Main Menu Group Work Planning Decision Support A

Main Menu Group Work Planning Decision Support A

Main Menu Group Work Planning Decision Support A PowerPoint Show file (pps). Works great on desktops and laptops. Will work on mobile devices with PowerPoint app. Click coloured buttons to navigate. Thinking about using group work in your university class? This tool is designed to help you make informed decisions and to find useful planning and implementation resources. Setup Process Product/Output Setup Process Product/Output Rationale Rationale for for group group work work References References Group Work Setup Menu Whats the best way to divide the class into groups? Should Should II pick? pick? Assign Assign randomly? randomly? Should I provide to students the rationale for doing group work ? Yes Yes or or No? No? What are things to consider when: Group Group members members dont dont know know each each other other ?? Back Back to to Main Main Menu Menu Assign Assign based based on on some some profile profile test? test? Let Let students students self-select? self-select? What size should my groups be? 3-4? 3-4? 5-7? 5-7? >7? >7? Groups Groups have have one one or or more international more international students? students? Should I specify different roles for group Yes Should Should Yes or or members? Should II provide provide role role Should roles roles be be permanent permanent No?

No? descriptions? descriptions? or or rotate? rotate? Rationale for Group Work Giving a rationale may be unnecessary if students are already motivated, or you want rationale to emerge for students as the experience unfolds rather than explicitly tell them. Giving a rationale provides the best chance of overcoming resistance to O John Hattie, Professor of Education and Director of the Melbourne group work. See below: Education Research Institute at the University of Melbourne, Australia, has compiled the results of 30 years of educational research to determine which methods have been shown to be effective. The category of direct instruction has an effect size of .82. This is really active learning in class, student work marked in class and then corrected. O An effect size of 0.5 is equivalent to a one grade leap (e.g., C to B). An effect size of 1.0 is equivalent to a two grade leap (e.g., C to A). O Timely, guided feedback has the highest effect score on student performance (saying what was done well, what needs to be improved (with corrective work, targets, goal clarification): 1.13. O Group work incorporates (or can be well designed to incorporate) these elementsstudents apply concepts to practical tasks, have their work evaluated by peers and instructors, and receive feedback on which they build. Resources Resources for for creating creating a a detailed detailed explanation explanation Back Back to to Main Main Menu Menu Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Resources for Explanation Resources Resources for for creating creating a a detailed detailed explanation explanation for for students students Bok Bok Center, Center, Harvard: Harvard: https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work (reasons (reasons for for students students to work in groupsdeeper learning that comes from necessity to explain your to work in groupsdeeper learning that comes from necessity to explain your understanding understanding in in the the face face of of alternative alternative perspectives; perspectives; better better experience experience because because of of opportunity opportunity to to work work on on more more complex complex projects projects than than one one individual individual can

can do; do; opportunity opportunity to to develop professional skills through practice and feedback) develop professional skills through practice and feedback) Centre Centre for for the the Study Study of of Higher Higher Education: Education: http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/1770717/Group.pdf http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/1770717/Group.pdf (Good (Good reasons reasons for for group group learning: learning: (1) (1) peer peer learning learning improves improves overall overall quality quality of of student student learning learning (2) (2) Group Group work work can can help help develop develop employable employable skills) skills) Carnegie Carnegie Mellon Mellon Teaching Teaching Excellence Excellence and and Innovation Innovation Centre: Centre: https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/ https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/ benefits.html benefits.html (Benefits (Benefits for for students: students: research research shows shows group group experiences experiences contribute contribute to to learning, learning, retention and overall college success) retention and overall college success) References: References: Geoff Geoff Petty Petty Research Research and and Links: Links: http://geoffpetty.com/for-team-leaders/research-and-links/ http://geoffpetty.com/for-team-leaders/research-and-links/ Hattie: Hattie: Influences Influences on on Student Student Learning: Learning: (findings (findings from from review review of of 30 30 years years of of educational educational research): research): http://xn--www-rp0a.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/downloads/managers/Influencesonstudent.pdf http://xn--www-rp0a.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/downloads/managers/Influencesonstudent.pdf Back Back to to Rationale Rationale for Group for Group Work Work 1A Random assignment of students to groups Good if most student dont know others. Good for preventing cliques and familiar, less challenging work patterns. Luck of the draw regarding each group having balanced abilities and personalities.

Assigning Assigning to to groups groups based based on on proximity proximity or or students students choice choice is is quickest, quickest, especially especially for for large large and and cramped cramped classes classes but but it it means means that that students students work work with with friends friends or or always always with with the the same same people. people. To To vary vary group composition, randomly assign students to groups by counting group composition, randomly assign students to groups by counting off off and and grouping grouping them them according according to to number; number; or or have have them them line line up up according according to to birthday, birthday, height, height, hair hair colour, colour, etc., etc., before before dividing dividing them. them. Another Another idea idea is is to to distribute distribute candy candy (e.g., (e.g., Starburst Starburst or or hard, hard, coloured coloured candies) candies) and and group group according according to to the the flavour flavour they they choose. choose. For For many many group tasks, the diversity within a group (gender, ethnicity, level group tasks, the diversity within a group (gender, ethnicity, level of of preparation) preparation) is is especially especially important, important, so so random random is is not not so so good good for for that. that. https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resour https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resour

ces/teaching-tips/alternatives-lecturing/group-work/implementing-gr ces/teaching-tips/alternatives-lecturing/group-work/implementing-gr oup-work-classroom oup-work-classroom Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu 1 B Instructor assignment of students to Goodgroups whether students are strangers or not. Good for balancing abilities and personalities. Lack of choice may be demotivating to some. In In situations situations where where group group dynamics dynamics and and the the challenge challenge of of working working effectively effectively as as aa group group are are an an expected expected part part of of the the learning, learning, effective effective group group work work may may be be facilitated facilitated by by having having the the instructor instructor form form the the groups. In this case, it may be useful to consider matching group groups. In this case, it may be useful to consider matching group members; members; for for example, example, students students of of similar similar ages ages or or with with similar similar backgrounds backgrounds may may work work well well together, together, depending depending on on the the nature nature and and content content of of the the task task or or project. project. Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu 1 C Let students self-select Good for motivating students because they have choice. May lead to cliques and exclusion of diversity. Letting Letting students students choose choose who who will will be be in in their their group group might

might be be the the best best way way to to set set membership membership if: if: You You do do not not know know them them well well It It is is relatively relatively early early in in the the program program They They need need to to work work within within familiar familiar rules rules and and behaviours behaviours The The task task is is relatively relatively short-lived short-lived and/or and/or straightforward straightforward Assessment Assessment stresses stresses the the final final product product http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity Click here for more details. Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Details on letting students selfselect If If learning learning about about group group dynamics dynamics is is not not one one of of the the aims, aims, students students can can self-select. self-select. Some Some suggest suggest that that it's it's best best to to know know and and trust trust others others so so the the group group does does not not end end up up carrying carrying aa slacker, slacker, but but this this may may be be difficult difficult for for students students who who do do not not know know anyone anyone in in their their class. class. http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/1 http://melbourne-cshe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/1 770717/Group.pdf 770717/Group.pdf Students Students tend tend to

to like like choosing choosing their their own own group group members, members, but but they they often form groups that are homogenousfor example, in terms often form groups that are homogenousfor example, in terms of of gender, major, native language, culture, and race/ethnicity. gender, major, native language, culture, and race/ethnicity. However, However, this this homogeneity homogeneity may may not not support support the the learning learning objectives objectives of of the the project. project. As As aa hybrid hybrid approach, approach, allow allow students students to to select select their their own own group group members within particular constraints (e.g., no groups have members within particular constraints (e.g., no groups have more more than four members or more than one engineer, each needs 2 than four members or more than one engineer, each needs 2 international international students). students). https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrat https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrat egies/groupprojects/compose.html egies/groupprojects/compose.html Back Back to to Back Back to to Previous Previous Setup Setup Menu Menu Screen Screen 1C 1 1 D Assign according to personality profile Personality/work profile testing good whether students strangers or not, and for longer term stable group work. The The idea idea is is to to match match students students whose whose profiles profiles indicate indicate they they will will work work well well together.

