The Making of the Modern World The Industrial Revolution Capitalism in Britain Dr James Poskett S h a r e o f t o p d e c ie o r t o p p e r c e n t ile in t Wealth inequality in Britain, 1710-2010 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%
40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Top 10% wealth share Top 1% wealth share Source: Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Harvard, 2014) Coalbrookdale by Night (1801) by Philip James de Loutherbourg
Lecture Structure and Argument 1. Macroeconomics cannot account for the Industrial Revolution. 2. The Industrial Revolution needs to be understood in social and cultural terms as much as economic. Economic History: The Productivity Debate Average GDP growth per year in Britain 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00%
0.50% 0.00% 1700-1760 1760-80 1780-1801 1801-1831 Phyllis Deane and W. A. Cole (1962) Deane and Cole, British Economic Growth (1962) Economic History: The Productivity Debate
Average GDP growth per year in Britain 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00% 1700-1760 1760-80 Phyllis Deane and W. A. Cole (1962)
1780-1801 1801-1831 Nicholas Crafts (1985) Crafts, British Economic Growth (1985) Economic History: From Agriculture to Industry George Lambert, A View of Box Hill, Surrey, 1733 Economic History: From Agriculture to Industry Edward Skinner, Making Bessemer Steel, Sheffield, 1917
Economic History: From Rural to Urban Percentage of British population living in towns with over 5,000 inhabitants 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1600 1650
1700 1750 1800 1850 Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) Economic History: Women and Children Employment in Agriculture (England and Wales) 1,200,000
1,000,000 800,000 Men Wome n 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1700 1800 1850
Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) Economic History: Women and Children Cotton Factory, c. 1830, Engraving by T Allom. Economic History: The Standards of Living Debate Britain 1760 1820
Working Week 49 hours 64 hours Income per capita* $1,803 $2,099 Life Expectancy 34.2 years
39.2 years Height (male adult) 171 cm 167 cm Literacy Rate 48% 54%
Total Population 6.3 million 11.4 million * Note: Converted to purchasing power of 1992 US dollar Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) A Peoples History of the Industrial Revolution Im a four loom weaver, as many a one knows, Ive nowt to eat and Ive worn out m clothes M clogs are all broken, and stockings Ive none.
Theed scarcely gimme tuppence for all Ive gotten on. Old Billy O Bent, he kept telling us long We mayn't had better times if Id nobbut held m tongue. Well, I held m tongue til I near lost m breath, And I feel in m heart that III soon clem to death Im a four loom weaver, as many a one knows. Ive nowt to eat and Ive worn out m clothes. Old Billy were right, but he neer were clemmed, And he neer picked oer in his lie. Four Loom Weaver Industrial folk song performed by Maddy Prior & June Tabor Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Singer Sewing
Machine Factory, Clydebank, Scotland, c.1900 Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Spinning mule, Manchester, lithography, c.1830 Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Q. Is 10 hours labour now at cotton spinning in a factory any more intense than 10 hours labour was within your recollection? A. A great deal more so. 10 hours now would be sorer on the operative than 12 would have been in the year 1827, or 1828, or thereabouts.
Q. That is brought about by the increased speed of the machinery? A. Yes. Q. That requires increased exertions on the part of all engaged in that machinery, in order to effect that purpose? A. Yes. Dunn, Factories (184041) Social and Cultural History: Women and Children In an instant the poor girl was drawn by an irresistible force and dashed on the floor. She uttered the most heart rending shrieks saw her whirled round and round with the shaft heard
the bones of her arms, legs, &c. successively snap asunder, crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as the machinery whirled her round her blood was scattered over the frame and streamed upon the floor, her head appeared dashed to pieces. John Brown, A Memoir of Robert Blincoe (1832) Photograph of girl in cotton factory, c.1910 Social and Cultural History: Women and Children M. H., twenty years old, has two
children, the youngest a baby that is tended by the other, a little older. The mother goes to the mill shortly after five oclock in the morning, and comes home at eight at night; all day the milk pours from her breasts, so that her clothing drips with it. She said: My breasts have given me the most frightful pain, and I have been dripping wet with milk. Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845) Power Loom Weaving, engraving by T. Allom, c.1830
Conclusions 1. Macroeconomics cannot account for the Industrial Revolution. 2. The Industrial Revolution needs to be understood in social and cultural terms as much as economic. Tomorrow: A Global History of Industrialisation Questions and Contact Dr James Poskett [email protected] If you have any questions about this topic,
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