Chapter 5 Ancient India Section Notes Video Geography
Chapter 5 Ancient India Section Notes Video Geography and Early India Origins of Hinduism Origins of Buddhism Indian Empires Indian Achievements Buddhism as a World Religion
History Close-up Life in Mohenjo-Daro Quick Facts The Varnas Major Beliefs of Hinduism The Eightfold Path Chapter 5 Visual Summary Maps India: Physical Harappan Civilization
Aryan Invasions Early Spread of Buddhism Mauryan Empire, c. 320-185 BC Gupta Empire, c. 400 Images Harappan Art The Great Departure Temple Architecture Geography and Early India
The Big Idea Indian civilization first developed on the Indus River. Main Ideas The geography of India includes high mountains, great rivers, and heavy seasonal rain. Harappan civilization developed along the Indus River. The Aryan invasion of India changed the regions civilization. Indian Geography Mountains North: The Himalayas are
the highest mountains in the world. West: The Hindu Kush provide protection from enemies. Plains and Plateaus Rivers and melting snow kept the plains fertile.
Both sides of the river thrived. Water Monsoons Heavy rainfall Civilizations arose around seasonal rainfall. Harappan Civilization People
Cities Population grew in the Indus River Valley. Harrapa Growth came as irrigation and farming techniques improved.
Fortresses for defense against enemies Cities were built as surplus food was produced. Mohenjo Daro Well-planned public areas
Achievements Wells and indoor plumbing Pottery, cotton clothing, jewelry Indias first writing system Aryan Invasion Invaders from the West
When the Harappan civilization dissipated in 1700 BC, Central Asians called Aryans began taking over territory. Religion The Aryans left behind vast collections of poems, hymns, myths, and rituals. They also had religious writings known as Vedas. Government No central government: small communities
ruled by rajas Language Sanskrit is the root of many modern South Asian languages. Summary Harappan Civilization Two major cities: Harappa, Mohenjo Daro Advanced civilization that thrived between 2300 and 1700 BC Culture, artistry, city planning
Aryan Invasion South Asian warriors pushed through the Hindu Kush mountains and settled in the Indus Valley Oral tradition in religion and mythology resulted in the most important language of ancient India: Sanskrit. Origins of Hinduism The Big Idea Hinduism, the largest religion in India today, developed out of ancient Indian beliefs and practices. Main Ideas Indian society divided into distinct groups under the Aryans.
The Aryans practiced a religion known as Brahmanism. Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures. The Jains reacted to Hinduism by breaking away to form their own religion. Indian Society Divides Varnas Social divisions in Aryan society Brahmins
Priests Kshatriyas Rulers and warriors Vaisyas Farmers, craftspeople, and traders Sudras Laborers and non-Aryans
Caste System Individuals Place in society based on birth, wealth, or occupation 3,000 castes once existed in India. Individuals could rarely change castes. Caste Rules Sutras (guides) listed all
the rules for the caste system. Breaking rules resulted in a transfer to a lower class. Brahmanism develops into Hinduism Brahmanism Aryan priests were called Brahmins. Wrote Vedic texts, which
were their thoughts about the Vedas Evolving Beliefs The Vedas, Upanishads, and other Vedic texts began blending with beliefs from different cultures, creating Hinduism.
Hinduism Many gods Reincarnation: could be reborn into new forms and castes Men and women could both gain salvation, but women were inferior.
Jains React to Hinduism Origins of Jainism 599 BC, established as an alternative to Hindu ritualism Based on the teachings of Mahavira, who abandoned his life of luxury to become a monk Four Principles of Jainism Injure no life. Tell the truth. Do not steal. Own no property. Origins of Buddhism
The Big Idea Buddhism began in India and became a major religion. Main Ideas Siddhartha Gautama searched for wisdom in many ways. The teachings of Buddhism deal with finding peace. Buddhism spread far from where it began in India. Siddhartha
Quest for Answers Enlightenment Siddhartha was born a prince, but he questioned the meaning of life. Found it under the Tree of Wisdom while meditating Determined to find answers using:
Meditation Fasting Learning from different teachers Called the Buddha (Enlightened One) Spent the rest of his life traveling and teaching his ideas Teachings of Buddhism Four Noble Truths
1. Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow. 2. Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and material goods. 3. People can overcome desire and ignorance and reach
nirvana, a state of perfect peace. People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an 4. eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation. Challenging Hindu Ideas Ancient Ways The Buddha taught that following the Vedic texts was unnecessary.