together. Ask Ask students students to to complete complete aa short short questionnaire questionnaire about about their their competency competency in in relevant relevant skills skills or or ifif there there are are interpersonal interpersonal issues with classmates that would prevent effective issues with classmates that would prevent effective group group interaction. interaction. Some Some characteristics characteristics to to determine: determine: Prior Prior knowledge, knowledge, previous previous experiences, experiences, and and skills skills Motivation Motivation Diversity Diversity of of perspectives perspectives Students Students familiarity familiarity with with each each other other Personality Personality Click here for more details. Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu 1D Details on administering profile 1 questionnaire You can consider any of those characteristics, as well as others, when composing groups. There are also several software programs (e.g., CATME) that help faculty create teams according to the criteria that they specify. For details, see: https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrate gies/groupprojects/compose.html Examples: Credit: Dawn MacIsaac, UNB ECE and CS Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu What is the best group size? Small groups work better because it is easier to coordinate efforts and schedules among fewer people. The less skillful the students, the smaller the groups should be. However, although large groups have higher coordination costs, they can theoretically accomplish larger and more complex projects. Some experts claim that groups of more than five or six students tend to be unmanageable, but there are no firm rules. The The group group size size you you choose choose will will depend depend on on the the total total number number of of students, students, the size of the classroom, the diversity desired,

and the nature the size of the classroom, the diversity desired, and the nature of of the the task. Groups of 4-5 tend to balance well the needs for diversity, task. Groups of 4-5 tend to balance well the needs for diversity, productivity, productivity, active active participation, participation, and and cohesion. cohesion. https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/te https://uwaterloo.ca/centre-for-teaching-excellence/teaching-resources/te aching-tips/alternatives-lecturing/group-work/implementing-group-work-cl aching-tips/alternatives-lecturing/group-work/implementing-group-work-cl assroom assroom From From experience experience and and research, research, the the optimum optimum team team size size is is 4-7 4-7 members. members. http://humanresources.about.com/od/teambuildingfaqs/f/optimum-team-s http://humanresources.about.com/od/teambuildingfaqs/f/optimum-team-s ize.htm ize.htm Like by Like other other aspects aspects of of group group work, work, the the size size of of aa group group should should be be shaped shaped by Back to Back to the projects learning objectives. the projects learning objectives. Setup Setup Menu Menu https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies /groupprojects/compose.html#identifycharacteristics /groupprojects/compose.html#identifycharacteristics 3A How well do students know each other? Ask students if they have worked effectively with classmates on previous group projects. Those who have worked together effectively in groups before may be more likely to work together effectively again. If the focus is more on the product than the process of group work, this may be a relevant characteristic. Consider Consider the the trade-off trade-off between between the the improved improved speed speed and and efficiency efficiency and and potential higher levels of accomplishment of students familiar with potential higher levels of accomplishment of students familiar with working working together together on on the the one one hand hand with with the the additional additional skills skills students students will

will develop develop by by learning learning to to work work with with aa wider wider variety variety of of people, people, some some from from scratch. scratch. If If you you are are assigning assigning another another group group project project later later in in the the course, course, or or expect expect to to in a future course that the students may enroll in, it may be useful to in a future course that the students may enroll in, it may be useful to group group students students in in aa way way that that meets meets the the present present projects projects learning learning objectives objectives and and prepares prepares students students to to work work together together again again in in the the future. future. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies /groupprojects/compose.html /groupprojects/compose.html 4A Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Steps to ensure international students are home included Where students predominate, its best to have 2 international students in some groups and none in others than to have lone international students in every group. Ensure Ensure at at least least two two international international students students in in groups groups where where home home students students predominatethis predominatethis is is more more effective effective than than having having one one in in each each of of the the groups. If the two international students speak

the same mother groups. If the two international students speak the same mother tongue, tongue, help help the the group group establish establish norms norms regarding regarding when when those those students students work work in in their their mother mother tongue tongue and and when when in in English, English, to to ensure ensure everyones everyones expectations expectations are are aligned. aligned. Global Global conflicts: conflicts: Students Students from from some some areas areas will will not not necessarily necessarily find find it it easy to work together. If you know your students, you could explore this easy to work together. If you know your students, you could explore this aspect aspect with with them. them. The The size size of of the the group group and and the the relative relative diversity diversity of of membership: membership: Four Four to to seven seven is is considered considered optimal; optimal; very very diverse diverse groups groups (however (however you you define define this) this) may may need need to to be be smaller smaller because because it it may may take take longer longer for for such such groups to perform tasks due to the additional time needed to work groups to perform tasks due to the additional time needed to work through through second second language language instructions instructions and and unfamiliar unfamiliar norms. norms.

4B http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Provide role descriptions, yes or no? Students less familiar with university group work, such as some international students and first year students, may find clear guidelines about roles and expected contributions useful. Students Students may may find find simple simple suggestions suggestions about about possible possible roles roles (for (for example, example, leader, leader, note note taker taker and and so so on) on) useful useful for for guiding guiding their their own own discussions discussions about about roles. roles. Similarly, Similarly, aa discussion discussion of of the the responsibility responsibility each each group group member member has has to to the the others in their group will not only provide guidance in what to reasonably others in their group will not only provide guidance in what to reasonably expect expect from from others others but but also also in in what what other other members members are are likely likely to to expect expect from from individual individual students students in in terms terms of of contributions. contributions. If If students students can can create create or or modify modify instructor-provided instructor-provided roles roles to to fit fit their their context, context, they they may may be be more more motivated motivated or or personally personally invested invested in in their their performance. performance. Typically, Typically, this this student student crafting crafting of of their their group

group roles roles would would work work better better the the more more students students have have experience experience working working in in groups. groups. If If students have a lot of input into their roles, they would benefit from students have a lot of input into their roles, they would benefit from the the instructor emphasizing that they challenge themselves to higher levels instructor emphasizing that they challenge themselves to higher levels of of performance performance or or to to tasks tasks with with which which they they may may not not be be that that comfortable, comfortable, in in order order to to maximize maximize the the potential potential for for academic academic and and personal personal growth. growth. 5A Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu 5B Providing role descriptions Written role or short job descriptions help when students experience with group work is low and the groups will persist beyond a part-class activity. Student Student teams teams often often function function most most effectively effectively when when members members have have designated designated roles. roles. These These can can be be instructor-determined instructor-determined or or established established by by the the groups groups themselves, themselves, e.g., e.g., by by giving giving teams teams aa list list such such as as the the one one in in Team Roles at the first link below and

asking them to decide on and Team Roles at the first link below and asking them to decide on and delegate delegate appropriate appropriate roles roles within within their their group. group. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies /groupprojects/tools/index.html /groupprojects/tools/index.html and and see see Designate Designate Roles Roles and and Tasks Tasks at: at: http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/grou Work contribution http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/grou Work contribution roles: roles: Initiating, Initiating, seeking seeking information information or or opinions, opinions, p-process/ p-process/ giving giving information information or or opinions, opinions, questioning, questioning, clarifying, clarifying, and and summarizing. summarizing. Roles Roles that that contribute contribute to to the the team team atmosphere: atmosphere: supporting, supporting, observing, mediating, reconciling, compromising, making observing, mediating, reconciling, - compromising, making aa personal personal comment, comment, and and humor. humor. See See details details (scroll (scroll to to Roles Roles that that Contribute Contribute to to the the Work): Work): https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Permanent or rotating roles? Rotating group members through roles helps everyone develop a wider range of skills, and challenges students in areas in which they may not be naturally gifted. The trade-off is the depth of skill development that comes with long experience. The The trade-off trade-off is is depth depth vs. vs. breadth breadth of of learning. learning. Choose Choose depth depth ifif students students have have some some university university experience experience working working in in groups groups and and can can benefit benefit from from repeatedly repeatedly performing performing the

the same same role role over over aa significant significant period period of of time time on on an an increasingly increasingly complex complex set set of of tasks. tasks. Choose Choose breadth breadth (that (that is, is, rotate rotate students students through through the the roles roles periodically periodically for for ongoing ongoing group group work) if students have little university group work experience. work) if students have little university group work experience. We We have have two two contradictory contradictory challenges: challenges: to to help help students students further further develop develop things things for for which which they they have have natural natural ability ability on on the the one one hand hand and and challenging challenging them them to to grow grow by by moving moving outside outside their their comfort comfort zone zone on on the the other. other. Rotating Rotating students students through through roles roles they they would would not not choose choose at at first first helps challenge them and potentially helps them discover skills and helps challenge them and potentially helps them discover skills and abilities abilities they they may may not not know know they they had. had. 5C Back Back to to Setup Setup Menu Menu Group Work Process Menu Should my group work be:

Back Back to to Main Main Menu Menu In-class? In-class? Should there be a group work contract? Yes Yes or or No? No? Outside Outside of of class? class? A A combination? combination? Online? Online? Should I give marks for If yes, Use Use peer peer group process or evaluation? evaluation? participation? Yes Yes or or No? No? Give same mark to all Give same mark to all members? members? Give Give different different For how long should I use group mark mark to to each each member? member? work? One A For Entire One A few few For a a Entire Use Use a a class? classes? project? term? class? classes? project? term? combination? combination? Should Should II provide provide group group Whats the best way to resolve group process process tips? tips? Instructor conflict? A Let Instructor A mediator mediator (not (not Let group group resolve resolve on on its its resolves? instructor) own? resolves? instructor) resolves? resolves? own? Should my group work be in-class? Conducting the group work in class provides for better monitoring and coaching. You You will will not not be be able able to

to cover cover as as much much material material in in group group work work as as you you can can by lecturing. However, students will be more likely to remember and by lecturing. However, students will be more likely to remember and use use class class concepts concepts ifif they they are are applied applied in in group group work. work. In-class In-class monitoring monitoring and and coaching coaching makes makes this this venue venue more more suited suited to to those those with with less less university university group group work work experience. experience. It It also also is is highly highly suited suited for for teaching teaching group group work work process skills. The drawbacks are that the tasks my not be as extensive process skills. The drawbacks are that the tasks my not be as extensive or or complex complex as as would would be be possible possible with with group group work work outside outside of of class, class, and and the the class class time time devoted devoted to to group group work work has has aa greater greater negative negative impact impact on on content content coverage. coverage. 6A Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Should my group work be conducted outside of class? More extensive group tasks can be assigned to groups working outside of class time. They will need either extensive process structure and guidelines or experienced students, because instructor monitoring will be limited, unless online group work space is provided.

