The Making of the Modern World The Industrial

The Making of the Modern World The Industrial

The Making of the Modern World The Industrial Revolution Capitalism in Britain Dr James Poskett S h a r e o f t o p d e c ie o r t o p p e r c e n t ile in t Wealth inequality in Britain, 1710-2010 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Top 10% wealth share Top 1% wealth share Source: Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Harvard, 2014) Coalbrookdale by Night (1801) by Philip James de Loutherbourg

Lecture Structure and Argument 1. Macroeconomics cannot account for the Industrial Revolution. 2. The Industrial Revolution needs to be understood in social and cultural terms as much as economic. Economic History: The Productivity Debate Average GDP growth per year in Britain 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00%

0.50% 0.00% 1700-1760 1760-80 1780-1801 1801-1831 Phyllis Deane and W. A. Cole (1962) Deane and Cole, British Economic Growth (1962) Economic History: The Productivity Debate

Average GDP growth per year in Britain 3.50% 3.00% 2.50% 2.00% 1.50% 1.00% 0.50% 0.00% 1700-1760 1760-80 Phyllis Deane and W. A. Cole (1962)

1780-1801 1801-1831 Nicholas Crafts (1985) Crafts, British Economic Growth (1985) Economic History: From Agriculture to Industry George Lambert, A View of Box Hill, Surrey, 1733 Economic History: From Agriculture to Industry Edward Skinner, Making Bessemer Steel, Sheffield, 1917

Economic History: From Rural to Urban Percentage of British population living in towns with over 5,000 inhabitants 50% 45% 40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% 1600 1650

1700 1750 1800 1850 Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) Economic History: Women and Children Employment in Agriculture (England and Wales) 1,200,000

1,000,000 800,000 Men Wome n 600,000 400,000 200,000 0 1700 1800 1850

Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) Economic History: Women and Children Cotton Factory, c. 1830, Engraving by T Allom. Economic History: The Standards of Living Debate Britain 1760 1820

Working Week 49 hours 64 hours Income per capita* $1,803 $2,099 Life Expectancy 34.2 years

39.2 years Height (male adult) 171 cm 167 cm Literacy Rate 48% 54%

Total Population 6.3 million 11.4 million * Note: Converted to purchasing power of 1992 US dollar Floud and Johnson (eds), Cambridge Economic History of Modern Britain (2008) A Peoples History of the Industrial Revolution Im a four loom weaver, as many a one knows, Ive nowt to eat and Ive worn out m clothes M clogs are all broken, and stockings Ive none.

Theed scarcely gimme tuppence for all Ive gotten on. Old Billy O Bent, he kept telling us long We mayn't had better times if Id nobbut held m tongue. Well, I held m tongue til I near lost m breath, And I feel in m heart that III soon clem to death Im a four loom weaver, as many a one knows. Ive nowt to eat and Ive worn out m clothes. Old Billy were right, but he neer were clemmed, And he neer picked oer in his lie. Four Loom Weaver Industrial folk song performed by Maddy Prior & June Tabor Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Singer Sewing

Machine Factory, Clydebank, Scotland, c.1900 Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Spinning mule, Manchester, lithography, c.1830 Social and Cultural History: Factory Discipline Q. Is 10 hours labour now at cotton spinning in a factory any more intense than 10 hours labour was within your recollection? A. A great deal more so. 10 hours now would be sorer on the operative than 12 would have been in the year 1827, or 1828, or thereabouts.

Q. That is brought about by the increased speed of the machinery? A. Yes. Q. That requires increased exertions on the part of all engaged in that machinery, in order to effect that purpose? A. Yes. Dunn, Factories (184041) Social and Cultural History: Women and Children In an instant the poor girl was drawn by an irresistible force and dashed on the floor. She uttered the most heart rending shrieks saw her whirled round and round with the shaft heard

the bones of her arms, legs, &c. successively snap asunder, crushed, seemingly, to atoms, as the machinery whirled her round her blood was scattered over the frame and streamed upon the floor, her head appeared dashed to pieces. John Brown, A Memoir of Robert Blincoe (1832) Photograph of girl in cotton factory, c.1910 Social and Cultural History: Women and Children M. H., twenty years old, has two

children, the youngest a baby that is tended by the other, a little older. The mother goes to the mill shortly after five oclock in the morning, and comes home at eight at night; all day the milk pours from her breasts, so that her clothing drips with it. She said: My breasts have given me the most frightful pain, and I have been dripping wet with milk. Engels, The Condition of the Working Class in England (1845) Power Loom Weaving, engraving by T. Allom, c.1830

Conclusions 1. Macroeconomics cannot account for the Industrial Revolution. 2. The Industrial Revolution needs to be understood in social and cultural terms as much as economic. Tomorrow: A Global History of Industrialisation Questions and Contact Dr James Poskett [email protected] If you have any questions about this topic,

please either email me or your seminar tutor.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 13 Emotion pt. 1: Facial Expressions and Theories of ...

    Chapter 13 Emotion pt. 1: Facial Expressions and Theories of ...

    Two Dimensions of Emotion Are Valence and Arousal. 1. Valence. refers to the level of pleasantness of the emotion. 2. Arousal. refers to how much the emotion physically activates the body. Different levels of valence and arousal lead to different...
  • POR vs PARA

    POR vs PARA

    POR vs PARA Usos de "por" Duration or approximate time Estuve allí por tres semanas. I was there for three weeks. Lo hicimos por la tarde. We did it during the afternoon. Usos de "por" 2) "Because of" No pudo...
  • Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves

    Plant Structures Roots, Stems, and Leaves

    Sieve Tube Elements. Cells arranged end to end. Pump sugars and other foods. Companion Cells. Surround sieve tube elements. Support phloem cells. Sieve tube elements are like vessel elements. Companion cells contain a nucleus and ribosomes that support itself and...
  • Cellular Respiration - Brooklyn High School

    Cellular Respiration - Brooklyn High School

    Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Process by which mitochondria break down food molecules to make ATP C6H12O6 + O2 CO2 + H2O + Energy Three Stages: Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) Electron Transport Chain Anaerobic vs. Aerobic Anaerobic...
  • Présentation PowerPoint

    Présentation PowerPoint

    Analyse de la question. 2/Définir chaque terme . e. n tenant compte de leurs différents sens. Mais en ne retenant que les sens les plus pertinents pour traiter la Q° !
  • ANTERIOR TOOTH SELECTION - powerpoint world

    ANTERIOR TOOTH SELECTION - powerpoint world

    PSYCHOLOGICAL A patient with a +ve self evaluation shows a broad smile up the one width a negative self evaluation shows a tight lipped small smile The campers line the psychological plane of orientation BIOMECHANICAL The teeth should be placed...
  • Thursday March 17th - WordPress.com

    Thursday March 17th - WordPress.com

    Ofsted (2003) Boys' achievement in secondary schools. When boys enter secondary school they are already well behind girls in English, although they achieve marginally better than girls in mathematics.
  • 1. Introduction - USTC

    1. Introduction - USTC

    In this data set, each movie has >=1 genres, thus the prediction of genres is a multi-label classification, and the calculation of average precision and recall and F1-value is as follows. For example, if there are 2 test samples, and...