Universit degli studi di Roma Tre MASTER HUMAN DEVELOPMENT AND FOOD SECURITY 2014/2015 FOOD SAFETY and its importance for food & nutrition security Ilaria Proietti Questions What is food safety? Why is it important? How does it affect food security pillars?
Presentation outline Introduction to food safety Types of food contamination How it affects food security pillars Case studies What is Food Safety? Food safety refers to the potential hazardous agents or contaminants present in food that can cause food borne illness They may occur during all stages of food production, from farm to fork Food borne hazard
a biological, chemical or physical agent in, or condition of, food, with the potential to cause an adverse health effect Biological hazard Chemical hazard Physical hazard Vulnerable population groups YOPI Presentation outline Introduction to food safety Types of food contamination How it affects food security pillars Case studies
cr ob iol og ica l ha za rd s Infectious bacteria
Toxin-producing organisms Moulds Parasites Virus Acute disease effects in the short term Mechanisms for foodborne illness: infection: when viable organisms (bacteria, viruses or parasites) are present in food and enter the body, where their growth and metabolism produce the disease response (e.g. Salmonella, E. Coli); intoxication: when the presence and (usually) growth of an organism in the food are accompanied by the
accumulation of a toxin that is ingested with the food and causes illness (B. cereus, C. botulinum ,Staphylococcus aureus) Primary contamination: environmental contamination, agricultural applications Chemical hazards Different sources: Environmental pollutants such as lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins; Agricultural and veterinary practices such as pesticides, fertilizers veterinary drugs;
Food-processing and packaging techniques (e.g. the use of solvent residues, nitrosamines, Bisphenol A) Naturally occurring toxins (fungal, algal toxins) Food additives (e.g. banned colour, preservative) Chronic sequelae effects in the long term The harmful effects may result from the constant exposure of chemicals in food over time Adverse health effects may include kidney and liver damage, fetal developmental disruption, endocrine system disruption, immunotoxicity and cancer
Either foreign materials unintentionally introduced to food products (e.g. metal fragments in mince meat) or naturally occurring objects (e.g. bones in fish) that are a threat to the consumer. Some recent notable incidents 2011 - German E. coli outbreak was caused by contaminated fenugreek seeds imported from Egypt in 2009 and 2010. 2012 - More than a quarter of a million chicken eggs are being recalled in Germany after in-house testing discovered "excessive levels" of dioxin. 2013 - horse meat contaminated beef burgers had been on sale in Britain and Ireland.
2014- A Chinese crime ring was found to have passed off rat, mink, and small mammal meat as mutton for more than 1 million USD in Shanghai and Jiangsu province markets. 20 April 2015 aflatoxins in pistachios in shell from Turkey; high sulphite content in dried apricots from Turkey; mercury in frozen swordfish fillets from Vietnam; salmonella spp. in fish meal from Mauritania; https://webgate.ec.europa.eu/rasff-window/portal/?event=notificationsList&StartRow=1 metal needle in Easter lamb (bakery product) from Germany Some data - Environmental factors are involved in of the outbreaks;
13 % - Use of inadequate raw materials are involved in of the outbreaks (either chemically or microbiologically contaminated or contained contaminated ingredients20 or toxic mushrooms); % - Inadequate handling in of the outbreaks, (mostly crosscontamination, 14 inadequate processing, insufficient hygiene and reusing leftovers); % 44
- Inappropriate temperature, refrigeration and cooking are % involved in of the outbreaks. Presentation outline Introduction to food safety Types of food contamination How it affects food security pillars Case studies Why food safety is important for food security?