The The group group tasks tasks can can be be more more extensive extensive in in both both number number and and complexity. complexity. Outside Outside of of class class group group work work is is better better for for students students with with aa lot lot of of university university group group work work experience, experience, and and where where the the evaluation evaluation focus focus is is far far more more on on the the group group product product than than on on group group process. process. IfIf this this experience experience is is lacking, lacking, organizational organizational scaffolding scaffolding will will be be needed, needed, such such as as tools tools to to assist assist group group meeting scheduling, extensive group process guidelines (perhaps a meeting scheduling, extensive group process guidelines (perhaps a contract contract or or performance/grading performance/grading rubric), rubric), and and similar similar materials materials found found in in the the other other parts parts found found in in the the Process Process Menu Menu section section in in this this resource. resource. Click for more details about outside of class group work scheduling issues and tools 6B Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Resources for scheduling group Its ItIt will Its important important for for students students to to create, create, will be be useful useful to

to assist assist students students to to consider consider meetings agree on, and stick to a meeting the impact for group members of: agree on, and stick to a meeting the impact for group members of: schedule schedule that that works works for for everyone. everyone. They They will will need need to to consider: consider: (use (use some some class class time time to to discuss discuss these these issues issues and and provide students with support provide students with support and and advice advice related related to to how how to to manage manage them.) them.) Assignment Assignment requirements requirements and and due due dates dates What What can can be be done done face-to-face, face-to-face, in in real real time, time, as as opposed opposed to to what what can can be be done done online online What What constitutes constitutes satisfactory satisfactory participation: participation: how how much much time time members members have have to to spend spend aa week week (see (see below) below) How How to to follow follow the the agreed-upon agreed-upon schedule (maybe schedule (maybe post post online online for for everyone everyone to to view view and and refer refer to, to, or or put put dates

in online calendars to get dates in online calendars to get reminders?) reminders?) http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/studenthttp://learningcommons.ubc.ca/studenttoolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-proc toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-proc ess/ ess/ 6B-1 Travel Travel time time and and cost cost from from diverse diverse locations; locations; Part-time Part-time or or full-time full-time work work commitments; commitments; Parental Parental and and family family responsibilities; responsibilities; and and Students Students with with disabilities. disabilities. These These are are not not minor minor issues. issues. The The time time and and workload workload pressure pressure and, and, in in many many cases, cases, resulting resulting anxiety, anxiety, of of organising organising oneself oneself to to attend and contribute to group meetings attend and contribute to group meetings is is keenly keenly felt felt by by many many students students in in higher higher education. education. Many Many students students develop develop aa significant sense of responsibility significant sense of responsibility to to their their group(s) group(s) and and while while this this feeling feeling sometimes sometimes brings brings aa welcome welcome sense sense of of 'relief 'relief from from full full responsibility it's a shared responsibility', responsibility - it's a shared responsibility', itit more more often often brings brings aa 'worry 'worry about about the the effect effect on on the the group

group of of anything anything that that II do. do. Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Should my group work be a combination of in-class and outside of class? A combination of in-class and outside class group work allows for easier monitoring while providing time for more extensive group tasks. A A combination combination of of in-class in-class and and outside outside class class group group work work is is aa good good transition transition for for students students with with some some university university group group work work experience experience who who are are ready ready to to move move to to more more extensive extensive group group work work tasks tasks or or those those focused focused more more on on product product than than process. process. The The in-class in-class time time allows allows for for monitoring monitoring and coaching of group process, as well as troubleshooting issues, and coaching of group process, as well as troubleshooting issues, and and working outside of class provides opportunities for developing more working outside of class provides opportunities for developing more independence independence while while learning learning to to work work with with others. others. 6C Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Should my group work be online? Online group work makes better instructor monitoring possible than for typical outside-of-class group work. Your Your main main contribution contribution will will be

be to to provide provide tools tools that that help help students students work work online. online. An An online online group group signup signup and and work work space space is is provided provided in in D2L D2L Brightspace Brightspace (scroll (scroll to to the the Group Group heading) heading) http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/cetl/tls/educational/d2l/fac-videos.html. http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/cetl/tls/educational/d2l/fac-videos.html. This This space space lets lets students students schedule schedule work, work, discuss discuss the the work, work, share share work work files, provide feedback on those files, compile finalized work, and files, provide feedback on those files, compile finalized work, and submit submit it it to to the the instructor. instructor. As As an an instructor, instructor, you you will will be be able able to to see see how how often often and and what what each each member member contributes. contributes. Fairness Fairness requires requires that that you you let let students students know know you you will will be be able able to to do do this this and and it it will will be be good good to to reassure reassure them them that that no one outside their group will be able to see their workspace or work no one outside their group will be able to see their workspace or work product. product. For For more more details details on on how

how the the online online tools tools work, work, see: see: https://vimeo.com/228107728 https://vimeo.com/228107728 6D Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 7 Should we have a group work contract? Group contracts are statements of responsibilities and expectations and are especially useful for students with little university group work experience or even with more experienced students when group work is a major instructional strategy, ongoing, and the output is substantial. In this case, clear, explicit criteria for roles, expectations, and work product are highly recommended to ensure fairness to all students. There There are are several several things things to to consider: consider: Does Does the the instructor instructor create create the the contract, contract, do do students, students, or or is is it it aa combined combined effort? effort? How How extensive extensive should should it it be? be? What What are are the the consequences consequences of of it it not not being being followed? followed? How How are are disagreements disagreements settled? settled? Click here to see sample group contracts Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Group work contracts You can provide a list of ground rules that students are to abide by in group work. Here is an example that can be modified for your context and used for periodic group self-evaluation: Credit: Making Groupwor k Work p. 26 (see Reference s page from Main Menu) 7A Click here to se e more resourc es Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 7A-1 Group work contracts 2 Or,

Or, involve involve students students in in setting setting up up ground ground rules rules through through brainstorming. brainstorming. IfIf youre youre uncomfortable uncomfortable starting starting from from scratch, scratch, start start with with aa draft draft and and have have students students modify modify itit together together with with you you in in class class as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return eemails mails from from group group members members within within 24 24 hours; hours; come come to to meetings meetings on on time time and and prepared; prepared; meet meet deadlines; deadlines; listen listen to to what what your your teammates teammates have have to to say; say; respond respond to to one one anothers anothers comments comments politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You might then politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You might then ask ask students students to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find sample sample team team contracts contracts here here https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design .html#accountability .html#accountability http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ Communicating Communicating Effectively Effectively (Chapman (Chapman Learning Learning Commons)

