collected tins, paper, old toothpaste tubes, fruit pits, knitted blankets and socks for soldiers Everything German was considered disloyal. This led to anti-German hysteria. Liberty bonds were sold to raise money for the war. War Industry Board-direct industrial production National War Labor board-settled labor disputes during the war. After the war labor disputes rose drastically. Food Administration board-encourages Meatless Mondays, Wheatless Wed. etc Fuel Administration-increased production and encourage conservation Demobilization Women lost their jobs, and were forced back home Factories lost business and crop prices fell Americans went on a spending spree causing inflation and a sharp
recession Rising Labor tension- workers were fighting for raises and work conditions Causes of the Great Depression Black Tuesday (stock market crash)-stock prices plunged because everyone was trying to sell their stock bull market-steady rise in stock prices over a long period Buying on margin-put a small amount down to buy stock and receive a loan for the rest Speculation-making risky investments in the hope of earning a large profit Overproduction Wealth Gap Underconsumption
Tariffs Bank failures-banks loaned money to buy stocks. When the stock market crashed it caused borrowers to default on their loans. The banks started to close, because of lack of money. This resulted in a run on the bank. NAACP Began in 1909 Fought through the courts to end segregation, protested lynching and other racist violence, and ensure African American men could exercise voting rights A founding members were W.E.B. DuBois and Ida B. Wells-Barnett Sit down strike A sit-in or sit-down is a form
of direct action that involves one or more people occupying an area for a protest, often to promote political, social, or economic change. Lend Lease Act Military aid to Britain was greatly facilitated by the Lend-Lease Act of March 11, 1941, in which Congress authorized the sale, lease, transfer, or exchange of arms
and supplies to 'any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the United States. WWII Home front Rationing-a system for limiting the distribution of War production Board-manage the conversion of industries to military production Office of Price Administration- instituted price controls on goods and rationed consumer products, food, gasoline, and other goods Executive Order 9066 (Japanese Internment)-government rounded up Japanese peoples because they posed a threat to the U.S. Women in the workforce and hardships at home
Double V campaign- (African Americans) a call for a battle against racism on two fronts. Zoot Suit Riots- sailors and marines roamed the Latino parts of town and beat up anyone of Latino descent Hiroshima and Nagasaki Both were bombed to save American military lives. Enola Gay dropped the 1st atomic bomb on Hiroshima. 3 days later a 2nd bomb was dropped on Nagasaki The bombing of Nagasaki brought a surrender from Japan and ended the war As many as 250,000 Japanese may have died from the two atomic bombs, either directly or as a result of burns, radiation poisoning, or cancer
Loyalty Review Program President Harry S. Truman signed United States Executive Order 9835, sometimes known as the "Loyalty Order", on March 22, 1947. The order established the first generalloyalty program in the United States, designed to root out communist influence in the U.S. federal government. Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan (officially the
European Recovery Program, ERP) was an American initiative to aid Western Europe, in which the United States gave $13 billion (approximately $130 billion in current dollar value as of March 2016) in economic support to help rebuild Western European economies after the end of World War ... Cold War The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers,United States and Soviet Union. Historians do not fully agree on the dates, but 194791 is common. Causes of the tension: S.U. going against Potsdam and Yalta conferences;
Marshall plan and Moltov Plan; Berlin blockade and airlift; different beliefs between the U.S. and U.S.S.R; and U.S. containment policy (Greece and Turkey as examples) Arms Race- a competition to obtain and control the most amount of atomic or hydrogen bombs McCarthyism Began by Senator Joseph McCarthy when he claimed to have a list of 205 Communist in the American government McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for
evidence. It also means "the practice of making unfair allegations or using unfair investigative techniques, especially in order to restrict dissent or political criticism." Black Panthers In October of 1966, in Oakland California, Huey Newton and Bobby Seale founded the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense. The Panthers practiced militant selfdefense of minority communities against the U.S. government, and fought to establish revolutionary
socialism through mass organizing and community based programs. Freedom Rides Freedom Riders were civil rights activists who rode interstate buses into the segregated southern United States in 1961 and following years to challenge the nonenforcement of the United States Supreme Court decisions Irene Morgan v. Commonwealth of Virginia (1946) and Boynton v. Virginia (1960), which ruled that ...
