TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

TORTORA  FUNKE  CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein Chapter 10, part A Classification of Microorganisms PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Christine L. Case

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomy Taxonomy The science of classifying organisms Provides universal names for organisms Provides a reference for identifying organisms Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomy Systematics or phylogeny The study of the evolutionary history of

organisms All Species Inventory (2001-2025) To identify all species of life on Earth Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomy 1735 Plant and Animal Kingdoms 1857 Bacteria & fungi put in the Plant Kingdom

1866 Kingdom Protista proposed for bacteria, protozoa, algae, & fungi 1937 "Prokaryote" introduced for cells "without a nucleus" 1961 Prokaryote defined as cells in which nucleoplasm is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane 1959 Kingdom Fungi

1968 Kingdom Prokaryotae proposed 1978 Two types of prokaryotic cells found Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The Three-Domain System Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Table 10.1 The Three-Domain System Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.1 Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 10.2 Endosymbiotic Theory

Figure 10.2 Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.3 Scientific Names Kbebsiella pneumoniae Honors Edwin Klebs Source of Specific epithet

The disease Pfiesteria piscicida Honors Lois Pfiester Disease in fish Salmonella typhimurium Honors Daniel Salmon Stupor (typh-) in mice (muri-)

Streptococcus pyogenes Chains of cells (strepto-) Forms pus (pyo-) Penicillium notatum Tuftlike (penicill-) Spores spread in wind (nota)

Trypanosoma cruzi Corkscrew-like (trypano-, Honors Oswaldo Cruz borer; soma-body) Scientific binomial Source of Genus name Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Taxonomic Hierarchy Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 10.5 Species Definition Eukaryotic species: A group of closely related organisms that breed among themselves Prokaryotic species: A population of cells with similar characteristics Clone: Population of cells derived from a single cell Strain: Genetically different cells within a clone Viral species: Population of viruses with similar characteristics that occupies a particular ecological niche

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Domain Eukarya Animalia: Multicellular; no cell walls; chemoheterotrophic Plantae: Multicellular; cellulose cell walls; usually photoautotrophic Fungi: Chemoheterotrophic; unicellular or multicellular; cell walls of chitin; develop from spores or hyphal fragments Protista: A catchall for eukaryotic organisms that do not fit other kingdoms

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Prokaryotes Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.6 References Bergeys Manual of Determinative Bacteriology Provides identification schemes for identifying bacteria and archaea

Morphology, differential staining, biochemical tests Bergeys Manual of Systematic Bacteriology Provides phylogenetic information on bacteria and archaea Based on rRNA sequencing Approved Lists of Bacterial Names Lists species of known prokaryotes Based on published articles

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Identification Methods Morphological characteristics: Useful for identifying eukaryotes Differential staining: Gram staining, acid-fast staining Biochemical

tests: Determines presence of bacterial enzymes Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.8 Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 10.7

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