Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton Lecture Presentation by

Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton Lecture Presentation by

Chapter 7 The Axial Skeleton Lecture Presentation by Lee Ann Frederick University of Texas at Arlington 2015 Pearson Education Inc. An Introduction to the Axial Skeleton Learning Outcomes 7-1 Identify the bones of the axial skeleton, and specify their functions. 7-2 Identify the bones, foramina, and fissures of the cranium and face, and explain the significance of the markings on the individual bones. 7-3 Describe the structure and functions of the orbital complex, nasal complex, and

paranasal sinuses. 2015 Pearson Education Inc. An Introduction to the Axial Skeleton Learning Outcomes 7-4 Describe the key structural differences among the skulls of infants, children, and adults. 7-5 Identify and describe the curvatures of the spinal column, and indicate the function of each. 7-6 Identify the vertebral regions, and describe the distinctive structural and functional characteristics of vertebrae in each region. 7-7 Explain the significance of the articulations between the thoracic vertebrae and the ribs, and between the ribs and sternum. 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

An Introduction to the Axial Skeleton Structures of Bones Articulations Contacts with other bones Landmarks (bone markings; marks) Areas of muscle and ligament attachment Foramina Openings for nerves and blood vessels 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-1 The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton Forms the longitudinal axis of the body Has 80 bones The skull 8 cranial bones

14 facial bones Bones associated with the skull 6 auditory ossicles The hyoid bone 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-1 The Axial Skeleton The Axial Skeleton The vertebral column 24 vertebrae (singular vertebra) The sacrum The coccyx The thoracic cage 24 ribs The sternum

2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-1a The Axial Skeleton. SKELETAL SYSTEM 206 APPENDICULAR SKELETON AXIAL SKELETON (see Figure 8-1) 8 Cranium 14 Face

6 Auditory ossicles Skull 1 Hyoid 1 Sternum 24 Ribs

Associated bones Skull and 29 associated bones 25 Thoracic cage 26 Vertebral column 24 Vertebrae

a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 1 Sacrum 1 Coccyx An anterior view of the entire skeleton, with the axial components highlighted. The numbers in the boxes indicate the number of bones in the adult skeleton. 80 Figure 7-1b The Axial Skeleton.

Skull Cervical vertebrae Sternum Ribs Thoracic vertebrae Costal cartilages Lumbar vertebrae Sacrum

Coccyx b Anterior (left) and posterior (right) views of the axial skeleton. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. The individual bones associated with the skull are not visible. 7-1 The Axial Skeleton Functions of the Axial Skeleton Supports and protects organs in body cavities 1. Attaches to muscles of head, neck, and trunk 2. Performs respiratory movements 3. Stabilizes parts of appendicular skeleton 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Skull The Skull Protects: The brain

Entrances to respiratory system Entrance to digestive system Contains: 22 bones 8 cranial bones Form the braincase, or cranium 14 facial bones Protect and support entrances to digestive and respiratory tracts 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull (Part 1 of 3). SKULL FACE 14

CRANIUM 8 Maxillae Palatine bones Nasal bones Inferior nasal conchae 2 2 1 Zygomatic bones Lacrimal bones Vomer Mandible

2 Occipital bone Parietal bones Frontal bone Temporal bones Sphenoid Ethmoid 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 2 2 2 1 1 2

1 ASSOCIATED BONES 7 Hyoid bone 1 6 2 1 1 Hyoid bone Auditory ossicles enclosed in temporal bones (detailed in

Chapter 17) Figure 7-2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull (Part 2 of 3). Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Vomer Zygomatic bone Maxilla Mandible Facial bones protect and support the entrances to the digestive and respiratory tracts. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Frontal bone

Ethmoid Parietal bone Temporal bone Sphenoid Occipital bone Cranial bones surround and protect the brain. Figure 7-2 Cranial and Facial Subdivisions of the Skull (Part 3 of 3). Auditory ossicles 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

7-2 The Skull Cranial Bones Enclose the cranial cavity Which contains the brain And its fluids, blood vessels, nerves, and membranes 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Skull Facial Bones Superficial facial bones For muscle attachment Deep facial bones Separate the oral and nasal cavities Form the nasal septum 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 7-3a The Adult Skull. Major Sutures of the Skull Sagittal suture Parietal bone (left) Parietal bone (right) Lambdoid suture Occipital bone

Squamous suture Temporal bone Mastoid process Styloid process Occipital condyle External occipital protuberance Mandible a Posterior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-3b The Adult Skull. Occipital bone Major Sutures

of the Skull Lambdoid suture Parietal bone (right) Parietal bone (left) Sagittal suture Coronal suture Frontal bone Zygomatic Bone

Nasal bones b Superior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-3c The Adult Skull. Major Sutures of the Skull Parietal bone Frontal bone Coronal suture Sphenoid Supraorbital foramen

Squamous suture Temporal bone Nasal bone Lambdoid suture Lacrimal bone Squamous part of temporal bone External acoustic meatus Ethmoid Infraorbital foramen