Plessy vs. Ferguson Plessy v. Ferguson, 163 U.S. 537, was a landmark United States Supreme Court decision upholding the constitutionality of state laws requiring racial segregation in public facilities under the doctrine of "separate but equal" Abraham Lincoln the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. Lincoln led the United States through itsCivil Warits bloodiest war and an event often considered its greatest moral, constitutional, and political crisis. In doing so,
he preserved the Union, abolished slavery, strengthened the federal government, and modernized the economy. issued the Emancipation Proclamation that declared forever free those slaves within the confederacy Vietnam War The Vietnam War was a long, costly armed conflict that pitted the communist regime of North Vietnam and its southern allies, known as the Viet Cong, against South Vietnam and its principal ally, the United States. The war began in 1954 (though conflict in the region stretched back to the mid-1940s), after the rise to power of Ho Chi Minh and his communist Viet Minh party in North Vietnam, and continued against the backdrop of an intense Cold War between two global superpowers: the United States and the Soviet Union. More than 3 million people (including 58,000 Americans) were killed in the Vietnam War; more than half were Vietnamese civilians. By 1969, at the peak of U.S. involvement in the war, more than 500,000 U.S. military personnel were
involved in the Vietnam conflict. Growing opposition to the war in the United States led to bitter divisions among Americans, both before and after President Richard Nixon ordered the withdrawal of U.S. forces in 1973. In 1975, communist forces seized control of Saigon, ending the Vietnam War, and the country was unified as the Socialist Republic of Vietnam the following year. Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnam's forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." Radical Republicans The Radical Republicans were a faction of American politicians within the Republican Party of the United States from about 1854 (before the American Civil War) until the end of Reconstruction in 1877. The Radical Republicans believed blacks were entitled to the same
political rights and opportunities as whites. They also believed that the Confederate leaders should be punished for their roles in the Civil War. The Radicals felt that extraordinary times called for direct intervention in state affairs and laws designed to protect the emancipated blacks. Homestead act Signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln on May 20, 1862, the Homestead Act encouraged Western migration by providing settlers 160 acres of public land. In exchange, homesteaders paid a small filing fee and were required to
complete five years of continuous residence before receiving ownership of the land. Transportation 1. 2. 3. 4. Sailboats and wagons Steamboats and canals Train Cars and Planes
Urbanization Rise in the numbers and population density of cities Began during the Industrial Revolution and continued until WWII People went to cities to get jobs in the factories New immigrants and people from rural (the country) moved to cities Not a very nice place to be. Very polluted Inventors List of important inventors in the 1800s-early 1900s. During the second industrial revolution, many new inventions were created which helped change the U.S. into a major industrial society.
Sarah E. Goode was the first African-American woman to be granted a patent by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, for her invention of a folding cabinet bed in 1885. Gifford Pinchot Gifford Pinchot (August 11, 1865 October 4, 1946) was an American forester and politician. Pinchot served as the first Chief of the United States Forest Service from 1905 until his firing in 1910. Pinchot is known for reforming the management and development of forests in the United States and for advocating the conservation of the nation's reserves by planned use and renewal.
Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic as applied to natural resources. Pinchot's main contribution was his leadership in promoting scientific forestry and emphasizing the controlled, profitable use of forests and other natural resources so they would be of maximum benefit to mankind. Muckrakers The term muckraker was used in the Progressive Era to characterize reformminded American journalists who wrote largely for all popular magazines. They relied on their own reporting and often worked to expose social ills and
corporate and political corruption. They used took on corporate monopolies and crooked political machines while raising public awareness of chronic urban poverty, unsafe working conditions, and social issues like child labor. Upton Sinclair published The Jungle in 1905 to expose labor abuses in the meat packing industry. But it was food, not labor, that most concerned the public. Sinclair's horrific descriptions of the industry led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act and the Meat
Inspection Act, not to labor legislation. Fundamentalist Movement The Fundamentalist Movement emerged following WW1 as a reaction to modernism. Fundamentalists rejected the modernity of the "Roaring Twenties" that increased the impulse to break with tradition. A number of conservative Americans rejected these new ideals and attempted to restore old morals and Protestant religious values. As a result, they supported a return to more traditional and conservative values. They rejected ideas such as Charles Darwins
theory of evolution which led to the prosecution of schoolteacher John Scopes and the famous 'Monkey Trial' . Works Progress Administration The Works Progress Administration was the largest and most ambitious American New Deal agency, employing millions of unemployed people (mostly unskilled men). Workers carried out public works projects, including the construction of public buildings and roads. The WPA also employed musicians, artists, writers, actors and directors in large arts, drama, media, and literacy projects.
