Creationism News January 2013 2013 1 Dedicated to

Creationism News  January 2013    2013  1 Dedicated to

Creationism News January 2013 2013 1 Dedicated to David Coppedge who sacrificed his career as the Head Systems Administrator for the Cassini Spacecraft in JPL to honor the Creator of the Universe. He also spent literally thousands of hours to make his excellent websites. The contents of this presentation were taken from David Coppedges website Pray for the Lords guidance and help in his excellent websites. Pastor Chui [email protected] 01/26/20 1 Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

A commentator in the worlds leading science journal advised that science needs to work harder at becoming bipartisan. Daniel Sarewitz, whose pointed commentaries are often critical of science as it is compared to how it should be, wrote a disturbing World View column in Nature (Jan 3 issue) disturbing, that is, for American Democrats. He accused both individual scientists and scientific institutions of neglecting Republicans and conservatives, appearing to overwhelmingly 01/26/20 2 support the Democratic Party. Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

Science must be seen to bridge the political divide Scientists in the United States are often perceived as a Democratic interest group. For sciences sake this has to change, argues Daniel Sarewitz. To prevent science from continuing its worrying slide towards politicization, heres a New Years resolution for scientists, especially in the United States: gain the confidence of people and politicians across the political spectrum by 01/26/20 3 demonstrating that science is bipartisan. Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

Sarewitz discussed how key spokespersons for science are often very partisan, simply assuming that the Democratic Party is their friend, and the Republican Party the enemy. That President Barack Obama chose to mention technology, discovery and innovation in his passionate victory speech in November shows just how strongly science has come, over the past decade or so, to be a part of the identity of one political party, the Democrats, in the United States. The highest-profile voices in the scientific community have avidly pursued this embrace. For the third presidential election in a row, dozens of Nobel prizewinners in physics, chemistry and medicine signed a letter endorsing the Democratic 01/26/20 4 candidate.

Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? He tallied the record and found that Of the 43 (out of 68) signatories on record as having made past political donations, only five had ever contributed to a Republican candidate, and none did so in the last election cycle. Thats not right. Nobel laureates are citizens with political preferences, he said, and should not treat science like a political football. If the laureates are speaking on behalf of science, then science is revealing itself, like the unions, the civil service, environmentalists and tort lawyers, to be a Democratic interest, not a democratic one. Ouch! 01/26/20 5

Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? Sarewitz went on to describe how historically, science has prospered under both parties. The claim that Republicans are antiscience is a staple of Democratic political rhetoric, but bipartisan support among politicians for national investment in science, especially basic research, is still strong, he said, providing some statistics. 01/26/20 6 Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

He voiced a theory about why Republicans get a bad rap: they typically oppose social science, not so much science per se. Thats because they believe [social science] tilts towards liberal political agendas. Compounding the trouble is that social science is invading more and more scientific initiatives: As scientists seek to provide policy-relevant knowledge on complex, interdisciplinary problems ranging from fisheries depletion and carbon emissions to obesity and natural hazards, the boundary between the natural and the social sciences has blurred more than many scientists want to acknowledge. When leading scientists enthusiastically align themselves with the Democratic Party, its no wonder that conservatives are suspicious that all science is social science when it comes to contentious issues such as climate change, natural-resource management and policies around reproduction. 01/26/20 7

Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? One-party science is dangerous for science and for the nation, he warned. A healthy national scientific enterprise needs to be bipartisan. Sarewitz rebuked the scientific community about this in no uncertain terms: The US scientific community must decide if it wants to be a Democratic interest group or if it wants to reassert its value as an independent national asset. If scientists want to claim that their recommendations are independent of their political beliefs, they ought to be able to show that those recommendations have the support of scientists with conflicting beliefs. Bipartisan science, by contrast, would benefit science and the nation. Politicians would find it more difficult to attack science

endorsed by avowedly bipartisan groups of scientists, and more difficult to justify their policy preferences by scientific claims 01/26/20 8 that were contradicted by bipartisan panels. Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? Sarewitz ended with an unfortunate analogy, comparing his advice to bridge the divide with Republicans with the historic attempts of scientists during the Cold War to bridge the divide with Russian scientists. By implication, this might suggest the Republicans are like the Russian Reds (even though red is the current color of the Republican Party), when in fact communism is more aligned with far left ideology. 01/26/20

9 Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? Other than that, this article is important, not only for its good advice, but for reinforcing what CEH has alleged for a long time that scientists and academics are (to an overwhelming degree) willing agents of the liberals, leftists, and the Democratic Party (see9/07/2012, 8/22/2012, 7/06/2012, 8/07/2011, 10/14/2010, 7/05/2010, 9/28/2008, or search on Democrats in the search bar). Notice these same people are predominantly Darwinist, too. Unless parity is achieved, scientists and their institutions have lost credibility to claim science is an independent national asset providing value to all Americans. 01/26/20