Occipital bone Maxilla Zygomatic bone Mastoid process Zygomatic arch Styloid process Zygomatic process of temporal bone Temporal process of zygomatic bone c

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lateral view Mandible Mental foramen Mental protuberance Figure 7-3d The Adult Skull. Sagittal suture Foramen or Fissure Parietal bone Coronal suture Frontal Bone

Nasal bone Supraorbital foramen Ethmoid Temporal bone Supraorbital nerve (branch of N V) Supraorbital artery Sphenoid Palatine bone Optic canal Optic nerve (N II)

Ophthalmic artery Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Mastoid process of temporal bone Middle nasal concha (part of ethmoid) Superior orbital fissure Oculomotor nerve (N III), trochlear nerve (N IV), opthalmic branch of trigeminal nerve (N V), and abducens nerve (N VI) Inferior orbital fissure

Maxillary branch of trigeminal nerve (N V) Maxilla Inferior nasal concha Infraorbital foramen Bony nasal septum Infraorbital nerve, branch of maxillary nerve (N V) Infraorbital artery Perpendicular plate

of ethmoid Mandible Vomer Mental protuberance Major Structures Using Passageway d Anterior view Mental foramen Mental nerve, branch of mandibular nerve (N V) Mental vessels

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-3e The Adult Skull. Frontal bone Sphenoid Maxilla Palatine bone Zygomatic bone Zygomatic arch Medial and lateral pterygoid processes Foramen lacerum (with temporal and

occipital bones) Internal carotid artery after leaving carotid canal Foramen ovale Mandibular branch of trigeminal nerve (N V) Auditory tube Temporal Bone Vomer External acoustic meatus

Air in meatus conducts sound to eardrum Occipital condyle Carotid canal Internal carotid artery Mastoid process Stylomastoid foramen Facial nerve (N V) Styloid process Mandibular fossa

Occipital Bone Foramen magnum Lambdoid suture Accessory nerve (XI) Occipital bone Vertebral arteries External occipital protuberance e 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Medulla oblongata (most caudal portion of brain) Inferior view Jugular foramen (with temporal bone) Glossopharyngeal, vagus, and accessory nerves (N IX, X, XI) Figure 7-4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull (Part 1 of 9). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-4 Sectional Anatomy of the Skull (Part 2 of 9). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

7-2 The Skull Superficial Facial Bones Maxillae = maxillary bones Lacrimal Nasal Zygomatic Mandible Deep Facial Bones Palatine Inferior nasal conchae Vomer

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Skull Sinuses Cavities that decrease the weight of the skull 1. Lined with mucous membranes 2. Protect the entrances of the respiratory system 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Skull Sutures The immovable joints of the skull The four major sutures 1. 2. 3. 4.

2015 Pearson Education Inc. Lambdoid suture Coronal suture Sagittal suture Squamous suture 7-2 The Skull Lambdoid Suture Separates occipital from parietal bones May contain sutural (Wormian) bones Coronal Suture Attaches frontal bone to parietal bones The calvaria (skullcap) Consists of occipital, parietal, and frontal bones 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-2 The Skull Sagittal Suture Between the parietal bones From lambdoid suture to coronal suture Squamous Sutures Form boundaries between temporal bones and parietal bones 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Cranial Bones

Occipital bone Parietal bones Frontal bone Temporal bones Sphenoid Ethmoid 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Occipital Bone Functions of the occipital bone Forms the posterior and inferior surfaces of the cranium Articulations of the occipital bone

Parietal bones Temporal bones Sphenoid First cervical vertebra (atlas) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Occipital Bone Marks of the occipital bone External occipital protuberance

External occipital crest Occipital condyles articulate with neck Inferior and superior nuchal lines: attachment sites of muscles and ligaments 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Occipital Bone Foramina of the occipital bone Foramen magnum connects cranial and spinal cavities Jugular foramen for jugular vein Hypoglossal canals for hypoglossal nerves 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-5a The Occipital and Parietal Bones.

Hypoglossal canal Occipital condyle Foramen magnum External occipital crest Inferior nuchal line Superior nuchal line External

occipital protuberance a Occipital bone, inferior view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Parietal Bones Functions of the parietal bones Form part of the superior and lateral surfaces of the cranium Articulations of the parietal bones Other parietal bone

Occipital bone Temporal bone Frontal bone Sphenoid 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Parietal Bones Marks of the parietal bones Superior and inferior temporal lines To attach temporalis muscle Grooves for cranial blood vessels 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-5b The Occipital and Parietal Bones.

