Ocean and Atmosphere Earths Heat Budget and Atmospheric

Ocean and Atmosphere Earths Heat Budget and Atmospheric

Ocean and Atmosphere Earths Heat Budget and Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric properties Earths Energy Budget Vertical Atmospheric Circulation Surface Atmospheric Circulation

Atmospheric Temperature Water vapor saturation pressure

How much water vapor the air can

hold Density of Air Which is more dense, DRY air or

HUMID air? Air: N2 (14*2=28)

O2 (16*2=32) Water: H2O (2+16=18) Light molecules displace heavier

molecules Density of Air Humid air is light, and rises

Dry air is heavy, and sinks Water vapor, convection, condensation

1. Adiabatic Expansion Cooling . Condensation Release latent heat of vaporization

Water Budget Earths Heat Sources Geothermal = 0.1 cal/cm2/day

Solar = 2880 0.1 cal/cm2/day BALANCED BUDGET! Wavelength (m) = 2900 / T (Ko)

SUN = 2900/5600 0.5 m (visible light) Earth = 2900/290 10 m (infrared)

Suns Radiation Earths Heat Budget

Earths Heat Budget Atmosphere reflection and absorbance

Global Warming: Increased heat absorption in the atmosphere

Seasonal variability in solar radiation Latitudinal variability in solar

radiation Latitudinal Heat Budget

So what are the effects of uneven heating? Less Dense Air: HOT

HUMID More Dense Air: COLD

DRY Atmospheric Convection in a NON-Rotating Earth

HIGH Surface Air Pressure

LOW Surface Air Pressure Low & High Pressure

But The Earth Spins! FLASH NEWS:

The US attempts to stop the axis of Evil by bombing Quito (Ecuador),

using cannons located in Buffalo (NY)!

Bombing of Quito from Buffalo Bombing of Quito from

Buffalo Bombing of Quito from Buffalo

Earth Rotation: Coriolis Effect

Apparent deflection force due to Earths rotation Acts on freely moving objects North Hemisphere: Deflection to the

right South Hemisphere: Deflection to the left C = (2sin(lat))vsin(lat))v V=velocity of a particle in motion

sin(lat))v=constant (angular velocity of Earth) So: High v = high C ; High latitude = high C

No Coriolis at equator, maximum at poles Figure 6.16

Figure 6.17 Atmospheric Convection Cells

Figure 6.19 Global atmospheric generalities

Hadley Cells (subtropical) are quite stable Pressure systems: Equator: LOW (Doldrums or ITCZInter Tropical Convergence Zone)

30s: HIGH (Horse Latitudes) 60s: LOW Figure 6.21

Horse latitudes Doldrums

Global atmospheric generalities Hadley Cell is quite stable

Pressure systems: Equator: LOW (Doldrums or ITCZInter Tropical Convergence Zone) 30s: HIGH (Horse Latitudes) 60s: LOW

In between Pressure systems: WIND!! Trade Winds

Westerlies: (Roaring Forties, Screaming Fifties) Figure 6.19

Seasonal Wind Variation Seasonal Wind Variation

Monsoons (Indian Ocean) Precipitation / Evaporation

Surface Ocean Salinities Land Ocean

Temperatures Local Winds: Sea Breeze

Local Winds: Coastal Fog Local Winds: Mountain or Island Effect

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