Food safety importance has more and more increased Augmented urbanization Climatic change Globalization > immunecompromise population Especially in developing countries! Factors :
Climatic conditions < Quality of food and water Poor infrastructures Lack of resources Growing population Rapid urbanization Inequality in food safety: people of low-income groups or countries are especially susceptible to the hazards Food security
Food Security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. World Food Summit FAO, 1996 Four pillars 1) Availability refers to the amount of food of appropriate quality provided by domestic production or imports, food stocks and food aid; 2) Access refers to the importance of ensuring access to adequate resources to acquire appropriate foods for a nutritious diet. Economical, physical and social access; 3) Food utilization implies the need of an adequate diet achieved through an adequate access to safe and clean water, sanitation and health care system;
4) Stability, recognizes that the availability, access and utilization dimensions of food security should be guaranteed at all times. How it affects food security pillars? Food Safety Food Utilization (Quality of food) Food Availability Food Access
(Quantity of food) Food Stability Incidence in the Utilization dimension World Food Summit 1996 A satisfactory utilization of food is through an adequate diet, clean water, sanitation and health care to reach a state of nutritional well-being where all physiological needs are met Some data:
2 million children die every year from diarrhoea in the world, 70 % of the cases are likely caused by unsafe food and water (WHO) In Benin and Togo children exposed to high incidence of aflatoxins were found to gain 22% less height than children in low exposure zones (WHO) In the Unites States alone 76 million people experience food borne illness
each year, resulting in 5,000 deaths (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention - CDC) Strong association between infection and poor nutritional status Infectious disease can worsen nutritional status by: reducing food intake, for example, through lack of appetite and painful mouth ulcers; reducing nutrient absorption, for example, through intestinal damage; changing nutrient levels and requirements, for example, as part of the effects of infection on metabolism; directly removing nutrients, for example, through consumption of significant quantities of nutrients by some parasites, which makes them unavailable to the host.
Inadequate dietary intake Poor appetite Nutrient loss and malabsorption Altered metabolism Weigh loss Growth retardation Impaired immunity
Mucosal damage Increased disease incidence, severity and duration Worldwide, each year infectious diseases kill more than 12 million children under 5 years old; 50% of these deaths are associated with malnutrition. Promoting the health of women Why women? Women produce 60-80% of the
food Work in farming and other agricultural activities Process food Work as food vendors and producers Prepare food in the home Play an essential role in the prevention of foodborne disease Food Safety incidence in Availability & Access dimension Food borne diseases
Economic and productivity losses Food availability Loss of foodstuffs (spoiled food not more edible) Some data: 30% cereals production lost
45% non-grain staples, vegetables & fruits Food is lost or wasted throughout the supply chain, from initial agricultural production down to final household consumption. In medium- and high-income countries food is to a significant extent wasted at the consumption stage
In low-income countries food is lost mostly during the early and middle stages of the food supply chain Roughly one-third of food produced for human consumption is lost or wasted globally, which amounts to about 1.3 billion tons per year Food losses and waste amounts to roughly US$ 680 billion in industrialized countries and US$ 310 billion in developing countries, but
they dissipate roughly the same quantities of food: respectively 670 and 630 million tonnes Physical access Food access Economic access Economic impact National level
Costs to individuals Costs to farmers Costs to consumers Social costs International level Losses due to regulatory standards European Union/Codex
Alimentarius Sanitary and Phytosanitary (SPS) Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Indonesia, Philippines & Thailand annual cost of $ 477 million for product spoilage, human health effects and losses in the livestock sector Traditional trade barriers such as tariffs are steadily being reduced, while food safety standards, regulations related to traceability, product certification, environmental standards and other regulations are increasing. Two are the specific WTO agreements dealing with food safety and animal and plant health and safety, and with product standards in general. Both try to identify how to meet the need to apply standards and at the same time avoid protectionism in disguise:
