The Literature Review 3 edition Six Steps To Success Lawrence A. Machi Brenda T. McEvoy 4 Step Four: Survey the Literature Building the Argument of Discovery The Literature Survey Process Task Organizer
TASK 1. ASSEMBLE THE COLLECTED DATA Activity 1. Cataloging the Data Use coding for crossreferencing the source documents and the central documents. The simplest method is to assign an alphabetic code by author or text. Use the reporting function found in software programs such as Citation, EndNote, or RefWorks. To query, search,
and report while generating tally documents Use butcher paper or large sticky notes to assemble the data using storyboard techniques to develop your findings. TASK 2. ORGANIZE THE INFORMATION Activity 1. Arrange information to build evidence. Pattern the evidence to form a body to create simple claims.
1. To start, examine the entries made on the tally matrix (Columns 13) to determine how the data fit together. 2. Examine the data contained on the tally matrix by key descriptor, core idea, or author to develop a picture of the data entries as evidence by time, theme, or authors. 3. As evidence patterns form, document them, and stay up-to-date with your memoranda. 4. Develop a new coding scheme to catalog the evidence. 5. Enter the codes for evidence categories in Column 5 on the tally
matrix. Build a code sheet as a reference for further work. 6. Employ a reasoning pattern to build the warrant and claim. Reasoning Patterns One-on-One Reasoning Side-by-Side Reasoning R C C R1, R2, R3, R4 . . . Rn C C. In this simple pattern,
one reason (R) is enough to justify the conclusion (C). This one-on-one reasoning can be proven as true or false. A side-by-side reasoning pattern cites several data entries, all of which offer the same reason to justify the conclusion. Here is a diagram of the side-by-side pattern: Reasoning Patterns
Chain Reasoning Joint Reasoning (R1 C C1) + (C1 C C2) + (C2 CC3) + . . . (Cn-1) C Cn (R1 + R2) CC Serial in nature, it begins by citing one or more reasons that justify a conclusion. It uses a one-on-one reasoning pattern as its foundation. The conclusion of the first pattern then becomes the evidence for the second conclusion. This line of logic continues until the final conclusion has been warranted. Notice that this pattern
forms as if you were making a daisy chain In this case, the reasons stipulated cannot stand on their own but, when taken together, provide the necessary reasoning to warrant the conclusion. Neither R1 nor R2 alone provides enough justification to form the conclusion. However, R1 and R2 together allow a logically drawn conclusion. Activity 2. Organizing the Information and Building Claims 1. Begin by reviewing each data grouping by evidence category. Examine how the data fit together. Then, apply the correct
reasoning pattern to each evidence group. 2. Record the reasoning pattern (warranting scheme) for each data group in Column 6 of your tally matrix. 3. Find the conclusion deduced from each of the organized patterns of evidence. Write it as a declarative sentence. This is your claim. 4. In Column 7, write the claim or assertion created by the evidence. 5. After completing your claim statements, evaluate the acceptability of each claim. Is it on point, powerful, supportable, and clearly stated? 6. Record your claim evaluation in Column
8. TASK 3. ANALYZE THE PATTERNS OF THE DATA The purpose of Task 3 of the literature survey is to analyze the simple claims you developed in Column 7 of the tally matrix into a complex argument. Analysis begins by reviewing the simple claims created in Task 2 to discover their logical pattern. Critically analyze the evidence and claims to tell the story of how the data fits together. Using the argument schemes as guides, you can either outline or map the argument. The result is a complex argument that serves as the discovery argument.
Complex Reasoning Divergent Reasoning Comparative Reasoning R1, R2, R3, R4 . . . Rn C CA versus R1, R2, R3, R4 . . . Rn C CB. R1, R2, R3, R4 . . . Rn C CA ^ R1, R2, R3, R4 . . . Rn C CB. This pattern depicts an academic debate. Divergent reasoning is an offshoot of the basic side-by-side reasoning pattern: Cite several expert opinions, research studies, statistics, expert testimony to build an evidentiary pattern for one side of the question. Next, cite
another set of data to show the opposing view. Use this pattern to depict authors positions, research findings, or theories found in the evidentiary data that are in direct contradiction. By mapping the opposing data, you can graph the vantage point and the focus of each position to discover the strong and weak points for each side of the debate. This scheme shows connections between groups of data. Here you examine likenesses and differences in each group by comparing and contrasting the evidence and claims. As with side-by-side reasoning, cite expert opinions, research studies, statistics, and expert testimony to build an evidentiary
pattern for the first claim group (A). The set of data from the next claim group (B) is also presented. Look at the differences and likenesses between the data , and compare and contrast the two side-by-side arguments. The Discovery Argument: Putting It All Together The Discovery Argument: An Example Task 3 Activity 1. Mapping the Discovery Argument
1. Review the claims posted in Column 8. 2. Reorganize these claims using complex reasoning patterns. 3. Regroup the corresponding arguments for each claim by these patterns. 4. Now record the reordered claims, stating them as premises in Column 9. 5. Analyze the premises made in Column 9. Determine the reasoning pattern that will fit as the warranting scheme for the complex claim (thesis) of the discovery argument. 6. State the warrant scheme in Column 10. 7. Write the thesis statement for the discovery argument in Column 11. Activity 2. Analyzing the
Argument 1. Once you have completed the literature survey and mapped and outlined the argument for what is known, evaluate the arguments soundness . 2. Evaluate each simple argument. 3. Evaluate the complex argument. (see exercise 4.2)
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