Commons) Teaching Teaching Culturally Culturally Diverse Diverse Groups: Groups: http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity Dawn MacIsaac, Associate Professor of CS & ECE has this Sustainable Workload Agreement that can be modified for your context. Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 7A-1 from 10D Group work contracts 2 Or, Or, involve involve students students in in setting setting up up ground ground rules rules through through brainstorming. brainstorming. IfIf youre youre uncomfortable uncomfortable starting starting from from scratch, scratch, start start with with aa draft draft and and have have students students modify modify itit together together with with you you in in class class as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return eemails mails from from group group members members within within 24 24 hours; hours; come come to to meetings meetings on on time time and and prepared; prepared; meet meet deadlines; deadlines; listen listen to to what what your your teammates teammates have have to to say; say; respond respond to to one one anothers anothers comments comments politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You

might then politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You might then ask ask students students to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find sample sample team team contracts contracts here here https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design .html#accountability .html#accountability http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ Communicating Communicating Effectively Effectively (Chapman (Chapman Learning Learning Commons) Commons) Teaching Teaching Culturally Culturally Diverse Diverse Groups: Groups: http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity Dawn MacIsaac, Associate Professor of CS & ECE has this Sustainable Workload Agreement that can be modified for your context. Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 7A-1 from 11A Group work contracts 2 Or, Or, involve involve students students in in setting setting up up ground ground rules rules through through brainstorming. brainstorming. IfIf youre youre uncomfortable uncomfortable starting starting from from scratch, scratch, start start with with aa draft draft and and have have students students modify modify itit together together with with you you in in class class as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return as you come to agree on the rules. Group ground rules can include things such as: return eemails mails from from group group members members within

within 24 24 hours; hours; come come to to meetings meetings on on time time and and prepared; prepared; meet meet deadlines; deadlines; listen listen to to what what your your teammates teammates have have to to say; say; respond respond to to one one anothers anothers comments comments politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You might then politely but honestly; be constructive; criticize ideas, not people. You might then ask ask students students to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find to formally agree to these ground rules by signing a group learning contract. Find sample sample team team contracts contracts here here https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/design .html#accountability .html#accountability http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ http://learningcommons.ubc.ca/student-toolkits-2/working-in-groups/group-process/ Communicating Communicating Effectively Effectively (Chapman (Chapman Learning Learning Commons) Commons) Teaching Teaching Culturally Culturally Diverse Diverse Groups: Groups: http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity Dawn MacIsaac, Associate Professor of CS & ECE has this Sustainable Workload Agreement that can be modified for your context. Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 8A Should give marks for group process or participation? If one of the goals of group work is for students to develop teamwork skills, it is good teaching practice to teach and evaluate these skills. If the group work is entirely focused on the end product, regardless of who did what or how, then it is appropriate to assign marks for it only. However, if one of the goals is for students to develop teamwork skills, it is good teaching practice to teach and evaluate these skills. You need to decide how you will do so and whether/how marks are assigned. If you cant observe everyones group participation Its important to also to how Its always

always important to groupIts Its also important important to think think about aboutother. how you you will will weigh weigh the the various various yourself, consider how members can evaluate each articulate articulate your your performance performance criteria criteria so so students understand students understand your your expectations expectations and and standards. standards. This This is is especially especially true true ifif you you are are emphasizing skills emphasizing skills that that are are not not usually usually assessed, assessed, such as the ability such as the ability to to resolve resolve conflict, conflict, delegate delegate tasks, tasks, etc. etc. Criteria Criteria for for evaluating evaluating both both product product and and process process can can be be communicated communicated by by giving giving students students aa group group work work rubric rubric (pdf) (pdf) before they begin before they begin their their work work and and then then using using itit to to provide provide meaningful meaningful feedback feedback during during and and at at the the end end of of the the project. project. components components of of group group projects projects in in your your grading grading scheme.

scheme. Some Some questions questions to to consider consider include: include: What What percentage percentage of of the the students students total total project project grade grade will will be be based based on on the the groups groups performance performance vs. vs. individual individual components? components? What What percentage percentage will will be be based based on on assessments assessments of of product product vs. vs. assessments assessments of of process? process? How How much much weight weight will will you you give give to to peer peer evaluations evaluations or or selfselfevaluations? evaluations? Will Will feedback feedback from from external external clients clients also also be be incorporated incorporated into into your your assessment assessment of of the the groups groups work? work? IfIf so, so, what what sorts sorts of of feedback feedback will will you solicit: feedback on product (e.g., Does it work? Is it a good you solicit: feedback on product (e.g., Does it work? Is it a good solution/design?), solution/design?), feedback feedback on on process process (e.g., (e.g., Did Did the the group group communicate communicate effectively effectively with with the the client? client? Did Did itit meet meet deadlines?), deadlines?), or or both? both? Back to Back to https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstr https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstr Process Process Menu Menu

Click for teamwork evaluation methods ategies/groupprojects/assess.html ategies/groupprojects/assess.html 8A1 Teamwork evaluation methods IfIf developing developing teamwork teamwork skills skills is is one one of of your your learning learning objectives objectives for for the the course, course, its its important important to to assess assess students students progress progress toward toward that that goal. goal. In In other other words, words, you you should should assess assess process process (how (how students students work) work) as as well well as as product product (the (the work work they they produce). produce). Process Process can can be be assessed assessed according according to to aa number number of of dimensions, dimensions, such such as as the the ability to generate a range of ideas, listen respectfully to disparate perspectives, ability to generate a range of ideas, listen respectfully to disparate perspectives, distribute distribute work work fairly, fairly, resolve resolve differences, differences, and and communicate communicate effectively. effectively. Since Since instructors dont always have a direct window into the dynamics of student instructors dont always have a direct window into the dynamics of student groups, groups, they they often often rely rely on on teams teams to to self-report self-report via: via: Team Team evaluations: evaluations: each each member member of of the the team team evaluates evaluates the the dynamics dynamics of of the

the team team as as aa whole. whole. Peer Peer evaluations: evaluations: each each team team member member evaluates evaluates the the contributions contributions of of his/her his/her teammates. teammates. Self-evaluations: Self-evaluations: each each team team member member documents documents and and evaluates evaluates his his own own contributions contributions to to the the team. team. Find Find samples samples of of evaluations evaluations here... here... Back Back to to https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/group https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/group Back Back to to projects/assess.html Previous projects/assess.html Previous Process Menu Screen Screen Process Menu 8B How should peer evaluation work? Each group member evaluating the teamwork performance of the other is typical outside of university, too. Best they learn how to do it here, and that you have evaluation criteria (self or student generated or a combination) by which they can do this. Ask Ask students students to to periodically periodically evaluate evaluate their their own own or or others others contributions contributions to to the the group in relation to a set of process goals, such as respectfully listening to group in relation to a set of process goals, such as respectfully listening to and and considering opposing views or a minority opinion, effectively managing conflict considering opposing views or a minority opinion, effectively managing conflict around around differences differences in in ideas ideas or or approaches, approaches, keeping keeping the the group group on on track track during during and and between between meetings, meetings, promptness

promptness in in meeting meeting deadlines, deadlines, etc. etc. Then Then give give groups groups aa chance chance to to generate generate strategies strategies for for improving improving their their group group processes. processes. Peer Peer Assessment Assessment of of Team Team Members: Members: Tools: Tools: http://sydney.edu.au/business/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/54413/PeerAssessCrit http://sydney.edu.au/business/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/54413/PeerAssessCrit eria.pdf eria.pdf Self, Self, Peer Peer and and Group Group Assessment Assessment Examples Examples and and Templates: Templates: https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/group https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/group projects/tools/index.html projects/tools/index.html Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 8CGive the same mark to all group members? It is typical to give the same group participation mark to all members. However, this can be unfair and demotivating to those who work harder and do more, and makes it easier for minimally involved students to take advantage of better students. Group average mark based on records/observation of process: Assessment Some possible Some possible option advantages disadvantages Each individual group member's contribution (as defined by predetermined criteria) is assessed using evidence from: Team log books Minutes sheets and/or Direct observation of process. The group members each then receive an average of these marks. Makes students focus on their operation as a team Logs can provide plenty of information to form basis of assessment Keeping minute sheets helps members to focus on the process - a learning experience in itself Reviewing logs can be time consuming Students may need a lot of training and experience Emphasis on second hand evidence reliability an issue Averaging the mark may be seen as unfair to those who have contributed more than Credit: University of Melbourne others Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 8D Give a different mark to each group member? Providing individual marks is optimal in terms of fairness and motivation, but getting accurate information can be challenging. Individual mark based on records/observation of process: Assessment Some possible

Some possible option advantages disadvantages Each individual group member's contribution (as defined by predetermined criteria) is assessed using evidence from: Team log books Minutes sheets and/or Direct observation of process Logs can potentially provide plenty of information to form basis of assessment Keeping minute sheets helps members to focus on the process - a learning experience in itself Reviewing logs can be time consuming for lecturer/tutor Students may need a lot of training and experience in keeping records Emphasis on second hand evidence reliability an issue May be perceived as a fair way to deal with Direct observation by a 'shirkers' and lecturer/tutor likely to outstanding change the nature of contributions Credit: University of Melbourne interaction in the group See also: https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategie s/groupprojects/design.html#accountability Back And they are awarded a mark. Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 8EGive a combination of same and different marks? Having the group participation mark be a combination of the same for all and a reflection of individual effort may strike a balance between rewarding cooperation and individual excellence. Peer Evaluation - average mark, using predetermined criteria: Assessment Some possible Some possible option advantages disadvantages Students in a group individually evaluate each other's contribution using a predetermined list of criteria. The final mark is an average of all marks awarded by members of the group. Helps clarify criteria to be used for assessment May increase lecturer/tutor workload in terms of - briefing students about the process - ensuring the criteria are explicit and clear - teaching students how to evaluate each other Click here to ethod Encourages sense of involvement and responsibility on part of students May assist students to develop skills in independent judgment Provides detailed feedback to students Provides experience parallel to career situations where group judgment is made