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement (SPS) The Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures sets out the basic rules for food safety and animal and plant health requirements. The SPS Agreement covers all measures whose purpose is to protect: human or animal health from food-borne risks; human health from animal- or plant- carried diseases; animals and plants from pests or diseases; the territory of a country from damage caused by pests; Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT ) The TBT measures comprise technical standards, along with regulations on test and inspection procedures and certification. They are developed by organizations such as the International Standard Organization. The TBT Agreement covers all technical
regulations, voluntary standards and the procedures to ensure that these are met, except when these are SPS Agreement. Both are adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission of FAO and WHO, the World Organisation for Animal Health, and organizations collaborating within the framework of the International Plant Protection Convention. The EU - ACP EPAs The Africa, Caribbean, Pacific Economic Partnership Agreement countries (ACP
EPAs) group themselves into seven regions: West Africa, Central Africa, ESA (Eastern and Southern Africa), EAC (East African Community), SADC (Southern African Development Community), Caribbean, Pacific. ACP countries need to ensure their exports comply with EU standards EPAs include technical support and training, and measures to promote knowledge transfer and strengthen public services. Examples include: - the EU pesticides programme for the horticulture sector and an EU fish health project; - training in food safety and quality control (PIP programme) for over 200,000 family-run fresh fruit and vegetable businesses. Overlapping Membership in Africa
Food Chain Approach ...recognition that the responsibility for the supply of food that is safe, healthy and nutritious is shared along the entire food chain - by all involved with the production, processing, trade and consumption of food... (FAO, 2003) creation of a systematic, comprehensive system that covers all food commodities in all sectors Active involvement of all stakeholders Good practices (GAP, GHP, GMP) HACCP - Risk analysis Risk analysis
Conceptual tool consisting of three elements: risk assessment (scientific advice and information analysis), risk management (regulation and control) and risk communication Risk Assessment: a scientific discipline in which researchers assess the nature of the hazard, the exposure of the population and the likely incidence of illness as a result. Risk Management: the process of weighing policy alternatives for the promotion of fair trade practices, and, if needed, selecting appropriate prevention and control options. Risk Communication: the interactive exchange of information and opinions throughout the risk analysis process concerning hazards and risks, riskrelated factors and risk perceptions. Risk-Benefit Analysis Food = good source of nutrients but may be,
at the same time, a source of toxicants Examples: - Recommendation to increase the consumption of fish in order to achieve a beneficial nutritional effect would lead to the tolerable intake of dioxins in the same food being exceeded; - Minimally processed foods, such as fresh fruits and vegetables (responsible for 20-25% of food-borne outbreaks; - Reduction of pathogenic bacteria by salt versus increase of other health risks, such as risk of cardiovascular disease. Evaluation of Risks and Benefits together and at the same time Presentation outline
Introduction to food safety Types of food contamination How it affects food security pillars Case studies 1) Anti-nutritional factors Substances poisonous or limit the nutrients available to the body by interfering with their absorption Plants have evolved them in order to protect themselves from insects and parasite If diet is poor and not varied harmful
The consequences/implications are not their direct toxicity to man and animals alone, but also the inconvenience and the economic loss associated with poisoning of domestic animals and the cost of preventing or reducing such happenings. Main effects gastrointestinal and neurological disorders (glycoalkaloids: solanine) decreased palatability and reduced growth rate by interfering with the digestion and absorption of nutrients in the gastrointestinal tract (tannins, saponins) binding minerals like calcium, iron, magnesium and zinc and make them unavailable (phytic acid, tannins)
How to intervene: - Varied diet - Adequate processing of foods before consumption - Educate the people on the dangers of consuming improperly foods Anti-nutritional factors (some examples) Protease inhibitors inhibit the activity of trypsin, chemotropism and other proteases. They are found in legumes such as beans and peas, but also in cereals, potatoes, and other products. Their presence results in impaired growth and poor food utilization. Amylase inhibitors
have a similar activity against amylases. Amylases are important in breaking down the structure of carbohydrates; they hydrolyze sugar and starches. Lectins or humagglutinins are glycoprotein mainly found in legumes: beans, peas, lentils. Their presence results in poor food utilization and impaired growth. Glucosinolates are found in cabbage and related species. Effects upon the thyroid function have been demonstrated.