10 Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? One can detect a faint undertone that Sarewitz is more concerned about loss of funding than about political balance. In the current period of dire fiscal stress, one way to undermine this stable funding and bipartisan support would be to convince Republicans, who control the House of Representatives, that science is a Democratic special interest, he worried. 01/26/20 11 Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

Well, guess what Sarewitz left out of his equation. When does scientific funding go up? In a booming economy! Republicans should be seen as the greatest friends of science, because they strongly support growth of the private sector by reducing taxes and regulations. When business thrives because entrepreneurs are not punished with stifling taxes and interference, the economy surges, and government becomes one of the key beneficiaries. More growth means more jobs. More jobs means more taxpayers. It doesnt take high tax rates to increase revenues: it takes a growing and expanding pool of successful businesses and the jobs they create. A strong economy (the Republican model) is the very boost science needs. Thats when revenues are strong, lifting all ships, 01/26/20 12 including science funding. Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party?

The redistributionist path we are on under the current administration, though, will damage science along with the rest of the private sector, because all ships will founder on the rocks. President Obama is intent on fairness, by which he means taking from the wealthy and handing it out to the poor. This doesnt spread the wealth around (remember that phrase from his conversation with Joe the Plumber); it spreads the misery around. It reduces incentive to take risks. The economy falters, joblessness rises. The President cannot be blind to the fact that taking all the money from the wealthiest Americans would only run the government for a few days or weeks. He knows that increasing taxes on capital gains does not increase revenues. But he is stuck on fairness regardless; everyone 01/26/20 13 should be equally miserable, including scientists.

Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? The Democrats own this economy now. As the debt skyrockets into unprecedented trillions (more than incurred by all previous presidents combined), scientists are getting hurt along with every other American. The value of the currency drops as inflation threatens to rise. Everything becomes more costly. Scientists will have to argue for the smallest cuts rather than affordable increases, with the spectre of complete economic collapse looming on the horizon a time when all scientific funding by the government would be a fools luxury, last on the priority list. The economic crisis America faces, along with many of the worlds democratic nations bent on equality of outcome instead of equality of opportunity, is being exacerbated by liberal policies. Scientists who align with the Democratic Party have a death wish; they love what is destroying them. Instead of pampering the goose that lays the 01/26/20 14

golden egg, they slay it in greed. Is Science a Special Interest Group for One Party? As for hoping that scientists will heed Sarewitzs advice to become more bipartisan thats funny, its so unlikely. If anything happens at all, it will be a scheme to appear more bipartisan without any substantive change (for example of phony engagement, see this article on ENV). It could take a generation or longer to get real bipartisanship. Will the country last that long? 01/26/20 15 Whats Up with Alley Oop?

Here are some recent stories about human evolution. Some might deserve to be in the comics. 1. Lucy walked up right into the trees: Nathaniel Dominy thinks Lucys ankle bones dont rule out the possibility she was a tree-climber. By studying the Twa tribe in Uganda, whose members routinely climb trees looking for honey, Dominy and colleagues found the fossil evidence of Australopithecus afarensis ambiguous. Thats because the muscle and tendon changes associated with habitual tree climbing dont fossilize. PhysOrg posted a video clip explaining the problem. Dominys work was published in an openaccess paper in PNAS, where the abstract states, 01/26/20 16 Whats Up with Alley Oop?

Paleoanthropologists have long arguedoften contentiously about the climbing abilities of early hominins and whether a foot adapted to terrestrial bipedalism constrained regular access to trees. However, some modern humans climb tall trees routinely in pursuit of honey, fruit, and game, often without the aid of tools or support systems Here we show that Twa huntergatherers use extraordinary ankle dorsiflexion (>45) during climbing, similar to the degree observed in wild chimpanzees. [O]ur results imply that derived aspects of the hominin ankle associated with bipedalism remain compatible with vertical climbing and arboreal resource acquisition. Our findings challenge the persistent arborealterrestrial dichotomy that has informed behavioral reconstructions of fossil hominins and highlight the value of using modern humans as models for inferring the limits of hominin 01/26/20 17 arboreality.

Whats Up with Alley Oop? Not so fast, PhysOrg put it. Claiming that Lucy didnt climb trees may be a rush to judgment in light of new evidence in the paper. 2. Clothes make the Peking Man: The Homo erectus specimens collectively dubbed Peking Man apparently exhibited another human trait: they were fastidious about fashion. Reporter Owen Jarus said in Live Science, Peking Man, a human ancestor who lived in China between roughly 200,000 and 750,000 years ago, was a wood-working, fire-using, spear-hafting hominid who, mysteriously, liked to drill holes into objects for unknown reasons.