Almost every community in the United States had a new park, bridge or school constructed by the agency. Cuban Missile Crisis The Cuban Missile Crisis was a 13-day (October 1628, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning Soviet missiles in Cuba. Along with being televised worldwide, it was the closest the Cold War came to escalating into a full-scale nuclear war. Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev decided to agree to Cuba's request to place nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter future harassment of Cuba by the U.S. These missile preparations were confirmed when an Air Force U-2 spy plane produced clear photographic evidence of missile facilities. The United States established a military blockade to prevent further
missiles from entering Cuba. It announced that they would not permit offensive weapons to be delivered to Cuba and demanded that the weapons already in Cuba be dismantled and returned to the USSR. After a long period of tense negotiations, an agreement was reached between Kennedy and Khrushchev. Publicly, the Soviets agreed to take missiles out of Cuba as long as the U.S. promised never to invade Cuba without provocation. Secretly, the U.S. also agreed to take missiles out of Turkey. Rosa Parks Rosa Parks was an African American civil rights activist. On December 1, 1955, in Montgomery, Alabama, Parks refused to obey bus driver James F. Blake's order to give
up her seat in the colored section to a white passenger, after the white section was filled. Parks' act of defiance helped lead to the Montgomery Bus Boycott which became important symbols of the modern Civil Rights Movement. This eventually led to a federal ruling by the United States Supreme Court which declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional. She became an international icon of resistance to racial segregation. Terrorism Terrorism, in its broadest sense, is defined as the
use of violence, or threatened use of violence, in order to achieve a political, religious, or ideological aim. In modern times, terrorism is considered a major threat to society and therefore illegal under anti-terrorism laws. A broad array of political organizations have practiced terrorism to further their objectives. It has been practiced by mostly right-wing and sometimes left-wing political parties, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries, and ruling governments. The symbolism of terrorism can exploit human fear to help achieve these goals.
Westward Expansion The story of the United States has always been one of westward expansion, beginning along the East Coast and continuing, often by leaps and bounds, until it reached the Pacificwhat Theodore Roosevelt described as "the great leap Westward. The U.S. acquired territory by buying land from other countries, through war, or political negotiations. Eventually the U.S. would connect the East and West coasts. Eventually, the acquisition of Hawaii and Alaska continued the practices established under the principle of Manifest Destiny. Manifest Destiny was the notion that Americans are morally superior and therefore Americans are morally obligated to spread
our way of life, and the idea that the U.S. was destined to expand from the East coast to the West coast and beyond. Effects of Westward Expansion Westward expansion the development of Larger cities out west Better transportation (i.e. connecting the east and west coast through railroad) More territory to settle Increased populations out west Westward expansion caused Military conflicts with Native Americans over territory The creation of reservations or land for Native
Americans. Dawes Plan- authorized the President of the United States to survey American Indian tribal land and divide it into allotments for individual Indians. Native Americans to become Americanized and forced to forget their culture. Vertical and Horizontal Integration Vertical Integration-A single company owns and controls the businesses that supply materials for the production of a final product. Horizontal Integration-The combining of many firms engaged in the same type of business into one large monopoly or big business. Gentlemans Agreements
The Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 was an informal agreement between the United States and the Empire of Japan. The United States of America would not impose restriction on Japanese immigration, and Japan would not allow further immigration to the U.S. The goal was to reduce tensions between the two powerful Pacific nations. 19th Amendment The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of gender. It was ratified on August 18, 1920.
Settlement houses In reaction to the growing problems in large cities, movements were created to help those struggling with poverty. The settlement movement was a reformist social movement, beginning in the 1880s. Its main object was the establishment of "settlement houses" in poor urban areas, in which volunteer middleclass "settlement workers" would live, hoping to share knowledge and culture with, and alleviate the poverty of, their low-income neighbors. The "settlement houses" provided services such as daycare, education, and healthcare to improve the lives of the poor in these areas.
New Technology in WWI War has always had a tendency to accelerate innovation and invention, and WW1 with its bizarre clash of 19th and 20th century ideas and technologies was no exception. Here are 4 technological creations still used today in combat and civilian life. 1. Tanks 2. Machine guns 3. Airplanes 4. Poison gas Economic Boom of the 20s The 1920s saw a large
economic boom with new technology and inventions being created and sold. In order to help American people to purchase the new goods that were available, installment plans or credit were introduced. This meant that a person could buy something by paying for it on a monthly basis. As a result, the majority of Americans could afford expensive goods.