Saponins shown. are found in soybeans, peanuts, sugar beets and others. Toxic effect have been Phytic acid and tannins bioavailability of minerals. occurs in several vegetable products. Its presence may affect 2) Mycotoxins Mycotoxin is a toxic secondary metabolite produced by fungi, such as mushrooms, moulds and yeasts.
About 1/4 of the worlds food crops are affected by mycotoxin Mycotoxin contamination is NOT avoidable and predictable Mycotoxin s Food security Proble ms: can develop during any stage of the food
chain (in the pre-harvest phase, and during transport and storage due to inadequate drying). can contaminate almost every foodstuff determine both economic and health problems (decrease in growth rate, carcinogenesis, abortions and immunosuppression) The risk to human health depends on: - toxicity, contamination level amount of contaminated food consumed health status
In the developing world, humid climates and crop storage conditions are often favourable for fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Health risks related to mycotoxins are exacerbated by poverty and malnutrition Mycotoxin s Malnutrition - Mycotoxin exposure determines both clinical form (kwashiorkor) and non- clinical form (stunting, underweight) of
malnutrition - Malnutrition enhances disease incidence and further reduces the ability of the human body to cope with the mycotoxin. 3) Food safety and the MDGs The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted in the United Nations Millennium Declaration 2000, incorporate many issues directly or indirectly related to food safety concerns. The MDGs were put forward to mitigate/improve the nutrition situation and overall health of the populace in developing countries. The provision of safe food is a part of most of the goals either directly or indirectly. While framing guidelines for achieving the goals, it was realised that the success of the MDGs, including that of poverty reduction, will in part depend on an effective reduction of foodborne diseases, particularly
among the vulnerable group, which includes women and children. Food Safety and MDGs To eradicate extreme hunger and poverty, the food provided should be safe in nature to avoid possible harmful effects of other contaminants. Improving
maternal health to a certain extent is related to the availability of safe food to mother The goal of reducing child mortality by two-thirds is not achievable unless the extent of infectious illnesses in
children is controlled. The origin of many of these infections lies in unsafe food and waters. Ensure environmental sustainability includes the provision of safe drinking water (lack of presence of pathogenic organisms and toxins in water, presence of chemicals/pollutants and excess of minerals, especially fluoride and arsenic) Presentation outline Introduction to food safety
Types of food contamination How it affects food security pillars Case studies And now, please, divide into 4 groups I am going to give you some pictures to be observed. Please: - Try to find as much food safety risks as possible ; - Propose preventive/corrective
measures. A Thai food vendor sells meat skewers to train passengers in Bangkok A man sells hotdogs amid the rubble of the commercial center of A food vendor serves customers at the Gwangjang market in Seoul, Street foods in front of the main gate of Alipore Zoological Garden, Street food vendor at Nha-Trang, Vietnam Street side food vendor chews tobacco as he prepares kebabs in
New Delhi, India. Conclusions Food Safety Food Safety Utilization Availability, Access Public health Socio-economic issue Food Security Health & Nutrition
Economy & Trade Food safety should form a fundamental Component of Policies & Education Establishment of an effective food safety system Integration along food chain with a Farm to fork approach Some useful links: http://foodquality.wfp.org/ http://www.fao.org/food/food-safety-quality/en// http://www.who.int/foodsafety/en/ http://www.efsa.europa.eu/ https://www.wto.org/
Short bibliography: FAO/WHO, 2012. FAO/WHO guide for developing and improving national food recall systems FAO/WHO, 2011. guide for application of risk analysis principles and procedures during food safety emergencies FAO/WHO, 2007. Framework for the provision of scientific advice on food safety and nutrition. ISBN 92-5-105807-7 FAO, 2007. Food safety risk analysis - A guide for national food safety authorities. IFPRI, 2003. Food safety in food security and food trade. 2020 Vision, focus 10. IFPRI, Washington, DC. FAO, 1999. The importance of food quality and safety for Developing Countries. Committee on world food security, twenty-fifth session. FAO, Rome.
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