What is good referencing? Consistency and anxiety in
What is good referencing? Consistency and anxiety in referencing assessment Claire Abson (L3S) Rupert Kahn (L3S) Diane Rushton (SBS) "There are a number of aspects to consider when assessing student referencing: the range and quality of the sources that have been used and evaluated how the information from the sources has been used and evaluated whether it is possible to understand which resources have been used and where to find them if references are clear and unambiguous that a consistent style has been maintained Ideally, the references should be presented in the referencing style you have recommended, but functionality and
consistency are the most important points. The presentation of references is much less important than the quality of the sources selected and how they have been used." "There are a number of aspects to consider when assessing student referencing: the range and quality of the sources that have been used and evaluated how the information from the sources has been used and evaluated whether it is possible to understand which resources have been used and where to find them if references are clear and unambiguous that a consistent style has been maintained Ideally, the references should be presented in the referencing style you have recommended, but functionality and consistency are the most important points. The presentation of references is much less important than the quality of the sources selected and how they have been used."
How did we get here? Technology + wider access to HE + plagiarism anxiety Sanders (2010) surveyed OU advice for arts courses 1990 35 lines, mentions citations but not bibliography 1997 section on bibliography added 2008 7 pages The OU now has a 68 page guide and publishes a 207 page book There is a British standard for referencing Referencing has become big business In 2016 Chegg acquired Easy Solutions for $42 million and later RefMe for an undisclosed amount What's the problem? We regularly hear about students concerns about assessment of referencing We sometimes find that students are
unclear about referencing feedback This is not just recent or new with move to APA This is not just a problem at SHU Greenwood et al. What's the problem? Focussing on the wrong things, leading to... anxiety inconsistency unhelpful feedback - "poor referencing" Focus on style and accuracy may not help students develop skills (Levin, Neville) writing may become mechanical and risk averse credit can be lost for imperfect referencing rather than gained for good writing presentation more important than learning accumulating citations more important than quality
Assessment criteria To establish structure, coherence, clarity, and a high standard of academic writing, with accurate referencing An excellent structure, with total clarity and coherence. Academic writing extremely effective throughout. A very high standard of
referencing. A very good structure, with clarity and coherence throughout. Academic writing effective throughout. A good standard of referencing. A good structure, with clarity and coherence. Academic writing effective
throughout. A good standard of referencing. A mostly sound structure, with basic clarity and coherence. Academic writing mostly clear. Referencing good in places. A low degree of structure, clarity and coherence. Academic writing confused in places. Partial use
of correct referencing. An absence of structure, clarity and coherence. Academic writing generally confused. Little correct referencing used. Referencing and general undergraduate academic skills Referencing impeccable using
appropriate conventions. Referencing clear and accurate using appropriate conventions. Referencing clear and accurate using appropriate conventions. Referencing clear and mostly accurate using appropriate
conventions. References adequate but clearer and / or more references needed. Reasonable grammar and spelling but with several notable errors. References limited / inappropriate. Many errors in grammar and spelling, making it
difficult or impossible to read. No errors in grammar or spelling. Virtually no errors in grammar or spelling. Near perfect grammar and spelling, with only a few errors. Good grammar and
spelling with some errors. How should we assess referencing? clear assessment criteria - relationship to guidance appropriate for task, level and discipline How do we maintain focus on how referencing contributes to good academic writing? consistency among markers/teams shared understanding - is this achievable? Is there a right answer? tools for referencing not all formats covered (however comprehensive the advice, e.g maps) "frankenreference"
what the experts say... Is agonising over referencing what we want our students to spend their time doing? Reference list Brown, C. A., Dickson, R., Humphreys, A., McQuillan, V., & Smears, E. (2008). Promoting academic writing/referencing skills: Outcome of an undergraduate e learning pilot project. British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(1), 140-156. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2007.00735.x Jaschik, S. (2008). Winning hearts and minds in war on plagiarism. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/04/07/plagiarism Lego Academics [LegoAcademics]. (2017, May 6,). Copy editor's note: Weve modified our house style. please convert all in-line citations to endnotes. thanks. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/LegoAcademics/status/728556970219868160 Levin, P. (2009). Does an insistence on detailed and correctreferencing inhibit students from thinking for themselves. Higher Education Academy. Retrieved from http://archive.learnhigher.ac.uk/resources/files/Referencing/Levin_-_The_Referencing_Fetish_v37.pdf Melanie Greenwood, Kerrie Walkem, Lindsay Mervyn Smith, Toniele Shearer, & Christine Stirling. (2014). Postgraduate nursing student knowledge, attitudes, skills, and confidence in appropriately referencing academic work. Journal of Nursing Education, 53(8), 447-452. doi:10.3928/01484834-20140725-01 Neville, C. (2008). The challenge of referencing. Learnhigher: Retrieved from http://learnhigher.ac.uk/resources/files/Referencing/Challenge%20of%20referencing.doc
Perry, B. (2010). Exploring academic misconduct: Some insights into student behaviour. Active Learning in Higher Education, 11(2), 97-108. doi:10.1177/1469787410365657 Sanders, J. (2010). Horray for Harvard? the fetish of footnotes revisited. Widening Participation and Lifelong Learning, 12(1), 48-59. doi:10.5456/WPLL.12.S.48 Images Fried egg by Beetle https ://pixabay.com/en/egg-fried-egg-healthy-food-yolk-13752 34 / Confused woman by Robin Higgins https://pixabay.com/en/confused-woman-doubt-female-gi rl-2385799 / Both images Creative Commons CC0.
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