PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ASSOCIATION (IPA) PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ASSOCIATION (IPA) PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION

PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTIONS INTERNATIONAL PHONETIC ASSOCIATION (IPA) PHONETIC TRANSCRIPTION AMERICAN PHONETIC ALPHABETH (APA) v t e IPA pulmonic consonants Place Labial chart image audio Coronal Bilabial Labio-dent al Dental Alveolar Dorsal Post-alv. Retroflex Alveolo-pal atal Palatal Velar Uvular Radical Glottal Pharyngeal Epiglottal Glottal Manner Nasal m m Stop p b p

b Fricative f v Approximant Flap or tap Trill Lateral Fric. n n n n t d t d s z

c k q x j r r r * j

Lateral Appr. l Lateral flap h IPA Non-pulmonic consonants Clicks Implosives q q

p t c k q f s x ts t c t Ejectives kx k q Bilabial Labio Dental dental plain Stop (oral) glottalize d central Affricate lateral central Fricative lateral Nasal rhotic Liquid lateral glide

voiceless voiced voiceless ( ejective) voiced ( imploded) voiceless voiced glottalized voiceless voiced glottalized Retro Alveo lar flex palatal Palatal Velar (pre-velar) Uvular Pharyngeal (post-velar) (faucal) p t t t k k q b d d d g g p t t

t k q g b d pf t c k q b d g t c v Laryngeal voiceless f voiced v

glottalized voiceless glottalized voiceless voiced glottalized plain glottalized plain glottalized plain glottalized Alveo s z s x x x z s M m N n m n

n r r l l l l w y w y h APA Vocalics Vowels and glides. Front spread rounded tense y i lax I tense e glide High

Mid lax Low Central spread Back rounded spread rounded w u U o a Notes: Voiceless vocalics can be transcribed with capital letters, e.g. [W] = voiceless [w], [A] = voiceless [a]. PROPERTIES OF VOWELS TOUNGE LIP VOWELS NASALIZATION LENGTH STRESS TONE PHONATION GLIDES FRONT PART CENTRAL BACK TOUNGE HIGH HEIGHT MID LOW

ROUNDED LIP POSITION UNROUNDED SOME VOWELS ARE SPECIFIC FOR CERTAIN LANGUAGES: high front round vowel (German, French, Turkish) lax high front round vowel (Icelandic) mid front round vowel (German, French, Turkish) lax mid front round vowel (Swiss, German) low front round vowel (French) , central/back unrounded vowel (Turkish, Russian) CONSONANT PROPERTIES PLACE OF ARTICULATION LINGUAL (dental, alveolar, alveopalatal, retrovlex, palatal) BACK ( velar, uvular, pharyngeal, laryngeal) Palatalized Rounded Velarized Pharyngealized Rounded Fronted VOICENESS (voiced vs. Voiceless) MANNER OF ARTICULATION Stop, fricatives, affricates Liquids, glides, approximants Lateral Nasalization ASPIRATION (aspirated vs. unaspirated) SYLLABICITY (syllabic vs. Nonsyllabic)

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