Cash and Carry Cash and carry was a policy requested by US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at a special session of the United States Congress on September 21, 1939. It replaced the Neutrality Acts of 1936 which stated that the U.S. would not provide loans or aid to countries at war. Part of the U.S.s attempt to stay neutral before WWII. The revision allowed the sale of material to countries fighting, as long as the recipients arranged for the transport using their own ships and paid immediately in cash, assuming all risk in transportation.
Nuremberg Trials The Nuremberg trials were a series of military tribunals, held by the Allied forces after World War II. These trials punished prominent members of the political, military, and economic leadership of Nazi Germany who planned, carried out, or otherwise participated in The Holocaust and other war crimes. The trials were held in the city of Nuremberg , Germany. Korean War
The Korean War was a war between North and South Korea. North Korea wanted to unite Korea into one communist country. The war arose from the division of Korea at the end of World War II and from the global tensions of the Cold War that developed immediately afterwards. United Nations force led by the United States fought for the South, and China fought for the North, which was also assisted by the Soviet Union. The U.S. wanted to assist South Korea as part of their attempt to contain communism. The war ended with North and South Korea staying separate countries divided at the 38th parallel.
Little Rock 9 The U.S. Supreme Court issued its historic Brown v. Board of Education on May 17, 1954. It declared all laws establishing segregated schools to be unconstitutional, and it called for the desegregation of all schools throughout the nation. By 1957, the NAACP had registered nine black students to attend the previously all-white Little Rock Central High, in Little Rock, Arkansas. The Little Rock Nine was the group of nine African American students enrolled in Little Rock Central High School in 1957. Their enrollment was followed by the Little Rock Crisis, in which the students were initially prevented from entering the racially segregated school by Orval
Faubus, the Governor of Arkansas. Students were even escorted Booker T. Washington Causes of the Civil War Slavery-division across the U.S. regarding the issue of whether slavery should be allowed or outlawed Abolitionists-persons who supported ending slavery Writers like Harriet Beecher Stowe brought attention to the realities of slavery with books like Uncle Toms Cabin Westward Expansion Missouri Compromise 1820- regulated slavery in the country's western territories by prohibiting the practice north of the parallel 3630. Missouri would enter as a slave state and Maine would enter as a free state. Compromise of 1850- An agreement between the North and South dealing with the land gained from the Mexican War. North gets California as a free
state while south gets a tighter Fugitive Slave Act. New Mexico and Utah Territory is based on popular sovereignty. Kansas Nebraska Act 1854-allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. Bleeding Kansas 1854-a series of violent political confrontations in the United States involving anti-slavery "Free-Staters" and pro-slavery "Border Ruffian" elements in Kansas between 1854 and 1861. Dred Scott Decision-was a landmark decision by the U.S. Supreme Court in which the Court held whether enslaved or free, a slave could not be an American citizen and therefore had no standing to sue in federal court. The federal government had no power to regulate slavery in the federal territories acquired after the creation of the United States. John Harpers Ferry Sectionalism The 1860 Election Secession 15th Amendment
The 15th Amendment to the Constitution granted African American men the right to vote by declaring that the "right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude." Henry Flagler Henry Morrison Flagler (January 2, 1830 May 20, 1913) was an American industrialist and a founder of Standard Oil. He was also a key figure in the development of the Atlantic coast of Florida and founder of what became the Florida East Coast Railway. He is known as the father of both Miami and Palm Beach, Florida.
Great White Fleet The Great White Fleet was the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 1907, 1909, by order of United States President Theodore Roosevelt. The Great White Fleet was an important show of Americas naval power to the rest of the world. Great Migration The Great Migration which saw
about 1.6 million African Americans move from mostly rural areas to northern industrial cities. There was an increased migration north due to the racism and laws that discrimination against African Americans. Arms Race The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during
the Cold War. G.I. Bill of Rights G.I. Bill (of Rights), legislation passed in 1944, provided benefits to World War II veterans. Through the Veterans Administration (VA), the bill provided grants for school and college tuition, low-interest mortgage and small-business loans, job training, hiring privileges, and unemployment payments.
