SCAPAs 2016 Summer Conference The Greenbrier Resort, West
SCAPAs 2016 Summer Conference The Greenbrier Resort, West Virginia Past, Present, and the Future of Asphalt Industry Serji Amirkhanian Human Being July 23, 2016
Life without Serji Time to sleep, he is very boring To drink or not to drink, thats the question!!
History Serjis dogs Talk about more stupid stuff
Present More dog stories Future Talk until they are bored to death so they will be willing to give you a free lunch Conclusions
How much your speech is worth? History I hate history, it is boring
How old is asphalt? The first recorded use of asphalt as a road building material was in Babylon around 615 BCE, in the reign of King Nabopolassar. ca. 23502150 B.C.
Greeks and Romans The word asphalt comes from the Greek (asphaltos). The Romans adopted the word asasphalton, and used the substance to seal their baths,
reservoirs, and aqueducts. Roman Roads Were constructed during the Republican times - the oldest road, Via Appia, dates back to 312 B.C.
Over 100,000 km (62,000 miles) of roads. Quality roads that have allowed many Roman roads to survive to this day.
Roman Roads A typical Roman road structure (see Figure), as seen in the United Kingdom, consisted of four basic layers (Collins and Hart, 1936):
Summa Crusta (surfacing). Smooth, polygonal blocks embedded in the underlying layer. Nucleus. A kind of base layer composed of gravel and sand with lime cement. Rudus. The third layer was composed of rubble masonry and smaller stones also set in lime mortar.
Statumen. Two or three courses of flat stones set in lime mortar. Roman Roads Roman Empire built over 3000 miles of roads in Britain alone by 200 A.D. These roads had ditches to aid in drainage and
their thickness varied over weaker soils. This indicates that the Romans had some understanding of basic soil mechanics. Europeans Many centuries later, Europeans exploring the
New World discovered natural deposits of asphalt. Writing in 1595, Sir Walter Raleigh described a plain (or lake) of asphalt on the Island of Trinidad, off the coast of Venezuela. He used this asphalt for re-caulking his ships.
100s years later.. Englishman John Metcalf, born in 1717, built 180 miles of Yorkshire roads. He insisted on good drainage, requiring a foundation of large stones covered with
excavated road material to raise the roadbed, followed by a layer of gravel. Mr. McAdam!!! John Loudon McAdam, taught himself engineering after being appointed a trustee of a Scottish turnpike.
McAdam observed that it was the native soil that supports the weight of traffic, and that while it is preserved in a dry state, it will carry any weight without sinking. To construct his roads, McAdam used broken stone which shall unite by its own angles so as to form a
hard surface. PG grading, what about Chew grading?? USA: 1st: used for sidewalks, crosswalks, and even roads starting in the late 1860s
Mr. Scott Fant Mr. Bill Simons Patented Pavements!!! The first such patent was filed in 1871 by Nathan B. Abbott of Brooklyn, New York.
In 1900, Frederick J. Warren filed a patent for Bitulithic pavement, a mixture of bitumen and aggregate; despite vigorous efforts by the Warren Brothers Company to defend its patent (and the name of the material), bitulithic was often used to describe any asphalt pavement. Many of these patented mixes were successful and technically innovative.
Other trade names for asphalt mixes included Wilite, Romanite, National Pavement, Imperial, Indurite, and
Macasphalt Can you say warranties?? The fierce competition among asphalt producers, however, allowed cities to require more stringent requirements for their asphalt roadways.
In 1896, for example, New York City adopted asphalt paving in place of brick, granite, and wood block. But it also required 15 yr warranties on workmanship & materials. The long-term warranties, which did not recognize pavement failures caused by factors beyond the asphalt contractors control, bankrupted many builders. The result was fewer and higher bids
for asphalt pavements. Earlier Years: Equipment 1901: The first asphalt facility to contain all the basic components of those of today (Warren Brothers in East Cambridge, Mass. It lacked only a cold feed and pollution control
equipment. 1901: The first drum mixers and drum dryer-mixers Mechanization took another step forward in the 1920s Vibrating screens and pressure injection systems were added in the 1930s.
Earlier Equipment In the 1930s, Sheldon G. Hayes was the first to use a Barber-Greene finisher, which consisted of a tractor unit and a screed unit with a vertical tamping bar. Barber-Greene introduced the floating screed
a few years later, and its design dominated the market until the patent expired in 1955. WOW, thats a lot of $$$ In 1956, Congress passed the State Highway Act, allotting $51 billion to the states for road
construction. Construction Boom Pavers added electronic leveling controls in the 1950s, and automated
screed controls in the early 1960s. Extra-wide finishers, capable of paving two lanes at once, made their debut in 1968.