Superior temporal line Inferior temporal line b Right parietal bone, lateral view 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Frontal Bone Functions of the frontal bone Forms the anterior cranium and upper eye sockets Contains frontal sinuses Articulations of the frontal bone

Parietal bone Maxillary Metopic suture Ethmoid 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Lacrimal bone Zygomatic bone Spenoid Nasal bone 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Frontal Bone Marks of the frontal bone

Frontal squama (forehead) Supraorbital margin (protects eye) Lacrimal fossa (for tear ducts) Frontal sinuses 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Frontal Bone Foramina of the frontal bone Supraorbital foramen For blood vessels of eyebrows, eyelids, and frontal sinuses Supraorbital notch An incomplete supraorbital foramen

2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-6a The Frontal Bone. Frontal (metopic) suture Frons Superior temporal line Glabella Supraorbital margin Supraorbital

notch a Anterior surface 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-6b The Frontal Bone. Supraorbital foramen Frontal Supraorbital margin sinus Lacrimal fossa b Inferior (orbital) surface 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Temporal Bones Functions of the temporal bones

1. Part of lateral walls of cranium and zygomatic arches 2. Articulate with mandible 3. Surround and protect inner ear 4. Attach muscles of jaws and head 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Temporal Bones Articulations of the temporal bones Zygomatic bone Sphenoid

Parietal bone Occipital bone Mandible 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Temporal Bones Marks of the temporal bones Squamous part Zygomatic process

Mandibular fossa Mastoid process Styloid process Petrous part Auditory ossicles 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Squamous Part Borders the squamous suture Zygomatic Process Inferior to the squamous portion Articulates with temporal process of zygomatic bone Forms zygomatic arch (cheekbone) Mandibular Fossa

Articulates with the mandible 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Mastoid Process For muscle attachment Contains mastoid air cells connected to middle ear Styloid Process To attach tendons and ligaments of the hyoid, tongue, and pharynx Petrous Part Encloses structures of the inner ear 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull

Auditory Ossicles Three tiny bones in tympanic cavity (middle ear) Transfer sound from tympanic membrane (eardrum) to inner ear 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Temporal Bones Foramina of the temporal bones Carotid canal for internal carotid artery Foramen lacerum For carotid and small arteries Hyaline cartilage Auditory tube 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull

The Temporal Bones Foramina of the temporal bones External acoustic meatus (canal) ends at tympanic membrane Stylomastoid foramen for facial nerve Internal acoustic meatus (canal) For blood vessels and nerves of the inner ear Facial nerve 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-7a The Temporal Bones. Petrous part Squamous part (cerebral surface)

Internal acoustic meatus Mastoid process Zygomatic process a Medial view of the Styloid process right temporal bone 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-7b The Temporal Bones.

Squamous part Mandibular fossa External acoustic meatus Styloid process Mastoid process b Lateral view of the right temporal bone 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Zygomatic process Figure 7-7bc The Temporal Bones.

Squamous part Mandibular fossa External acoustic meatus External acoustic meatus Styloid process Mastoid process b Lateral view of the Mastoid process, cut to show mastoid cells

right temporal bone c A cutaway view of the mastoid cells 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Zygomatic process 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Sphenoid Functions of the sphenoid Part of the floor of the cranium

Unites cranial and facial bones Strengthens sides of the skull Contains sphenoidal sinuses 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Sphenoid Articulations of the sphenoid

Ethmoid Frontal bone Occipital bone Parietal bone Temporal bone Palatine bones Zygomatic bones Maxillae Vomer 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Sphenoid Marks of the sphenoid

Sphenoid body Sella turcica Hypophyseal fossa Sphenoidal sinuses Lesser wings Greater wings Pterygoid processes 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Sphenoid Body At the central axis of the sphenoid Sella Turcica

Saddle-shaped enclosure On the superior surface of the body Hypophyseal Fossa A depression within the sella turcica Holds the pituitary gland 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Sphenoidal Sinuses On either side of the body Inferior to the sella turcica Lesser Wings Anterior to the sella turcica 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull Greater Wings Form part of the cranial floor Sphenoidal spine Posterior wall of the orbit Pterygoid Processes Form pterygoid plates To attach muscles of the lower jaw and soft palate 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Sphenoid Foramina of the sphenoid Optic canals for optic nerves Superior orbital fissure for blood vessels and nerves of the orbit Foramen rotundum for blood vessels and nerves

of the face Foramen ovale for blood vessels and nerves of the face Foramen spinosum for blood vessels and nerves of the jaws 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-8a The Sphenoid. Foramen rotundum Optic Optic groove canal Foramen ovale

Greater wing Foramen spinosum Sella turcica a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Lesser wing Superior surface Sphenoidal spine Figure 7-8b The Sphenoid.