Students may allow friendships to influence their assessment reliability an issue Students may not perceive this system as Credit: University of Melbourne fair because of the May reduce lecturer's possibility of being Back Back to to marking load see another combination m discriminated against Process Menu Process Menu Give a combination of same and different marks(2)? Self evaluation- moderated mark, using predetermined criteria: Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Students individually evaluate their own contribution using predetermined criteria and award themselves a mark. Lecturers/tutors moderate the marks awarded. Helps clarify criteria to be used for assessment May increase lecturer/tutor workload in terms of - briefing students about the process - ensuring the criteria for success are explicit and clear teaching students how to evaluate themselves 8E1 Encourages sense of involvement and responsibility on part of students May assist students to develop skills in independent judgment Credit: University of Melbourne Self-evaluations may be perceived as unreliable Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 9A Should I provide group process tips? Students need help getting to know one another and getting started, organized, managing the groups work, staying focused, making decisions, and encouraging everyone to contribute their ideas. Getting Getting Started Started Groups Groups work work best best ifif people people know know each each others' others' names names and and aa bit bit of of their their background background and and experience. experience. Be Be sure sure to to include include everyone everyone when when considering considering ideas

ideas about about how how to to proceed proceed as as aa group. group. Most Most groups groups select select aa leader leader early early on on (or (or rotate rotate leadership leadership over over time, time, or or have have leaders leaders for for different different parts parts of of aa project), project), especially especially ifif the the work work is is aa long-term long-term project. project. Everyone Everyone needs needs to to discuss discuss and and clarify clarify the the goals goals of of the the group's group's work. work. Organizing Organizing the the work work Break Break up up big big jobs jobs into into smaller smaller pieces. pieces. Allocate Allocate responsibility responsibility for for different different parts parts of of the the group group project project to to different different individuals individuals or or teams. teams. Do Do not not forget forget to to account account for for assembling assembling pieces pieces into into final final form. form. Develop Develop aa time-line, time-line, including including who who will will do do what, what, in in what what format, format, by when. Include time at the end for assembling pieces by when. Include time at the end for assembling pieces into into final final form. form. At At the the end end of of each each meeting,

meeting, review review progress progress and and have have each each member member state state what what work work they they expect expect to to complete complete by by the the following following How to ensure everyone is included session. session. Example: Example: Jeff Jeff Mundee, Mundee, instructor instructor in in UNBs Media Arts and UNBs Media Arts and Cultures Cultures program, program, requires requires each each group group to to have a social event have a social event outside outside of of class. class. It It doesnt doesnt matter matter what what itit is, is, as as long long as as everyone everyone agrees agrees with with itit and and itit includes includes everyone everyone in in the the group. group. This This is is aa nonnonassessed assessed but but required required item. It helps item. It helps group group members members connect connect with with others in the group others in the group and and precludes precludes the the marginalization marginalization of of some some who who may may otherwise otherwise be be overlooked in the overlooked in the Back to Back to functioning the functioning of of the group. group. Process

Process Menu Menu 9A1 Including everyone and their ideas The job of the group is to break down the work into chunks, and to allow everyone to contribute. The direction that seems obvious to some may turn out not to be so obvious after all. In any event, it will surely be improved as a result of some creative modification. Take by around group, Take turns turns by going going around the the group, hearing hearing the the ideas, ideas, writing writing them them in in aa visible visible location. location. Hear Hear from from everyone, everyone, one one by by one. one. Or, Or, generate generate ideas ideas through through brainstorming--people brainstorming--people suggesting suggesting ideas ideas in in any any order, order, without without much much commenting, commenting, disagreeing disagreeing or or asking asking too too many many questions. questions. The The advantage advantage of of brainstorming brainstorming is is that that ideas ideas do do not not become become closely closely associated associated with with the the individuals individuals who who suggested suggested them. them. This This process process encourages encourages creative creative thinking, thinking, ifif itit is is not not rushed rushed and and ifif all all ideas ideas are are written written down down (and (and therefore, therefore, for for the the time-being, time-being, accepted). accepted). Examples Examples of of what what to to say say to to facilitate facilitate brainstorming: brainstorming: Why Why don't don't we we take take aa minute minute or or two two for for each each of of us

us to to present present our our views? views? Let's Let's get get all all our our ideas ideas out out before before evaluating evaluating them. them. We'll We'll clarify clarify them them before before we we organize organize or evaluate them. or evaluate them. We'll We'll discuss discuss all all these these ideas ideas after after we we hear hear what what everyone everyone thinks. thinks. You You don't don't have have to to agree agree with with her, her, but but let let her her finish. finish. Let's Let's spend spend aa few few more more minutes minutes to to see see ifif there there are are any any possibilities possibilities we we haven't haven't thought thought of, no matter how unlikely they seem. of, no matter how unlikely they seem. Good Dynamics: https://guides.lib.uoguelph.ca/c.php?g=697431&p=5011764 Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu When should I use group work of one class duration? Group work of one class duration is good for immediate application of newly encountered concepts, the idea being that the act of articulating ones understanding to others and reconciling differing aspects of peoples understanding helps students process the concept and learn it more deeply than listening individually. 10A Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu When should I use group work of a few classes duration? Working together for a few classes helps students move beyond superficial group work skills, and perhaps work on deliverables that are more substantial (and thus lead to more complex application). Another Another option option is is to to work work on on different different things things each each class

class with with the the goal goal of of the the group group being being able able to to get get things things done done progressively progressively more more quickly quickly as as group group members members abilities, abilities, interests, interests, and and contribution contribution types types become become better better known. known. Poor Poor group group work work habits habits or or personality personality conflicts conflicts are are likely likely to to be be let let slide slide rather rather than than be be dealt dealt with with because because its its easier easier to to wait wait until until the the groups groups change than to deal with them. change than to deal with them. 10B Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Keeping the group together for the project duration Project duration means the group stays together for whatever length needed to complete a project, whether a few weeks or a month or two. The assumption is that a project is more substantial than shorter duration group work, and thus has higher potential for deeper learning. In In this this situation, situation, any any individual individual poor poor work work habits habits or or personality personality conflicts conflicts that that may may exist exist require require some support in resolving because it is necessary for the success of the project (see some support in resolving because it is necessary for the success of the project (see conflict conflict management management items items in in Process Process Menu). Menu). Faculty Faculty asking

asking students students to to work work in in groups groups over over aa long long period period of of time time can can do do aa few few things things to to make it easy for the students to work: make it easy for the students to work: The The biggest biggest student student complaint complaint about about group group work work is is that that itit takes takes aa lot lot of of time time and and planning. planning. Let Let students know about the project at the beginning of the term, so they can plan their students know about the project at the beginning of the term, so they can plan their time. time. At At the the outset, outset, provide provide group group guidelines guidelines and and your your expectations expectations (or (or start start with with yours yours and and negotiate a final version with the students). negotiate a final version with the students). Monitor Monitor the the groups groups periodically periodically to to make make sure sure they they are are functioning functioning effectively. effectively. IfIf the the project project is is to to be be completed completed outside outside of of class, class, provide provide scheduling scheduling support, support, such such as as online online group workspace in D2L Brightspace https://vimeo.com/228107728. Some faculty members group workspace in D2L Brightspace https://vimeo.com/228107728. Some faculty members provide

provide in-class in-class time time for for groups groups to to meet. meet. Others Others help help students students find find rooms rooms in in which which to to meet. meet. https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work [scroll [scroll to to Large Large projects projects over over aa period period of of time] time] 10C Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu When should I use semester-long groups? Semester-long groups have the potential for deeper learning and application than the other durations. However, issues of working style and personality conflict, uneven participation and contribution, need to be addressed when they arise. Groups Groups are are typically typically not not well-equipped well-equipped to to deal deal with with issues issues of of working working style, style, personality personality conflict, conflict, and and uneven uneven participation participation and and contribution contribution on on their their own. own. You You need need group group work work criteria, criteria, periodic periodic group group member member self-andself-andpeer peer process process evaluation evaluation (using (using rubrics rubrics and and other other tools tools provided provided in in the the contract contract section section this this resource) resource) to to identify identify issues, issues, and and unless unless this this is is upper upper year level work, then the instructor needs to have tools to use to help year level work, then the instructor needs to have tools to use to help resolve resolve conflict conflict (see (see Whats Whats the the best best way