Conclusions: History We have not learned much!! For 100s of years we have known about drainage, crushed aggregate properties, and the importance of soil mechanics.
No more research is needed, we know everything that should be known about quality pavements!! Do not mention this to DOT!! Present I will try to stay awake
Recent changes Since the mid-1980s, the industry has developed advanced pavement materials including new RAP mixtures, Open Graded Friction Course (OGFC), Superpave, warm mix, and Stone Matrix Asphalt (SMA), also called gap-graded Superpave mixes.
Today, much better system in place Engineering control systems placed on asphalt pavers beginning in 1997 have improved conditions for workers at the paving site. Pavements being built today can be engineered to
meet a variety of needs less noise, greater durability, enhanced skid resistance, reduced splash and spray in rainy weather, and a smoother ride than ever before.
Conclusions: Present Since we know everything (remember Romans), lets talk about the next topic FUTURE!!!! Please do not mention this to DOT,
I need more research $$ The price of bad parking!!! So much for protecting your car!!
My hero!! New Corvette vs I do not care about my car US Infrastructure needs??!! the 10-year needs across 10 categories of
infrastructure is $3.3 trillion, including a $1.4 trillion investment gap. The $1.4 trillion investment gap comprises:
Paver; 0.7% The Present Issues and the Future, the Need for $$$ (taxes) Future
New pavement materials
New method of transportation New workforce New everything!!! Electric cars: Not a new idea!!!
Electric Cars: Now Young (maybe drunk) boys!!! Mr. Simons and friends
Electric cars for women (Easier to drive!!) 1907 Ad Future
100% RAP Mixes Pelletized Asphalt Public Private Partnerships ideas in the way infrastructure is built: Chinas Broad Group put up a 30-story tower in 15 days 3D Paving Materials
Future: New Ideas
Nano Technology Self Healing Materials Robots in the Field Drones Major Issue
Making Decisions Without Considering ALL Facts Know the facts before making decisions!! Only the U.S, Yemen and Serbia have more guns/capita than Switzerland Honduras is No. 88
Between 2.3 million and 4.5 million military and private firearms (Switzerland) ~8 million people for both countries About 0.5 gun homicides per 100,000 inhabitants vs 5 firearm killings per 100,000 people in US Honduras: 90.4/100,000: Highest in the world!!!
The challenge!!!?? How many things in life these days are worth 10 cents a pound? Will you buy a quality product for 20 cents/lb? How to make a quality product for $60/ton
(~3 cents a pound)? Todays Quiz Six Acronyms?? Can you guess any of them??
If you guess all of them, then there is a prize at the end of the presentation. Yet Another Hierarchical Official Oracle!!
NECCO New England Confectionery Company!! PAM??
Product of Arthur Meyerhoff!! Mars & Murries the last names of the candys founders
Consumer Value Stores!! Water Displacement - 40th Attempt IF you have guessed all of them: Lunch on me!!
The Business Objects package contains a domain model of all objects of interest and their respective data. The Workflows package documents business processes, drawing on stakeholders, structures and objects defined in the Context and Object packages showing how these work...
ERP Strategy Final Report ... the enterprise that aligns functionality with business processes Integrate AP with AR Link cash front end with AR—bolt-on custom written front end for processing cash receipts. ... employees are reimbursed for travel through AP MOA...
3.3 Properties of Logarithmic Functions Properties of Logarithms Let b, R, and S be positive real numbers with b ≠ 1, and c any real number. Product Rule: Quotient Rule: Power Rule: Expanding the Logarithm of a Product Assuming x...
CreditMetrics Roadmap Volatilities from "Transition Matrix" Construction of Volatility Across Credit Horizons Defaults and Recovery Rates A Picture of a BBB Bond's Value Distribution Calculating Mean and Standard Deviation CreditMetrics Case Study: A Portfolio Portfolio Return Computation Portfolio Risk Computation...
REFLEX SYMPATHETIC DYSTROPHY Also known as causalgia, sudeck atrophy, algodystrophy, and shoulder-hand syndrome" Associated conditions include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, degenerative disease of cervical spine, disc herniation, trauma, and many others, Stiffness, pain, tenderness, weakness, swelling, and hyperesthesia ...
Chapter 1 The Nature of Strategic Management Strategic Management: Concepts & Cases 13th Edition Fred David Art & science of formulating, implementing, and evaluating, cross-functional decisions that enable an organization to achieve its objectives In essence, the strategic plan is...
Fracture permeability is equally dynamic, since fractures oriented parallel or oblique to the stress may close or shear, respectively, during reservoir stimulation and depletion. Such a system can be quantified with detailed measurements and a decent, carefully characterized fracture and...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!