Sphenoidal Superior sinus orbital fissure Greater wing Lesser wing Orbital surface Body Foramen rotundum Pterygoid

process Pterygoid plates b Anterior surface 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Ethmoid Functions of the ethmoid Forms anteromedial floor of the cranium Roof of the nasal cavity

Part of the nasal septum and medial orbital wall Contains ethmoidal air cells (network of sinuses) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Ethmoid Articulations of the ethmoid Frontal bone Sphenoid

Nasal bone Lacrimal bone Palatine bone Maxillary bones Inferior nasal conchae Vomer 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Ethmoid Three parts of the ethmoid 1. The cribriform plate 2. The two lateral masses 3. The perpendicular plate 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull

The Cribriform Plate Floor of the cranium Roof of the nasal cavity Contains the crista galli The Two Lateral Masses Ethmoidal labyrinth (ethmoidal air cells) Superior nasal conchae Middle nasal conchae The Perpendicular Plate Part of the nasal septum 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Cranial Bones of the Skull The Ethmoid Foramina of the ethmoid Olfactory foramina In the cribriform plate

For olfactory nerves 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-9a The Ethmoid. Lateral mass containing ethmoidal labyrinth Olfactory foramina Cribriform plate Crista galli Perpendicular

plate a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Superior surface Figure 7-9b The Ethmoid. Crista galli Superior nasal concha Perpendicular plate b Posterior surface 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Middle nasal concha 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Facial Bones Maxillae (maxillary bones) Palatine bones Nasal bones Vomer Inferior nasal conchae

Zygomatic bones Lacrimal bones Mandible 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Maxillae Functions of the maxillae Support upper teeth Form inferior orbital rim Form lateral margins of external nares Form upper jaw and hard palate

Contain maxillary sinuses (largest sinuses) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Maxillae Articulations of the maxillae Frontal bones Ethmoid With one another All other facial bones except the mandible 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Maxillae Marks of the maxillae Orbital rim protects eye and orbit Anterior nasal spine attaches cartilaginous anterior nasal septum Alveolar processes border the mouth and support upper teeth Palatine processes form the hard palate (roof of mouth) Maxillary sinuses lighten bone Nasolacrimal canal protects lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Maxillae Foramina of the maxillae Infraorbital foramen

For sensory nerve to brain (via foramen rotundum of sphenoid) Inferior orbital fissure For cranial nerves and blood vessels 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-10a The Maxillae and Palatine Bones. Orbital rim Infraorbital foramen Alveolar process Zygomatic process

a An anterolateral view of the right maxilla. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Anterior nasal spine 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Palatine Bones Functions of the palatine bones Form the posterior portion of the hard palate Contribute to the floors of the orbits 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull

The Palatine Bones Articulations of the palatine bones With other palatine bone Maxillae Sphenoid Ethmoid Inferior nasal conchae Vomer 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull

The Palatine Bones Divisions of the palatine bones Horizontal plate: posterior part of hard palate Perpendicular plate from horizontal plate to orbital process of orbit floor Foramina of the palatine bones Many in the lateral portion of the horizontal plate For small blood vessels and nerves of the roof of the mouth 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-10b The Maxillae and Palatine Bones. Palatine bone (horizontal plate) Palatine process

Alveolar process Maxillary sinus b Superior view of a horizontal section through right maxilla and palatine bone; note the size and orientation of the maxillary sinus. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-10c The Maxillae and Palatine Bones. Orbital process Horizontal plate

c An anterior view of the two palatine bones. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Perpendicular plate 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Nasal Bones Functions of the nasal bones Support the bridge of the nose Connect to cartilages of the distal part of the nose (external nares) 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Nasal Bones Articulations of the nasal bones With other nasal bones Ethmoid Frontal bones Maxillae 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Vomer Functions of the vomer Forms the inferior portion of the bony nasal septum

Articulations of the vomer Sphenoid Ethmoid Palatine bones Maxillae Cartilaginous part of the nasal septum 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Inferior Nasal Conchae Functions of the inferior nasal conchae

To create air turbulence in the nasal cavity To increase the epithelial surface area To warm and humidify inhaled air 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Inferior Nasal Conchae Articulations of the inferior nasal conchae Ethmoid Maxillae Palatine bones Lacrimal bones

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Zygomatic Bones Functions of the zygomatic bones Contribute to the rim and lateral wall of the orbit Form part of the zygomatic arch Articulations of the zygomatic bones Sphenoid Frontal bone Temporal bones Maxillae

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Zygomatic Bones Marks of the zygomatic bones Temporal process Meets the zygomatic process of the temporal bone Foramina of the zygomatic bones Zygomaticofacial foramen For sensory nerves of cheeks 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Lacrimal Bones Functions of the lacrimal bones The smallest facial bones Form part of the medial wall of the orbit

Articulations of the lacrimal bones Frontal bone Maxillae Ethmoid 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Lacrimal Bones Marks of the lacrimal bones Lacrimal sulcus Location of the lacrimal sac Leads to the nasolacrimal canal (between orbit and nasal cavity) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-11 The Smaller Bones of the Face (Part 1 of 2).