way to to resolve resolve group group conflict? conflict? In In the the Process Process Menu). Menu). 10D Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu 11A When the instructor resolves group Although working through conflict on their own would be ideal, it takes more conflict diplomatic skills than most undergraduates have developed until they have had a lot of positive university group work experience. Unless that is the case, the instructor should provide assistance. You can use the problem-solving matrix as a guide. Being Being proactive: proactive: Dawn Dawn MacIsaac MacIsaac of of UNB UNB Computer Computer Science Science and and Electrical Electrical and and Computer Computer Engineering Engineering has has aa student student from from each group complete a team assessment after each deliverable based on a group work rubric each group complete a team assessment after each deliverable based on a group work rubric (like (like the the one one in in Group Group work work contracts) contracts) to to identify identify group group process process problems. problems. These These assessments assessments often often reveal reveal problems. problems. She She then then creates creates some some group group process process problem problem scenarios scenarios and and conducts conducts aa short short in-class in-class group group work exercise where the groups resolve the issue in their scenarios and report back to the work exercise where the groups resolve the issue in their scenarios and report back to the class. class. There There are are two two scenarios scenarios for for each each problem,

problem, each each from from opposite opposite perspectives perspectives (e.g., (e.g., what what group group needs needs to to do do vs. vs. what individual experiencing the problem needs to do). The group with the problem typically gets what individual experiencing the problem needs to do). The group with the problem typically gets one one of of the the 22 scenarios, scenarios, but but also also hears hears what what another another group group would would do. do. She She finds finds that that this this helps helps students students find find their their way way out out of of impasses. impasses. Common Common Problems Problems and and some some solutions: solutions: Floundering Floundering Scroll Scroll to to Some Some Common Common Problems Problems (and (and Some Some Solutions) Solutions) at: at: Dominating Dominating or or reluctant reluctant participants participants https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work https://bokcenter.harvard.edu/group-work Digressions Digressions and and tangents tangents and and Getting Getting Stuck Stuck https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstr https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstr ategies/groupprojects/monitor.html ategies/groupprojects/monitor.html Rush Rush to to work work Feuds Feuds Ignoring Ignoring or or ridiculing ridiculing others others Are international students being left out? Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Ensuring international students are included From From Working Working with with International International Students Students in

in Class Class by by Belinda Belinda Young-Davy, Young-Davy, Jennifer Jennifer Rice, Rice, and and Keli Keli Yerian, Yerian, AEI AEI Faculty Faculty University University of of Oregon: Oregon: How How can can II talk talk to to both both non-ELL non-ELL (English (English Language Language Learners) Learners) and and ELLs ELLs about about the the best best way way to to work work with with one one another? another? Take Take aa portion portion of of Class Class 11 to to get get into into small small groups groups and and do do aa task task together together that that involves asking about past writing experiences, hometowns, etc. involves asking about past writing experiences, hometowns, etc. Set Set up up an an assignment assignment that that makes makes the the native native English English speakers speakers NEED NEED to to talk talk with with the ELLs (interview of cultural difference that leads to a paper, etc.) the ELLs (interview of cultural difference that leads to a paper, etc.) Talk Talk up up the the cultural cultural (and (and all all kinds kinds of) of) diversity diversity as as an an asset asset to to the the class class and and formulate topics around that. formulate topics around that. 11A 1 Back Back to to Previous Previous

Screen Screen Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu When should I use a mediator to resolve group conflict? If If you you have have concerns concerns that that your your evaluator evaluator of of student student group group work work role role as as instructor instructor may may interfere interfere with with candid candid student student participation participation in in group group conflict conflict resolution, resolution, then then perhaps perhaps another another instructor instructor or or graduate graduate student student could could help the group through the conflict resolution process. help the group through the conflict resolution process. You You can can provide provide the the problem-solving problem-solving matrix matrix to to that that person. person. 11B Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu When should I let the group resolve conflict on its own? This This will will work work ifif the the group group members members (or (or at at least least aa few few of of them them )) have have aa lot lot of of positive positive university university group group work work experience experience in in which which they they have have developed developed effective effective group group process process problem-solving problem-solving skills. skills. You You can can provide provide the the problem-solving problem-solving matrix matrix and and let

let one one of of those those experienced experienced students students be be the the chairperson chairperson indicated. indicated. 11C Back Back to to Process Process Menu Menu Group Work Process Menu Back Back to to Main Main Menu Menu What type of group work product should I Paper/Report Video/ require? Paper/Report or or Video/ Class Class Presentation? Presentation? Multimedia Multimedia ?? Test/Quiz/ Test/Quiz/ Exam? Exam? Project? Project? Group Group Work Work Skills? Skills? What option should I use for assigning group product marks? Different Different marks marks for for Same mark for all Same mark for all group group members? members? individual individual group group members? members? A A combination? combination? Let Let students students distribute distribute marks marks ?? Evaluating papers and presentations Papers and presentations are such well-established outputs that there is not much to add regarding the assignment setup and assessment criteria that is not handled extensively outside the context of group work. Many of the other group work product options have issues to consider when done in the group work context. Providing a variety of assessment options helps accommodate diversity in the classroom. Here Here are are some some useful useful resources: resources: Grading Grading Rubrics Rubrics for for written written work: work: http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/cetl/tls/resources/teaching_tips/tt_assessm http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/cetl/tls/resources/teaching_tips/tt_assessm ent_methods/grading_rubrics.html ent_methods/grading_rubrics.html Presentation Presentation Rubrics Rubrics and and Evaluation Evaluation Resources, Resources, Undergraduate Undergraduate Geoscience: Geoscience:

http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/oralpresentations.html http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/oralpresentations.html 12 Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu Evaluating video and multimedia products Video an multimedia productions on course topics need to maintain a good balance between content quality assessment on the one hand and production quality on the other. Video Video or or multimedia multimedia product product evaluation evaluation rubric: rubric: This This rubric rubric provides provides instructors instructors with with observable observable behaviours behaviours to to watch watch for for that that can can help help them them determine determine video video quality quality (so (so no no instructor instructor experience experience in in video video production production is is required), required), while while not not having having video video quality quality outweigh outweigh the the content content quality. quality. Click Click to to view view rubric rubric 12A Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu Team-based learning using quizzes and tests Some ongoing group work that uses tests to assess knowledge demonstration mix individual and group assessment in a formalized team-based learning approach developed by Dr. Larry Michaelsen, that provides easy to mark tools (iRATs- Individual Readiness Assessment Tests and tRATs-Team Readiness Assessment tests). Team-Based Team-Based Learning Learning (Michaelsen) (Michaelsen) (teaching (teaching course course content content through through ongoing, ongoing, term-long term-long stable stable groups groups that that work work on on the the same same problems problems and and report back to class. Deeper learning results.): report back to class. Deeper learning results.): www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/teamlearning.aspx www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/teamlearning.aspx Team-based Team-based learning learning video

video (second (second from from top) top) http://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching/engagement/teaching-large#tbl http://ctl.utexas.edu/teaching/engagement/teaching-large#tbl Part Part of of this this TBL TBL technique technique is is aa mix mix of of individual individual in-class in-class testing testing on on prepreassigned homework/readings with retaking the same test in a group, assigned homework/readings with retaking the same test in a group, and and getting a mark based on the mix of the two. Part marks are also awarded getting a mark based on the mix of the two. Part marks are also awarded for for getting getting the the answer answer on on the the second second try. try. What What is is the the IF-AT IF-AT (Immediate (Immediate Feedback Feedback Assessment Assessment Technique): Technique): http://www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/default.aspx http://www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/default.aspx Back Back to to How Does IF-AT work? How Does IF-AT work? Product Product http://www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/how.aspx http://www.epsteineducation.com/home/about/how.aspx Menu Menu 12B Evaluating group projects Projects vary widely by discipline and topic area, so there is little about project setup instructions and evaluation criteria that are unique to the group work context. The next section deals with how to assign marks for projects done in a group context. Consider a group portfolio as a way to document evidence of group work the product andknowledge, process quality. Portfolios student's understanding, Portfolios can can demonstrate demonstrate the student's knowledge, understanding, skills, skills, values values and and attitudes attitudes relevant relevant to to the the area area of of study. study. Students Students also also learn learn from from the the construction construction of of the

portfolio. the portfolio. A A portfolio portfolio should should include include both both agreed agreed criteria criteria that that are are aligned aligned with with the the requirements requirements of of the the subject subject and and examples examples of of work work that that demonstrate demonstrate knowledge knowledge and and understanding understanding of of that that criteria. criteria. For For example: example: report(s) report(s) Other considerations for evaluati assignment(s) assignment(s) meetings meetings minutes minutes ng group projects observational observational data data interview interview data data reflective reflective pieces pieces journal journal entries entries any any evidence evidence of of the the achievement achievement of of the the set set criteria. criteria. The The portfolio portfolio documents documents individual individual and and group group contributions. contributions. 12C Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu Other considerations in evaluating group projects What What percentage percentage of of the the students students total total project project grade grade will will be be based based on on the the groups groups performance performance vs. vs. individual individual components? components? What What percentage percentage will will be be based based on on assessments assessments of of product product vs. vs.

