g n ti i C l a u

g n ti i C l a u

g n ti i C l a u t x e T

e c n e d i v E When we read, we often are asked to answer questions or express our ideas about the text. In order to let

people know we arent making stuff up, we should use Explicit Textual Evidence to support our opinions or answers. In real life, people who can back up an opinion about a text with Explicit Textual Evidence are taken more seriously than people who can only give a reason of just because. When we examine an authors message, often called the

Central or Main Idea, it is important to study the way an author supports his/her ideas. We must detect the evidence an author uses to prove his/her point. We look for different types of evidence, such as FACTS, STATISTICS, EXAMPLES, EXPERT TESTIMONY, and

LOGICAL REASONING We organize the evidence that we have found by: highlighting the text where the evidence we found, taking notes, creating graphic organizers, or developing outlines But, when we begin to

WRITE about our detective work What do we DO with the evidence we have found? What does it MEAN to Cite Evidence? Probably the best thing to remember about any writing task that asks us to cite evidence (or discuss details) from the text is that

the task is asking us to USE the evidence! USING evidence means that we need to explain how the author supports his claim by ppresenting a particular fact or example. This means that we will

make a direct reference to the evidence AND we will elaborate (explain thoroughly) how that one particular piece of evidence (or detail) proves the authors claim (central idea.) Direct evidence can take different forms in writing. It can be a direct quotation from the textual passage. It can be a paraphrase of the textual passage. A

paraphrase means that you have translated the authors words your own. It can be a summary of the evidence from the text, or a brief statement from more lengthy or extensive evidence the author has presented. Explicit Textual Evidence Giving Explicit Textual Evidence about your answers or opinions regarding a text is pretty simple. You just have to do three things: 1. State your idea: State the idea you had

about the text (if you are responding to a specific question, be sure your idea restates the question). 2. Cite what in the text led you to that idea: Give supporting evidence from the text (by paraphrasing or directly quoting from the text).If you are directly quoting from a text, you must use quotation marks. Sentence starters = In the first paragraph, ..the author says...The text states...The text describes/For example...The author explains...Early in

the text, the author/For instance 3. Explain or Expand on the Evidence: Explain how the quote(s) or paraphrase(s) you pointed out support your idea. Sentence starters = This shows...This is because...This means. 3. Explain or Expand on the Evidence: Explain how the

quote(s) or paraphrase(s) you pointed out support your idea. Sentence starters = This shows...This is because...This means. EXAMPLE Cats kill between 1.4 billion and 3.7 billion birds every year in the United States alone, a new report concludes. Thats nearly a billion more birds at least than estimated by some previous studies, Peter Marra told Science News. This research scientist, who works at the Smithsonian

Conservation Biology Institute in Washington, D.C., led the new study. Any long-term solution will be controversial. Some people propose catching wild cats and neutering them, which means performing minor surgery to make them unable to reproduce. That wont make them kill fewer animals. But it will slow the increase in number of these natural-born killers. Others people have proposed catching and killing feral cats. .The authors purpose was to make people aware that cats killing birds has become a problem and that any solution

to the problem will be controversial. In the first paragraph, the author points out that, Cats kill between 1.4 billion and 3.7 billion every year. The authors use of that statistic really catches a readers eye because they are such big numbers. This shows just how big the problem is. Then, in the second paragraph, the author says that there are two controversial ways to solve the problem, by either catching wild cats and performing surgery on them so they

cant reproduce or catching and killing them. The author was demonstrating that the possible solutions are controversial because most people probably would not like the idea of cats being caught in order to either operate on them or kill them. Model Answer-- Question: What was the authors purpose in writing this text? Here, the writer answers the question with an idea about the

text. Here, the writer includes a direct quote from the text as evidence. Here, the writer comments on how the quoted text that was cited as evidence helped form the idea that was stated to answer the question. Here, the writer paraphrases from the text to give a second piece of evidence. Here, the writer comments on how the paraphrased text helped form the idea that was stated to answer the question.

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