How to Teach Phonological
Taken from pgs. 79-83 in Equipped for Reading Success by David Kilpatrick
Start with the MULTISENSORY STAGE: The student can ONLY do the task with
external prompts or helps. The student often makes mistakes.
**Use the word lists from the 1 min. activities from a given level to teach the level. Ex. H1, I2, etc.**
Step 1 (Usually only in grades 2+; Skip this step in K and 1st): Use phonics/spelling
to illustrate phonological awareness concepts. (Rememberthis is considered phonics
because of the presence of print. It is simply used to anchor the concept.)
You will ONLY use one activity from Step 2, 3, or 4 in each day. For example, if I
am introducing level H1, I would use Step 2, 3 dimensional tokens for my
lesson. That would be all for that day from the multisensory stage. In
subsequent days, I would use a different activity from Step 2 or an activity from
Step 3 or Step 4, moving from more support needed to less support.
Step 2: Use visual/spatial cues
**Three dimensional tokens **Two dimensional tokens
**Invisible token technique
Step 3: Reinforce segmentation
**Clapping or table tapping
Step 4: Use auditory cues to emphasize sounds
**Stretching and repeating sounds
Move to the KNOWLEDGE STAGE: The student can do the task mentally with NO
external prompts, but not quickly. He or she may still make mistakes.
(Use the level they have just moved out of from the multisensory stage for Step
5. This is usually one level below their instructional level.
Step 5: Use One Minute Activities to train phonological awareness to automaticity.
Move to the AUTOMATIC STAGE: The student can do a task QUICKLY and with
NO APPARENT EFFORT. The student rarely makes mistakes. (2 sec or less each item)
Struggling readers are not likely to show substantial improvements in
reading until they can do phoneme level processing automatically. -D.
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