Supraorbital foramen Nasal bone Sphenoid Temporal bone Zygomaticofacial foramen Zygomatic bone Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Perpendicular plate of ethmoid Vomer

Bony nasal septum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-11 The Smaller Bones of the Face (Part 2 of 2). Lacrimal sulcus Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Lacrimal bone Middle nasal concha Inferior nasal concha Temporal process of zygomatic bone Mastoid process Perpendicular plate

of ethmoid Vomer Bony nasal septum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Mandible Functions of the mandible Forms the lower jaw Articulations of the mandible Mandibular fossae of the temporal bones 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Mandible

Marks of the mandible Body of the mandible is horizontal portion Alveolar processes support the lower teeth Mental protuberance attaches facial muscles A depression on the medial surface for submandibular salivary gland Mylohyoid line for insertion of the mylohyoid muscle (floor of mouth) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Mandible Marks of the mandible

Ramus ascending from the mandibular angle on either side Condylar process articulates with temporal bone at temporomandibular joint Coronoid process: insertion point for temporalis muscle (closes the jaws) Mandibular notch separates condylar and coronoid processes 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Mandible Foramina of the mandible Mental foramina For sensory nerves of lips and chin Mandibular foramen Entrance to the mandibular canal

For blood vessels and nerves of lower teeth 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Hyoid Bone Functions of the hyoid bone Supports the larynx Attaches muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and tongue Articulations of the hyoid bone Connects lesser horns to styloid processes of temporal bones 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Hyoid Bone

Marks of the hyoid bone Body of the hyoid Attaches muscles of larynx, tongue, and pharynx 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-2 The Facial Bones of the Skull The Hyoid Bone Marks of the hyoid bone Greater horns (greater cornua) Support larynx Attach muscles of the tongue Lesser horns (lesser cornua) Attach stylohyoid ligaments Support hyoid and larynx 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 7-12a The Mandible. Articular surface for temporomandibular joint Coronoid process Teeth Mandibular notch Head Ramus Condylar process Angle Body

Mental protuberance Mental foramen a A lateral and slightly superior view of the mandible 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-12b The Mandible. Alveolar process Articular surface Condylar process Coronoid process Mandibular foramen Mylohyoid line

Depression for submandibular salivary gland b A medial view of the right mandible 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-13 An Anterior View of the Hyoid Bone. Greater horn Lesser horn Body An anterior view of the hyoid bone 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-3 The Orbital and Nasal Complexes The Eye Sockets (Orbits)

Frontal bone (roof) Maxilla (floor) Maxillary, lacrimal, and ethmoid bones (orbital rim and medial wall) Sphenoid and palatine bones 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-14 The Orbital Complex (Part 1 of 2). Frontal bone Supraorbital notch Sphenoid Optic canal

Ethmoid Superior orbital fissure Lacrimal bone Lacrimal sulcus Nasolacrimal canal Palatine bone Interior orbital fissure Zygomatic bone Infraorbital

groove 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Infraorbital foramen Maxilla Figure 7-14 The Orbital Complex (Part 2 of 2). Supraorbital notch Frontal bone Sphenoid Optic canal Superior orbital fissure Ethmoid Nasolacrimal canal

Inferior orbital fissure Infraorbital groove Zygomatic bone Maxilla 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Infraorbital foramen 7-3 The Orbital and Nasal Complexes Bones of the Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Sinuses Make Up the Nasal Complex Frontal bone, sphenoid, and ethmoid Superior wall of nasal cavities

Maxillae, lacrimal bones, ethmoid, and inferior nasal conchae Lateral walls of nasal cavities Maxillae and nasal bones Bridge of nose 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-15a The Nasal Complex. Frontal sinus Ethmoid air cells Sphenoidal sinus Maxillary sinus a Locations of the paranasal sinuses. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Figure 7-15b The Nasal Complex. Frontal bone Sphenoidal sinuses Frontal sinuses Sphenoid Ethmoid Nasal bone Nasal conchae of ethmoid Palatine bone (bony palate)

Superior Maxilla (bony palate) Middle Inferior nasal concha b A sagittal section through the skull, with the nasal septum removed to show major features of the wall of the right nasal cavity. The frontal and sphenoidal sinuses are visible. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-3 The Orbital and Nasal Complexes Paranasal Sinuses Air-filled chambers connected to the nasal cavities

Lighten skull bones Provide mucous epithelium (flushes nasal cavities) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-4 Fontanelles The Infant Skull Grows rapidly Is large compared to the body Has many ossification centers 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-4 Fontanelles The Infant Skull Fusion is not complete at birth Two frontal bones Four occipital bones Several sphenoidal and temporal elements

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-4 Fontanelles Fontanelles Are areas of fibrous connective tissue (soft spots) Cover unfused sutures in the infant skull Allow the skull to flex during birth 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-4 Fontanelles Anterior Fontanelle Frontal, sagittal, and coronal sutures Occipital Fontanelle Lambdoid and sagittal sutures Sphenoidal Fontanelles

Squamous and coronal sutures Mastoid Fontanelles Squamous and lambdoid sutures 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-16a The Skull of an Infant. Fontanelles Sphenoidal fontanelle Coronal suture Mastoid fontanelle