Emancipation Proclamation President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, as the nation approached its third year of bloody civil war. The proclamation declared "that all persons held as slaves" within the rebellious states "are, and henceforward shall be free." It applied only to states that had seceded from the Union, leaving slavery untouched in the loyal border states. It also expressly exempted parts of the Confederacy that had already come under Northern control. Most important, the freedom it promised depended upon Union military victory. Social Darwinism Social Darwinism, the theory that persons, groups, and races are subject to
the same laws of natural selection as Charles Darwin had observed in plants and animals in nature. According to the theory, the weak were diminished and their cultures delimited, while the strong grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak. Social Darwinists held that the life of humans in society was a struggle for existence ruled by survival of the fittest. In this case, the rich were the strongest and the poor were the weakest. Red Scare A "Red Scare" is the promotion of fear of a potential rise of communism or radical leftism. In the United States, the First Red Scare was about worker (socialist) revolution and political radicalism. This led to a fear of immigrants at the time, many were suspected
of being communists. This occurred in the 1920s after WWI. Eugene Debs-socialist and political activist targeted and arrested by the government for protesting against the war in WWI. Palmer Raids-raids looking for communists in the U.S. Sacco and Vanzetti- Italian-born US anarchists who were convicted of murdering a guard and a paymaster during the armed robbery. They were executed despite lack of concrete evidence that they committed the crime. The Second Red Scare was focused on national and foreign communists influencing society or infiltrating the federal government. This occurred after WWII. McCarthyism- the time in the U.S. during the Cold War in the 1950s when senator McCarthy accuses government officials of being communists. Propaganda during WWI
During World War One, propaganda was employed on a global scale. Unlike previous wars, this was the first total war in which whole nations and not just professional armies were locked in mortal combat. This and subsequent modern wars required propaganda to mobilize hatred against the enemy; to convince the population of the justness of the cause; to enlist the active support and cooperation of neutral countries; and to strengthen the support of allies. Bank Holiday The Emergency Banking Act Of 1933 is a bill
passed during the administration of U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt in reaction to the financial crisis of the Great Depression. The measure, which called for a four-day Bank Holiday or mandatory shutdown of U.S. banks for inspections before they could be reopened, sought to create confidence and stability in the banking system. Banks were only allowed to re-open once they were deemed financially sound. Truman Doctrine: A Policy of Containment
On July 12, 1948 Truman pledged to contain Soviet threats to Greece and Turkey. No American military force was involved; instead Congress gave a free gift of financial aid to support the economies and the militaries of Greece and Turkey who were fighting off communist rebellions. With the Truman Doctrine, President Harry S. Truman established a policy of containment (the U.S. would stop the spread of communism by providing political, military and economic assistance to all democratic nations under threat from communist forces.
Gettysburg Address The Gettysburg Address is a speech by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, one of the bestknown in American history. It was delivered by Lincoln during the American Civil War, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address restated the principles of human equality included in the Declaration of Independence and proclaimed the Civil War as a struggle for the preservation of the Union. The Civil War was now more than a war to bring the U.S. back together, it was a war for creating equality for all in the nation.
Labor Unions Labor unions formed as a result of the negative effects the growth of industry in the late 19th and early 20th had on workers. Workers of all ages, genders, nationalities, etc., often worked in unsafe conditions for very long hours and very low pay. Unsafe conditions led to workers being physically hurt, and in some instances, even killed. Eventually, workers began to unite together in order to achieve workplace reforms. Used boycotts, strikes, and collective bargaining (a process of negotiation between employees and a group of employers aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries) to accomplish goals. Famous early unions: National Labor Union-campaigned for an 8-hour day, higher wages, recognition of women
workers Knights of Labor-demanded equal pay for women, end to child labor; declined as a result of growing concerns nationally over labor violence. American Federation of Labor-created for skilled labor; Samuel Gompers led an effort for higher pay, shorter hours, safer work conditions Famous Strikes Homestead Strike Pullman Strike Haymarket Affair Successes: Labor Unions leads to higher wages, lower working hours Setbacks: U.S. government tended to support businesses when labor unions became violent with strikes and made many not trust labor unions
Spanish-American War Consequences U.S. becomes an imperialist power. American sympathy towards Cuban fight for Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines become freedom against Spanish rule. colonies of the U.S. De Lome Letter-chance to get Spain out of the Western hemisphere Platt Amendment-Cuba gains independence but Economic interests-protect American business in becomes a U.S. protectorate. It allowed the U.S. Cuba