Challenged the authority of Hindu priests Changing Society A more individualistic approach to enlightenment Rebirth as a means to evolve Caste System
Opposed caste system The Eightfold Path could lead any individual to nirvana. The Buddhas teachings reached all classes. Buddhism began in India and then became a major religion.
Buddhism branches out Asoka, one of the most powerful kings in India, became a Buddhist and spread Buddhism in India and foreign lands. Buddhist missionaries traveled the world to teach enlightenment. Buddhism splits Buddhism split into two main sects: Theravada and Mahayana. Members of the Theravada followed the Buddhas teachings exactly. Members of the Mahayana believed that individual interpretation was important.
Indian Empires The Big Idea The Mauryas and the Guptas built great empires in India. Main Ideas The Mauryan Empire unified most of India. Gupta rulers promoted Hinduism in their empire. Mauryan Rule Candragupta Maurya Asoka
Candragupta seized control of northern India and created a society dominated by war. The grandson of Candragupt extended Mauryan rule over most of India. Candragupta became a Jainist monk and gave up his throne.
Asoka converted to Buddhism and stopped waging war, choosing instead to rebuild cities and spread Buddhist teachings. Gupta Empire After the decline of the Mauryan Empire, India remained primarily Buddhist for 500 years. Under the rule of Candra Gupta I, India became unified and prosperous again.
Gupta rulers spread Hinduism in their empire through the building of temples and the promotion of Hindu writings and rituals. Widespread religious tolerance was encouraged for Buddhists and Jainists. Candra Gupta II Growth Under Candra Gupta II, the Gupta Empire reached the height of its power. It spread across northern India and prospered.
Economy and Culture The economy boomed, allowing citizens the time and money to create great works of art and literature. The Caste System It was believed that keeping citizens under strict caste rule would stabilize the empire.
Social Ramifications Women in the caste system were not seen as equals and had few basic rights. Time Line 320 BC Candragupta Maurya becomes the first Mauryan emperor. 301 BC Candragupta Maurya relinquishes the throne to become a Jainist monk. 270 BC Asoka becomes the second Mauryan emperor.
261 BC Asokas empire gains great power, and he leaves to become a Buddhist. AD 375 Candra Gupta I invades and conquers northern India and brings Hinduism, prosperity, and a strict caste system back into popular culture. Indian Achievements The Big Idea The people of ancient India made great contributions to the arts and sciences. Main Ideas Indian artists created great works of religious art. Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period.
The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences. Religious Art: Temples Both Hindu and Buddhist temples began flourishing under Gupta rule. Once simply constructed meeting places, Hindu temples became complex towers covered with intricate carvings. Buddhist temples were large and impressive, some carved out of mountainsides. Buddhist stupas were built to house sacred objects from the life of the Buddha. They were covered with detailed carvings.
Religious Art: Paintings and Sculpture Great artists were commissioned by rich and powerful members of society. Paintings offered a perspective on the daily life and religious belief of the ancient Indians; many of these paintings could be found on the walls of temples. Indian sculptors carved columns, statues, and entire temples in the likenesses of the Buddha and Hindu gods. Sanskrit Literature
Mahabharata Ramayana One of the worlds longest literary works The story of a god, Vishnu, who has taken human form The story of two Indian families struggling for control of a kingdom
Written long after the Mahabharata; contains models for the ideal ruler (Rama) and the ideal mate (Sita) Many long passages of Hindu beliefs and practices Sanskrit Literature Other Works Chadra Gupta II hired a famous writer named Kalidasa to write
plays for the royal court. The Panchatantra, a book of stories intended to teach moral lessons and quick thinking, was translated into many languages. Scientific Advances Metalworking Pioneers of metallurgy, the Indians created tools and weapons by mixing iron and other metals together. Mathematics
The Indians invented the concept of zero and developed a sophisticated number system, the Hindu-Arabic numerals. Medicine Using plants and minerals, Indian doctors made advances in medicinal science. They were among the first to practice inoculation and perform surgery. Astronomy
Indian astronomers knew of seven about the nine planets in the solar system and could predict eclipses of the sun and moon. Click window above to start playing.
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