Parietal bone Frontal bone Greater wing of sphenoid Nasal bone Maxilla Mandible Temporal Squamous suture bone a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lateral view Occipital Lambdoid bone suture Figure 7-16b The Skull of an Infant. Fontanelles Anterior fontanelle Posterior fontanelle Coronal suture Parietal bone Frontal bone

Sagittal suture Frontal suture Frontal bone Parietal bone Lambdoid suture Coronal suture b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Occipital bone

Superior view 7-5 The Vertebral Column The Vertebral Column (Spine) Protects the spinal cord Supports the head and body 26 bones 24 vertebrae, the sacrum, and the coccyx 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-17 The Vertebral Column. Spinal Curves Vertebral Regions Primary curves develop before birth, and secondary

curves after birth. Regions are defined by anatomical characteristics of individual vertebrae. The cervical curve, a secondary curve, develops as the infant learns to balance the weight of the head on the vertebrae of the neck. The thoracic curve, a primary curve, accommodates the thoracic organs. C1 C2 C3 C4

C5 C6 C7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Cervical (7 vertebrae) Thoracic (12 vertebrae) T8 T9

T10 T11 T12 L1 The lumbar curve, a secondary curve, balances the weight of the trunk over the lower limbs; it develops with the ability to stand. L2 L3 Lumbar (5 vertebrae) L4 L5 The sacral curve, a primary curve, accommodates the

abdominopelvic organs. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Sacral Coccygeal 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebrae The neck Seven cervical vertebrae The upper back 12 thoracic vertebrae Each articulates with one or more pair of ribs The lower back Five lumbar vertebrae 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-5 The Vertebral Column The Sacrum and Coccyx The fifth lumbar vertebra articulates with the sacrum The sacrum articulates with the coccyx 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Four Spinal Curves 1. 2. 3. 4. Cervical curve Thoracic curve Lumbar curve

Sacral curve 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Thoracic and Sacral Curves Are called primary curves (present during fetal development) Or accommodation curves (accommodate internal organs) Lumbar and Cervical Curves Are called secondary curves (appear after birth) Or compensation curves (shift body weight for upright posture) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Clinical Note 7-2a Kyphosis, Lordosis, and Scoliosis.

a Kyphosis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Note 7-2b Kyphosis, Lordosis, and Scoliosis. b Lordosis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Clinical Note 7-2c Kyphosis, Lordosis, and Scoliosis. c Scoliosis 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebral Anatomy The vertebral body (centrum) Transfers weight along the spine

The vertebral arch Posterior margin of vertebral foramen The articular processes Lateral projections between laminae and pedicles 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-18a Vertebral Anatomy. Vertebral arch Articular processes Pedicle Vertebral body a The major components of

a typical vertebra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebral Anatomy The vertebral arch Pedicles Walls of the vertebral arch Laminae Roof of the vertebral arch 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebral Anatomy The vertebral arch

Spinous process Projection where vertebral laminae fuse Transverse process Projection where laminae join pedicles 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebral Anatomy The articular processes Superior articular process Inferior articular process Have articular facets on articular faces 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-18b Vertebral Anatomy.

Superior articular process Pedicle Transverse process Vertebral body Spinous process Inferior articular facet Inferior articular process Arrow passing through vertebral

foramen b A lateral and slightly inferior view of a vertebra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-18c Vertebral Anatomy. Spinous process Superior articular process Transverse process Inferior articular

facet Vertebral foramen Inferior articular process Pedicle Vertebral body c An inferior view of a vertebra 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Vertebral Foramina

Intervertebral foramina Gaps between pedicles of adjacent vertebrae For nerve connections to spinal cord Vertebral canal Formed by vertebral foramina Encloses the spinal cord 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-5 The Vertebral Column Intervertebral Discs Are pads of fibrocartilage Separate the vertebral bodies Absorb shocks 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-18d Vertebral Anatomy.

Superior articular facets Superior articular process Lamina of vertebral arch Spinous process Intervertebral disc Transverse process Vertebral body d A posterior view of 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. three articulated vertebrae

Inferior articular process Figure 7-18e Vertebral Anatomy. Superior articular facets Lamina of vertebral arch Intervertebral foramen Intervertebral disc Spinous process Transverse process Vertebral body

Inferior articular facet Arrow passing through vertebral canal e A lateral and sectional view of 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. three articulated vertebrae 7-6 Vertebral Regions Vertebral Regions Vertebrae are numbered By region, from top (superior) to bottom (inferior) C1 articulates with skull, L5 with sacrum

Vertebrae of each region Have characteristics determined by functions 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions Regions of the Vertebral Column Cervical (C) Thoracic (T) Lumbar (L) Sacral (S) Coccygeal (Co)

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Small body (support only head) Large vertebral foramen (largest part of spinal cord) Concave superior surface Slope posterior to anterior C1 (atlas) has no spinous process All others have short spinous processes Tip of each spinous process is notched (bifid) 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-19a The Cervical Vertebrae. C1 C2

C3 C4 C5 Spinous process of vertebra prominens C6 C7 a A lateral view of the cervical vertebrae, C1C7. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-19b The Cervical Vertebrae.