assessments of process? assessments of process? How How much much weight weight will will you you give give to to peer peer evaluations evaluations or or selfselfevaluations? evaluations? A A number number of of dimensions dimensions of of group group work work can can factor, factor, either either formally formally or or informally, into a students grade. Whats important is to think informally, into a students grade. Whats important is to think about about what what dimensions dimensions of of student student performance performance matter matter to to you you and and how how your your grading grading criteria criteria and and the the weighting weighting of of assessment assessment components components can can help help motivate motivate the the behaviors behaviors you you want want to to see. see. Finally, Finally, its its critical critical to to clearly clearly communicate communicate your your grading grading scheme scheme to to students. students. Find Find samples samples of of group group project project assessment assessment tools tools here... here... Other Other group group project project assessment assessment resources: resources: Back Back Back to to Back to to https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstra https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstra Previous Product Previous Product tegies/groupprojects/assess.html tegies/groupprojects/assess.html Screen Menu Screen Menu 12C1 12D

Evaluating a group work skills The idea here is that one group work product is group work skills that need component criteria and rubrics in order to be assessed. Make Make your your assessment assessment criteria criteria and and grading grading scheme scheme clear. clear. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies /groupprojects/assess.html /groupprojects/assess.html Its Its always always important important to to articulate articulate performance performance criteria criteria so so students students understand your expectations and standards. This is especially understand your expectations and standards. This is especially true true ifif you you are are emphasizing emphasizing skills skills that that are are not not usually usually assessed, assessed, such such as as the the ability ability to to resolve resolve conflict, conflict, delegate delegate tasks, tasks, etc. etc. Criteria Criteria for for evaluating evaluating both both product product and and process process can can be be communicated communicated by by giving giving students students aa group group work work rubric rubric (pdf) (pdf) before before they they begin begin their their work work and and then then using using it it to to provide meaningful feedback during and at the end of the project. provide meaningful feedback during and at the end of the project. Peer Peer Assessment Assessment of of Team Team Members: Members: http://sydney.edu.au/business/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/54413/PeerAss http://sydney.edu.au/business/__data/assets/pdf_file/0017/54413/PeerAss essCriteria.pdf essCriteria.pdf Team Team Assessment Assessment Form: Form: aa sample sample group group skills skills evaluation evaluation rubric. rubric. Back to Back to

Other considerations for evaluating group skills Product Product Menu Menu 12D1 Other considerations in evaluating group skills What What percentage percentage of of the the students students total total project project grade grade will will be be based based on on the the groups groups performance performance vs. vs. individual individual components? components? What What percentage percentage will will be be based based on on assessments assessments of of product product vs. vs. assessments of process? assessments of process? How How much much weight weight will will you you give give to to peer peer evaluations evaluations or or selfselfevaluations? evaluations? A A number number of of dimensions dimensions of of group group work work can can factor factor into into aa students students grade, either formally or informally. Whats important is grade, either formally or informally. Whats important is to to think think about what dimensions of student performance matter to you about what dimensions of student performance matter to you and and how how your your grading grading criteria criteria and and the the weighting weighting of of assessment assessment components components can can help help motivate motivate the the behaviors behaviors you you want want to to see. see. Finally, Finally, its its critical critical to to clearly clearly communicate communicate your your grading grading scheme scheme to

to students. students. Find Find samples samples of of group group project project assessment assessment tools tools here... here... Back Back https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrate Back to to Back to to https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrate gies/groupprojects/assess.html gies/groupprojects/assess.html Previous Product Previous Product Screen Menu Screen Menu 13A Giving the same mark to all team This is a typical group product mark approach, but consider that students can members be profoundly demotivated if they feel that their own success is dependent on team members who dont do their share, or some team members will do little but getare a several high mark because of the their work. There options for giving same mark for the group product to all group There are several options for giving the same mark for the group product to all group members. members. They They include include aa shared shared group group mark mark and and aa group group average average mark. mark. A A group group average average mark mark for for group group process process is is outlined outlined below below as as well. well. Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Shared Group Mark: The group submits one product and all group members receive the same mark from the lecturer/tutor, regardless of individual contribution. Encourages group work groups sink or swim together Decreases likelihood of plagiarism more likely with individual products Relatively straightforward method Individual contributions are not necessarily reflected in the marks Stronger students may be unfairly disadvantaged by weaker ones and vice versa Group Average Mark: Individual submissions (allocated task or individual reports as described below) are marked individually. The group members each then Click here for

third receive an average of these marks. May provide motivation for students to focus on both individual and group work and thereby develop in both Credit: University of Melbourne areas May be perceived as unfair by students Stronger students may be unfairly disadvantaged by weaker ones and Back vice versa to Back to option Product Product Menu Menu Giving the same mark to all team members-third option Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Group average mark -based on records/observation of process: Each individual group member's contribution (as defined by predetermined criteria) is assessed using evidence from: Team log books Minutes sheets and/or Direct observation of process. The group members each then receive an average of these marks. Makes students focus on their operation as a team Logs can provide plenty of information to form basis of assessment Keeping minute sheets helps members to focus on the process - a learning experience in itself Reviewing logs can be time consuming Students may need a lot of training and experience Emphasis on second hand evidence - reliability an issue Averaging the mark may be seen as unfair to those who have contributed more than others 13A1 Credit: University of Melbourne Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu 13B Giving individual marks To counteract the unfairness of everyone receiving the same mark despite differing levels of individual contribution, individual marks are sometimes given. If group effort is not part of the marking scheme, though, the skill development possible from a true group effort may be in jeopardy because it doesnt count for anything. Several Several options options exist exist for for assigning assigning only only individual individual marks marks for for work

work done done in in aa group. group. They They include include individually individually allocated allocated tasks, tasks, the the generation generation of of individual individual reports reports in in addition addition to to the the group group product, product, and and exam exam questions questions on on the the subject subject of of the the group group product product that are answered individually. There are also options for giving individual marks that are answered individually. There are also options for giving individual marks for for group group process process based based on on observations observations and and records, records, and and individual individual papers papers on on group group process. process. Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Individual Mark Allocated task: Each student completes an allocated task that contributes to the final group product and gets the marks for that task A relatively objective way of ensuring individual participation May provide additional motivation to students Potential to reward outstanding performance Difficult to find tasks that are exactly equal in size/complexity Does not encourage the group process/collaboration Dependencies between tasks may slow progress of some students Back Back to to Credit: University of Melbourne Click here for two more options Product Product Menu Menu 13B1 Giving individual marks-more options Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Individual Mark Individual report: Each student writes and submits an individual

report based on the group's work on the task/project Ensures individual effort Perceived as fair by students Precise manner in which individual reports should differ often very unclear to students Likelihood of unintentional plagiarism increased Individual Mark Examination Exam questions specifically target the group projects, and can only be answered by students who have been thoroughly involved in the project May motivate students more to learn from the group project including learning from the other members of the group May diminish importance of group work Additional work for staff in designing exam questions May not be effective, students may be able to answer the questions by reading the group reports Credit: University of Melbourne Click here for two more options Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu 13B2 Giving individual marks-more options Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Individual mark - based on records/observation of process: Each individual group member's contribution (as defined by predetermined criteria) is assessed using evidence from: Team log books Minutes sheets and/or Direct observation of process And they are awarded a mark Logs can potentially provide plenty of information to form basis of assessment Keeping minute sheets helps members to focus on the process - a learning experience in itself May be perceived as a fair way to deal with 'shirkers' and outstanding contributions Reviewing logs can be time consuming for lecturer/tutor Students may need a lot of training and experience in keeping records Emphasis on second hand evidence - reliability an issue Direct observation by a lecturer/tutor likely to change the nature of interaction in the group Individual mark - for paper analyzing process Marks attributed for an individual paper from each student analyzing the group process, including their own contribution that of student colleagues

Helps students to focus on the process Minimizes opportunities for plagiarism Information from students may be subjective and/or inaccurate May increase assessment burden lecturer/tutor Credit: University of for Melbourne Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu 13C A combination of individual and group With both group and individual work evaluation, there is more incentive for marks students to put effort into working together as well as making valuable contributions. One One way way to to counteract counteract the the motivational motivational hazards hazards of of group group projects projects is is to to assess assess individual individual students learning and performance in addition to the groups output. This strategy students learning and performance in addition to the groups output. This strategy gives gives diligent diligent students students aa greater greater sense sense of of fairness fairness and and control control and and discourages discourages free free ridership. ridership. https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/ https://www.cmu.edu/teaching/designteach/design/instructionalstrategies/groupprojects/ assess.html assess.html The The options options explored explored below below for for assessment assessment of of group group product product are are aa combination combination of of group group average and individual mark, and peer evaluation based on criteria that is done by average and individual mark, and peer evaluation based on criteria that is done by random random markers. markers. Assessment option

Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Individual Mark Allocated task: The group mark is awarded to each member with a mechanism for adjusting for individual contributions Perceived by many students as fairer than shared group mark Additional work for staff in setting up procedure for and in negotiating adjustments Credit: University of Melbourne Click here for another option Back Back to to Product Product Menu Menu 13c1 A combination of individual and group Example: Solomon Example: Professor Professor Solomon asks asks student student groups groups to to research research aa famous famous anthropological anthropological marks 2 controversy, controversy, and and give give an an oral oral presentation presentation analyzing analyzing the the issues, issues, positions, positions, and and people people involved. involved. She She assigns assigns aa group group grade grade for for the the presentation, presentation, but but also also requires requires all all the the team team members to write a short, individual paper summarizing what they learned from the members to write a short, individual paper summarizing what they learned from the assignment assignment and and what what they they contributed contributed to to the the team. team. IfIf the the individual individual piece piece demonstrates demonstrates aa poor poor understanding understanding of of the the material material or or aa low low level level of of participation participation in in the the group, group, she she reserves reserves

the right to lower the individuals grade by a full letter grade. If it is particularly informed, the right to lower the individuals grade by a full letter grade. If it is particularly informed, thorough, thorough, or or demonstrates demonstrates an an exceptionally exceptionally high high contribution contribution to to the the team, team, she she raises raises the the individuals individuals grade grade by by aa full full letter letter grade. grade. Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Peer Evaluation Helps clarify criteria to be Time may have to be random marker, using used for assessment invested in teaching Encourages a sense of criteria, moderated: students to evaluate each Completed assessment involvement and other items are randomly responsibility Staff moderation is time distributed to students Assists students to develop consuming who are required to skills in independent complete a marking sheet judgment identifying whether their Increases feedback to peer has met the students assessment criteria and Random allocation awarding a mark. These addresses potential marks are moderated by friendship and other the staff member and influences on assessment Back Back Back to to Back to to together with the peer Credit: University May provide experience of Melbourne Previous Product Previous Product marking sheets are parallel to career situations Screen Menu Screen Menu returned with the where peer judgment occurs assessment item. 13D The group distributes a finite number of Distribution of a limited set of marks amongst individual group members by group marks members is likely to result in more accurate assessment of individual contribution. It also encourages individual accountability. Two Two options options for for letting letting students students determine determine individual individual marks marks based

based on on group group consensus consensus of each members contribution are distributing a set number of marks and giving of each members contribution are distributing a set number of marks and giving individual individual weightings weightings on on the the shared shared group group mark. mark. Example: Example: the the product product is is marked marked 80 80 (out (out of of aa possible possible 100) 100) by by the the lecturer. lecturer. There There are are four four members members of of the the group. group. Four Four by by 80 80 = = 240 240 so so there there are are 240 240 marks marks to to distribute distribute to to the the four four members. members. No No one one student student can can be be given given less less than than zero zero or or more more than than 100. 100. IfIf members members decide decide that that they they all all contributed contributed equally equally to to the the product product then then each each member member would would receive receive aa mark mark of of 80. 80. IfIf they they decided decided that that some some of of the the group group had had made made aa bigger bigger contribution, contribution, then then those those members members might might get get 85 85 or or 90 90 marks marks and and those those who who contributed

contributed less less would would get get aa lesser lesser mark. mark. Assessment option Student distribution of pool of marks : Lecturer/tutor awards a set number of marks and let the group decide how to distribute them. Some possible advantages Easy to implement May motivate students to contribute more Negotiation skills become part of the learning process Potential to reward outstanding performance May be perceived as fairer Credit: University of Melbourne than shared or average group mark alone Some possible disadvantages Open to subjective evaluation by friends May lead to conflict May foster competition and therefore be counterproductive to team work Students may not have the skills necessary for the to Back Back to required negotiation Click here for student allocation of weightings opti on Product Product Menu Menu 13D1 The group distributes a finite number of marks 2 Assessment option Some possible advantages Some possible disadvantages Students allocate individual weightings: Lecture/tutor gives shared group mark, which is adjusted according to a peer assessment factor. The individual student's mark comes from the group mark multiplied by the peer assessment factor (eg. , X 0.5 for 'half' contribution or X 1 for 'full' contribution) . Easy to implement May motivate students to contribute more Negotiation skills become part of the learning process Potential to reward outstanding performance May be perceived as fairer than shared or average group mark alone Open to subjective evaluation by friends May lead to conflict May foster competition and therefore be counterproductive to team work Students may not have the skills necessary for the required negotiation Credit: University of Melbourne Back Back to to Previous Previous Screen Screen Back Back to to Product

Product Menu Menu References Back Back to to Main Main Menu Menu O Carroll, J. (2009). Teaching Culturally Diverse Groups: managing assessed group work. Economics Network. Retrieved from http://www.economicsnetwork.ac.uk/showcase/carroll_diversity O Geoff Petty Research and Links: http://geoffpetty.com/for-team-leaders/research-and-links/ O Hattie, J. (1999). Influences on Student Learning. University of Auckland. Retrieved from http://xn--www-rp0a.teacherstoolbox.co.uk/downloads/managers/Influencesonstudent.pdf O Leask, B. (2009). Using formal and Informal Curricula to Improve Interactions Between Home and International Students. Journal of Studies in International Education, 13(2). O Medved, D. et al. (2013). Challenges in teaching international students: group separation, language barriers and culture differences. Retrieved from: https://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/4215983 O Mixing, learning and working together. (Undated). The Higher Education Academy, York, UK. O Neville, C. Making Groupwork Work. The Learnhigher CETL at the University of Bradford, UK. O Presentation Rubrics and Evaluation Resources, Undergraduate Geoscience: http://serc.carleton.edu/NAGTWorkshops/assess/oralpresentations.html O UNB Teaching and Learning Services. Group Work. http://www.unb.ca/fredericton/cetl/tls/resources/teaching_tips/tt_instructional_methods/ group_work.html O Young-Davy, B. et. at. (2013). Working with International Students in Class. American English Institute, College of Arts and Sciences Teaching Effectiveness Program. This resource designed and developed by Bev Bramble, UNB CETL-Teaching and Learning Services [email protected]

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Notice & Note - North Thurston Public Schools

    Notice & Note - North Thurston Public Schools

    Stop! Notice and Note Signpost #4:. Words of the Wiser. When you are reading and a character takes the main character aside and gives . serious advice . that is helpful at this moment in the story but could also...
  • Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    Communicating Astronomy with the Public

    Adrienne J. Gauthier (Chair) Lars Lindberg Christensen Robert Hurt Ryan Wyatt VAMP - Virtual Astronomy Multimedia Project Even for an expert user, locating a particular image invariably requires going to a known resource or relying on the existing highly imprecise...
  • Space 2

    Space 2

    Solar System Characteristics. Planet Riddles. Pluto. Now considered Dwarf Planet -a celestial body orbiting the Sun that is generally smaller than a planet but massive enough for its own gravity to give it a round shape. However they are not...
  • Level E Unit 1

    Level E Unit 1

    1. Adulterate (v.) - to corrupt, make worse by the addition of something of lesser value. Hospitals take strict precautions to assure that nothing ADULTERATES the blood supply.. Synonyms: contaminate, pollute, sully
  • November 2019 WSU Staff Recruitment Basics Overview of

    November 2019 WSU Staff Recruitment Basics Overview of

    The Washington State Law Against Discrimination makes it an unfair practice for an employer to discriminate against a candidate due to age, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, race, creed, color, national origin, honorably discharged veteran or military status, or the...
  • CS378 - Mobile Computing

    CS378 - Mobile Computing

    Or From the Command Line. C:\android-sdk-windows\tools>androidcreate avd-n MyDevice-t android-8 Android 2.2 is a basic Android platform. Do you wish to create a custom hardware profile [no]
  • MLA Overview Works Cited, Parenthetical Citations and More

    MLA Overview Works Cited, Parenthetical Citations and More

    Dr. Atkins & Jeff Boykin. ... Citizen Kane (AFI.com). How to Cite a Block Quote*Page 873 in your book. If your quotation is more than 4 lines, you have to use a block quote. ... Atkins, Anthony. Composition Program -...
  • Multi-spacecraft Observations: Potential Applications for 3D ...

    Multi-spacecraft Observations: Potential Applications for 3D ...

    CANDIDATE TIME PERIODS FOR PROPAGATION STUDIES WITH STEREO-A/B, ACE, WIND, SOHO B. Klecker Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik