TAG DAEARYDDIAETH | GCE GEOGRAPHY December 2016 Session 1: Teaching about Changing Places Mr Iwan Rowlands, Principal Examiner U2 Part 1 TEACHING & ASSESSMENT OVERVIEW 1. Department for Education subject content

Relationships and connections between people, the economy, society and the environment help to explain why places are constantly changing. In addition, the meanings and representations attached to places help to shape actions and behaviours affecting that place. A level specifications, and AS specifications which address this theme, must require students to undertake the study of the way in which these factors (relationships, connections, meaning, representation) affect continuity and change in the nature of places and our understanding of place. Study must involve moving out from the local place to encompass

regional, national, international and global scales in order to understand the dynamics of place. (Note that a local place may be a locality, neighbourhood or small community, either urban or rural) Specifications must require students to ... gain understanding of the way in which their own lives and those of others are affected by continuity and change in the nature of places. [DFE, 2015] Place relationships and connections (i) Changing demographic and cultural characteristics (ii) Economic change and social inequalities

(iii) Food production, circulation and Content Content consumption Place meaning and representations (i) Place making and marketing (as revealed and contrasted in the work of a range of formal and informal agencies or their materials) (ii) Cultural and artistic approaches to representing

place (iii) Lived experience of place (i.e. how people see, experience and understand places) in the past and present Content Content AS and A level specifications must enable students to: Gain understanding of specialised concepts: causality, systems, equilibrium, feedback,

inequality, representation, identity, globalisation, sustainability, interdependence, mitigation and adaptation, risk, resilience and thresholds Part 2 CHANGING CHARACTERISTICS OF PLACES 1. Subject content 2. Place and scale 3. Place connections and multi-layered places

Specification Content Changing places: the scale issue A place is a portion of geographic space whose identity is viewed as being distinctive in some way The inner city district of Bootle and the fringe village of Formby both belong to the city of Liverpool in the Northwest of England; all these entities Bootle, Formby, Liverpool and the Northwest can be understood as places, insofar as each possesses a set of physical and human features which provide identity But a place is best understood in narrower terms in A-level Geography

as a distinctive locality at a geographical scale somewhere between a street and a city or region i.e. villages, small towns and local urban neighbourhoods Cities and regions are entities which are larger than but include local places (villages, small towns, local urban neighbourhoods) Note that a local place may be a locality, neighbourhood or small community, either urban or rural (DfE) Changing places: layered connections Place stories usually

have several chapters because of the way place networks and flows have changed over time Each historical period has own connections with near/far places Over time, layers of connections built up: accumulated history is

visible in a places cultural landscape Case study city/place: Sheffield/Park Hill Changing places: layered connections Park Hill, Sheffield 1960 Changing places: layered connections

Park Hill, Sheffield 1990 Changing places: layered connections Park Hill, Sheffield 2016 Fieldwork focus Survey of how a place is networked with other places e.g.

hinterland/sphere of influence survey of commuters/customers; commodity sourcing; newspapers; place-based social networks Field survey of variations in deprivation in urban areas: environmental quality, unemployment, crime level, housing tenure, council tax bands, benefit uptake, house prices Further reading Geography Review (Volume 30; various authors/forthcoming) Changing Places (Emma Rawlings Smith, Simon Oakes, Alastair Owens - Geographical Association, July 2016)

http://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/8D8D8306-0825-4FEDB183-40D384DC6DE8/0/ SCO_ChangingPlace_ChangingPlaces.pdf Part 3 PLACE MEANING AND REPRESENTATIONS 1. Subject content 2. Varied perspectives 3. Representing places and identities Specification Content

Identity Meaning Tension Change Agency

Continuity Changing places: place meanings Place meaning Place identity Conteste

d place Place Changing places: place meanings The significance or value which a place has for an individual or group of people. Some places are associated

with historic events and become a symbol of group identity, leading to protection The real or perceived defining characteristics of a geographical space which has been shaped by people and physical processes over time.

Places may have contrasting identities in the eyes of different people A contested place is one where tension or conflict has arisen due to the inability of different players to agree how it should be

managed, used or represented A portion of geographic space whose identity is distinctive in some way. Particular places have unique landscapes deriving from underlying physical geography and the way

societies have shaped their surface appearance Are these factors objective and quantifiable? Or are they subjective interpretations of places? How might place bias be linked with demography? High house prices Traffic congestion

Urban crime Poor air quality Overcrowded schools Noise pollution Drab, ugly buildings Lack of green spaces and views Protests and demonstrations Proximity to nature Sense of community Sense of history

Empty roads Quiet and tranquil Pictureque cottages Less crowded schools Affordable housing Social order to move Possible Possible reasons reasons to

move to to the the country country Possible Possible reasons reasons to to leave leave the the city

city Changing places: place meanings Independent research opportunity Varying representations Formal and informal

Qualitative and quantitative Fact and fiction Fieldwork focus Perception survey of place, looking at contrasts in perceived safety i.e. day and night; male and female views Multi-media place representations, including primary (own recordings) and secondary (other media) soundscapes; advertising imagery; survey group interviews to show attitudes towards place images

Further reading Changing Places (Geographical Association 2016) RGS-IBG 21st Century Challenges https://www.rgs.org/NR/rdonlyres/754E856A-EBD94967-A343-04E6F13F5720/0/ Escapetocountry_Teachernotes_maindocument.pdf Part 4 ECONOMIC & DEMOGRAPHIC CHANGE 1. Subject content and understandings 2. Deindustrialisation of urban places

Specification Content The Clark Fisher model Changing places: deindustrialisation Deindustrialisation The decline of regionally important manufacturing industries. The decline can be charted either in terms of workforce numbers or output and production measures. Post-industrial place Where traditional manufacturing or mining

employment has been replaced by an employment structure focused on services and technology. Changing places: deindustrialisation Deindustrialisation of the UK Courses: AQA Edexcel OCR WJEC Eduqas Changing places: Global forces affecting Port Talbot

Deindustrialisation today Inequality Identity Shifting flows Past

Globalisation Present Fieldwork focus Survey of a business district following closure of a flagship store (BHS); augmented with virtual historical survey (using archived Google Earth street view); threshold concept Field survey of changing demographic characteristics of a suburbanised village or gentrified (or studentified) urban

neighbourhood: population and employment characteristics; various proxies for community spirit Further reading Two-speed UK (Geography in the News, 2012) Docklands at 30 (Geography in the News, 2012) https://www.imf.org/EXTERNAL/PUBS/FT/ISSUES10/ INDEX.HTM Part 5 MANAGING AND REMAKING PLACES

1. Subject content 2. Rebranding and remaking places Specification Content Rebranding and remaking places: Its Liverpool, Im Liverpool, 2011 Rebranding and remaking places regeneration

and redevelopme nt reimaging rebranding remaking Rebranding and remaking places

Formal state and private sector attempts to change the fabric of a place, either by attracting new investment or stimulating local enterprise. It also includes social transformations (demolition; new educational or

recreational spaces) The deliberate effort to market a place in new ways which can attract inward investment, movers and/or tourists. Place entrepreneurialism involves local business and government vying for

a share of footloose global capital to revitalise their own locality Creating new visual images or mythologies of places: new slogans and marketing materials are produced by business and government. Places are inadvertently reimaged by citizens

through new art, photography, film, writing, or music projects An umbrella term that brings together physical, economic, social and cultural changes may follow from regeneration, redevelopment or

rebranding of a place, including both formal and informal processes e.g. gentrification Salford Quays case study Salford Quays case study Each player had varying power and

influence over the eventual outcome Some had legal responsibilities The MBC played an important role lobbying and persuading other players to act together as a network

United Utilities Peel Holdings MERSEY BASIN CAMPAIGN (MBC)

Environment Agency Northwest Development Agency Local authorities

RSPB Salford Quays case study Case study 1: Salford Quays Salford Quays case study Case study 1: Salford Quays

Plenary: changing representation and identity Fieldwork focus Assessment of flagship projects e.g. sports sites, retail sites (to assess environmental, economic, social impacts) Assessment of the contribution a temporary event/festival can make, in terms of linkage and involvement of local community, conflicts, economic success and profit sharing,

environmental impact over a 12-month period Further reading Rebranding Arran (Geography Review, 2010, 23:4) Mersey Matters / Salford Quays (Geo Factsheet, 2010) Contested Liverpool (Geography in the News, 2012) http:// www.rgs.org/OurWork/Schools/School+Members+Area/Na tural+resources+and+energy/ Threatened+heritage+landscapes.htm

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