Vertebral arch Spinous process Lamina Vertebral foramen Superior articular process Pedicle Vertebral body Transverse process Costal process

Superior Transverse articular facet foramen b A superior view of a representative cervical vertebra showing characteristics of C3C6. Notice the typical features listed in Table 71. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-19c The Cervical Vertebrae. Transverse process Superior articular process

Inferior articular process Spinous process Bifid tip of spinous process Location of transverse foramen Inferior articular facet Vertebral body c A lateral view of the same vertebra as in b.

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Transverse processes Are fused to costal processes Which encircle transverse foramina (protect arteries and veins) Atlas (C1) Articulates with occipital condyles of skull Has no body or spinous process Has a large, round foramen within anterior and posterior arches 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae

Axis (C2) Supports the atlas Has heavy spinous process To attach muscles of head and neck Axis and atlas bodies fuse during development to form the dens 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-19d The Cervical Vertebrae. Anterior arch Dens of axis Transverse

ligament Atlas (C1) Posterior arch Axis (C2) d The atlas (C1) and axis (C2) in posterolateral view. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Cervical Vertebrae Vertebra prominens (C7) Transitions to thoracic vertebrae Has a long spinous process with a broad tubercle Has large transverse processes

Ligamentum nuchae (elastic ligament) extends from C7 to skull 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions Thoracic Vertebrae (T1T12) Have heart-shaped bodies Larger bodies than in C1C7 Smaller vertebral foramen than in C1C7 Long, slender spinous processes Dorsolateral surfaces of body have costal facets

Which articulate with heads of ribs 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions Thoracic Vertebrae (T1T12) T1T10 Have transverse costal facets On thick transverse processes for rib articulation Ribs at T1T10 Contact costal and transverse costal facets T1T8 articulate with two pairs of ribs At superior and inferior costal facets T9T11 articulate with one pair of ribs T10T12 transition to lumbar vertebrae 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

Figure 7-20a The Thoracic Vertebrae. Vertebra prominens C7 T1 T2 T3 Intervertebral foramen T4 T5 T6 T7 Thoracic

vertebrae (T1T12) T8 T9 T10 T11 T12 L1 a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A lateral view of the thoracic region of the vertebral column. The vertebra prominens (C7) resembles T1, but lacks facets for rib articulation. Vertebra T12

resembles the first lumbar vertebra (L1) but has a fact for rib articulation. Figure 7-20b The Thoracic Vertebrae. Spinous process Transverse process Lamina Transverse costal facet Superior articular facet Vertebral

foramen Superior costal facet Vertebral body b Thoracic vertebra, superior view. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-20c The Thoracic Vertebrae. Transverse costal facet for tubercle of superior rib Transverse process Superior costal facet

for head of superior rib Vertebral body Spinous process Inferior costal facet for head of inferior rib c Thoracic vertebra, lateral view. 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions Lumbar Vertebrae (L1L5)

Largest vertebrae Oval-shaped bodies Thicker bodies than T1T12 No costal or transverse costal facets Triangular vertebral foramen Superior articular processes Face up and in Inferior articular processes Face down and out 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions Lumbar Vertebrae (L1L5) Transverse processes Slender

Project dorsolaterally Spinous processes Short, heavy For attachment of lower back muscles 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-21a The Lumbar Vertebrae. L1 L2 L3 L4 L5 Sacrum Coccyx

a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A lateral view of the lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, and coccyx Figure 7-21b The Lumbar Vertebrae. Superior articular process Pedicle Transverse process Spinous process

Vertebral body Inferior articular process Inferior articular facet b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A lateral view of a typical lumbar vertebra Figure 7-21c The Lumbar Vertebrae. Spinous process Superior articular facet Lamina

Superior articular process Transverse process Transverse process Vertebral foramen Pedicle Vertebral body c 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A superior view of the same vertebra shown in part b

Table 7-1 Regional Differences in Vertebral Structure and Function (Part 1 of 2). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Table 7-1 Regional Differences in Vertebral Structure and Function (Part 2 of 2). 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum Is curved, more in males than in females Protects reproductive, urinary, and digestive organs Attaches: The axial skeleton to pelvic girdle of appendicular skeleton Broad muscles that move the thigh 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum The adult sacrum Consists of five fused sacral vertebrae Fuses between puberty and ages 2530 Leaving transverse lines Sacral canal Replaces the vertebral canal 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum Sacral cornua Horn shaped Formed by laminae of the fifth sacral vertebra Which do not meet at midline

Sacral hiatus Opening at the inferior end of the sacral canal Formed by ridges of sacral cornua Covered by connective tissues 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum Median sacral crest Fused spinous processes Four pairs of sacral foramina open to either side Lateral sacral crest Fused transverse processes Attach to muscles of lower back and hip 2015 Pearson Education Inc.