"the right to intervene for the preservation of Yellow Journalism-American press exaggerated Cuban independence, the maintenance of a news stories about Spain to encourage the U.S. to government adequate for the protection of life, go to war with Spain. property, and individual liberty... The de Lome Letter-letter written by Spanish This changed the Teller Amendment which minister criticizing contempt for President promised that the U.S. would proclaimed that McKinley the United States would not establish Spark-sinking of the U.S.S. Maine causes outrage in
the U.S. and leads to the U.S. declaring war on permanent control over Cuba. Causes Spain WWI Treaty of Versailles
American imperialism is the U.S. economic, military and cultural influence of the United States on other countries. Such influence often goes hand in hand with expansion into foreign territories. Imperialism Women in WWII During World War II, some 350,000
women served in the U.S. Armed Forces, both at home and abroad. They included the Womens Airforce Service Pilots. Meanwhile, widespread male enlistment left gaping holes in the industrial labor force. Between 1940 and 1945, the female percentage of the U.S. workforce increased from 27 percent to nearly 37 percent. March on Washington (1941) and Fair Employment Act
A. Philip Randolph first planned a March on Washington in 1941 to protest against governmental hiring practices that excluded African-Americans from federal employment and federal contracts. Randolph proposed that African-Americans march on Washington to demand jobs and freedom. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 8802, also called the Fair Employment Act, on June 25, 1941. The order prohibited racial discrimination by all federal agencies, unions, and companies
engaged in war-related work. March on Washington-1963 The March on Washington of 1963 was one of the largest political rallies for human rights in United States history and demanded civil and economic rights for African Americans. Thousands of Americans headed to Washington, and on Wednesday, August 28, 1963, Martin Luther King, Jr delivered his historic "I Have a Dream" speech in which he called for an end to racism. Led shortly after to the passage of the Civil Rights Act.
Keeping the Peace after WW1 Washington Navel Treaty- conference called by the United States to limit the naval arms race and to work out security agreements in the Pacific. Held in Washington, D.C., the conference resulted in the drafting and signing of several major and minor treaty agreements. Four Power Treaty-was a treaty signed by the United States, Great Britain, France and Japan at the Washington Naval Conference on 13 December 1921. All parties agreed to maintain the status quo in the Pacific, by respecting the Pacific holdings of the other countries signing the agreement. Kellogg Briand Pact- was an agreement to outlaw war signed on August 27, 1928. The pact was one of many international efforts to prevent another World War, but there was no way to enforce the law. V-J Day
On August 15, 1945, news of the surrender was announced to the world. This sparked spontaneous celebrations over the final ending of World War II. On September 2, 1945, a formal surrender ceremony was held in Tokyo Bay aboard the USS Missouri. Coming several months after the surrender of Nazi Germany, Japans surrender in the Pacific brought six years of hostilities to a final and highly anticipated close. Genocide Convention The Convention on the Prevention
and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) was adopted by the United Nations on 9 December 1948. It defines genocide in legal terms, and outlines that all participating countries are required to prevent and punish actions of genocide, whether carried out in war or in peacetime. Native American boarding schools The goal of these reformers was to use education as a tool to assimilate Indian tribes into the mainstream of the American way of life. The
reformers assumed that it was necessary to civilize Indian people and make them accept white mens beliefs and value systems. The first priority of the boarding schools would be to provide the rudiments of academic education: reading, writing and speaking of the English language. The principles of democratic society, institutions and the political structure would give the students citizenship training. The end goal was to eradicate all symbols of Indian culture. Treaty of Portsmouth The Treaty of Portsmouth formally ended the
Russo-Japanese War of 190405. The negotiations took place in August in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and were brokered in part by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. This event showed the U.S.s growing power as an imperial or world power in the early 1900s. Part of President Roosevelts attempt to make the U.S. a major player in global affairs. The final agreement was signed in September of 1905, and it affirmed the Japanese presence in south Manchuria and Korea and ceded the southern half of the
island of Sakhalin to Japan. Freedom Summer In 1964, civil rights organizations including the Congress on Racial Equality (CORE) and Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organized a voter registration drive, known as the Freedom Summer, aimed at dramatically increasing voter registration in Mississippi. The Freedom Summer volunteers faced constant abuse and harassment from Mississippis white population. The Ku Klux Klan, police and even state and local authorities carried out a systematic series of violent
attacks; including arson, beatings, false arrest and the murder of at least three civil rights activists.