7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum Auricular surface Thick, flattened area Articulates with pelvic girdle (forming sacroiliac joint) Sacral tuberosity Rough area Attaches ligaments of the sacroiliac joint 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Sacrum Base The broad superior surface

Ala Wings at either side of the base To attach muscles Sacral promontory At the center of the base Apex The narrow inferior portion Articulates with the coccyx 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-6 Vertebral Regions The Coccyx Attaches ligaments and a constricting muscle of the anus Mature coccyx Consists of three to five fused coccygeal vertebrae

First two coccygeal vertebrae Have transverse processes Have unfused vertebral arches Coccygeal cornua Formed by laminae of first coccygeal vertebra 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-22a The Sacrum and Coccyx. Articular Entrance to process sacral canal Sacral tuberosity Lateral

sacral crest Median sacral crest Sacral hiatus Sacral cornu Coccygeal cornu a 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A posterior view Figure 7-22b The Sacrum and Coccyx. Sacral promontory

Auricular surface Lateral sacral crest Median sacral crest Sacral curve Sacral cornu Coccygeal cornu Coccyx b 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. A lateral view from

the right side Figure 7-22c The Sacrum and Coccyx. Base Sacral promontory Ala Ala Sacral foramina Transverse lines Apex

Coccyx c 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. An anterior view 7-7 The Thoracic Cage The Thoracic Cage The skeleton of the chest Supports the thoracic cavity Consists of: Thoracic vertebrae Ribs Sternum (breastbone) The Rib Cage Formed of ribs and sternum

2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-23a The Thoracic Cage. T1 Jugular notch Clavicular articulation 1 Sternum 2 Manubrium 3 Body

True ribs (ribs 17) 4 Xiphoid process Costal cartilages 5 10 T11 7 T12 Vertebrochondral ribs

(ribs 810) 6 11 12 8 9 Floating ribs (ribs 1112) a An anterior view, showing the costal cartilages and the sternum 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. False ribs (ribs 812)

Figure 7-23b The Thoracic Cage. C7 T1 1 2 3 4 5 True ribs (ribs 17) T5 3 4 6

T7 6 7 T8 8 T9 7 8 T10 11

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. T4 2 5 10 12 b T3 1

T6 9 False ribs (ribs 812) T2 T11 9 T12 10 L1

11 12 A posterior view, showing the articulations of the ribs and vertebrae 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Functions of the Thoracic Cage 1. Protects organs of the thoracic cavity Heart, lungs, and thymus 2. Attaches muscles 1.For respiration 2.Of the vertebral column 3.Of the pectoral girdle and the upper limbs 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage

Ribs (Costae) Are 12 pairs of long, curved, flat bones Extending from the thoracic vertebrae Ribs are divided into two types 1. True ribs 2. False ribs 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Ribs 17 (True Ribs) Vertebrosternal ribs Connected to the sternum by costal cartilages 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Ribs 812 (False Ribs) Do not attach directly to the sternum

Vertebrochondral ribs (ribs 810) Fuse together Merge with cartilage before reaching the sternum Floating or vertebral ribs (ribs 1112) Connect only to the vertebrae and back muscles Have no connection with the sternum 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Structures of the Ribs The head (capitulum) At the vertebral end of the rib Has superior and inferior articular facets The neck The short area between the head and the tubercle

2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Structures of the Ribs The tubercle (tuberculum) A small dorsal elevation Has an auricular facet that contacts the facet of its thoracic vertebra (at T1T10 only) The tubular body (shaft) Attaches muscles of the pectoral girdle and trunk Attaches to the intercostal muscles that move the ribs 2015 Pearson Education Inc. Figure 7-24a The Ribs. Transverse

costal facet Tubercle of rib Angle Neck Demifacet Head (capitulum) Vertebral end a A superior view of the details of rib structure and the articulations between the ribs and thoracic vertebrae

2015 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 7-24b The Ribs. Head Neck Attachment to costal cartilage (sternal end) Articular facets Tubercle Body Angle b A posterior view of the head of a Costal groove

representative rib from the right side (ribs 29) 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage The Sternum A flat bone In the midline of the thoracic wall Three parts of the sternum 1. The manubrium 2. The sternal body 3. The xiphoid process 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Manubrium

The superior portion of sternum Broad, triangular shape Articulates with clavicles (collarbones) Articulates with cartilages of first rib pair Has a jugular notch, a shallow indentation between clavicular articulations 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage The Sternal Body Is tongue-shaped Attaches to the manubrium Attaches to costal cartilages of ribs 27

The Xiphoid Process Is the smallest part of the sternum Attaches to the sternal body Attaches to diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles 2015 Pearson Education Inc. 7-7 The Thoracic Cage Development of the Sternum The developing sternal body Consists of four unfused bones Completes fusion about age 25 Leaving transverse lines The xiphoid process Is the last part of sternum to fuse Can easily be broken away

2015 Pearson Education Inc.

Recently Viewed Presentations