And, yes, these hominids, a form of Homo erectus, appear to have been quite meticulous about their clothing, using stone tools to soften and depress animal hides. 01/26/20 18 Whats Up with Alley Oop? Jarus pointed out that these people made spears like Heidelberg Man, but theyre not sure if they learned the skill independently or at the same time. As for the drilling of holes, just because living humans cant figure out why they did it doesnt mean the cave dwellers didnt have good reasons. They apparently made tools for their fashion industry. If they are depressing the hides, if they are softening hides, they can use the hides for

their clothes, something no sophisticated hominids would dare live without. Alley Oop wore clothes, we remember from the cartoons, but since the hides didnt fossilize with the skulls, we cant really know how chic Mrs. Oop looked. 01/26/20 19 Whats Up with Alley Oop? 3. Climate makes the man: If you can believe a headline on PhysOrg, we are what we are because the weather was what it was. Fluctuating environment may have driven human evolution, it reads; A series of rapid environmental changes in East Africa roughly 2 million years ago may be responsible for driving human

evolution, according to researchers at Penn State and Rutgers University. How did they come up with this notion? By looking at leaves in an ancient lake. Presuming the dates of those leaves tell a climate story, and presuming they match epochal periods of human evolution, they placed cause with effect. But if anthropogenic climate change is a big modern debate, perhaps the hominids caused the climate change, not the other way around. 01/26/20 20 Whats Up with Alley Oop? It seems this idea could be testable. See if people in the polar regions are regrowing fur. Without asking questions

like this, the researchers convinced themselves that they had found natural forcing mechanisms to drive hominid evolution toward scholarship. They didnt explain why other species didnt simultaneously learn abstract language and philosophy. 01/26/20 21 Whats Up with Alley Oop? 4. Out of Out of Africa theories: A new find musses up common ideas about humans emerging out of Africa. Pamela Willoughby has found evidence of continuous habitation at two sites in Tanzania between 200,000 years ago and the present. According to

PhysOrg, this may lead to a rethinking of how, when and from where our ancestors left Africa. Many paleoanthropologists believe a genetic bottleneck after the Ice Age shows there was a migration into Europe at around 50,000 to 60,000 years ago, but Willoughbys evidence includes the whole period before and after the bottleneck all the way to the present. She explained why this represents an upset: 01/26/20 22 Whats Up with Alley Oop? It was only about 20 years ago that people recognized that modern Homo sapiens actually had an African ancestry, and everyone was

focused on looking at early Homo sapiens in Europe who appeared around 40,000 years ago, she said. But we now know that as far as back as around 200,000 years ago, Africa was inhabited by people who were already physically exactly like us today or really close to being the same as us. All of a sudden, its not Europe in this time period thats really important, its Africa. 01/26/20 23 Whats Up with Alley Oop? What were hominids identical to us doing for 200,000 years against the inexorable forces of evolution? Didnt they read the bumper stickers,

Evolve or perish? Willoughbys upset is just the latest upset until the next upset. 01/26/20 24 Whats Up with Alley Oop? 5. Annus horribilis, a new endangered species: Latin speakers will know that Annus horribilis means terrible year, not a Linnaean classification name. But according to Science Magazine (Dec. 21), it was a terrible year for Homo sapiens var. anthropologist a recent entry in the endangered species list. A lot of anthropology graduates cant find work. There just arent that many jobs labeled anthropologist, so graduates are evolving into subspecies

that adapt their image to a changing environment. With multiculturalism a buzzword in certain quarters, anthropologists can advertise themselves as ones able to research human life, history, and culture, and apply that knowledge to current issues such as diversity in the world. The article did not describe the plight of a minor subspecies 01/26/20 25 of the clade, paleoanthropologists. Whats Up with Alley Oop? None of these stories really matter, because paleoanthropology is a field where every year or two they announce, Everything you know is wrong. Since there are infinitely more wrong ideas than correct ones, changes to this

pattern are unlikely when the blind lead the blind. We offer paleoanthropology stories less as scientific discovery as much as funny pages. 01/26/20 26 Happy New Biomimetics Year The variety of design applications coming from the imitation of natural solutions continues to be astonishing. Hope for sensitive teeth: When is it time to see the dentist? At 2:30 (tooth hurty). If you have sensitive teeth like 3 out of 4 people, there may be a biomimetic solution coming. Sensitivity occurs when dentin at the gum line erodes, leaving nerves exposed to hot, cold, sweet or

sour signals. PhysOrg and Science Daily, echoing a press release from the American Chemical Society, announced a way to rebuild enamel and dentin, taking a clue from mussels. Mussels build a waterproof adhesive to secure themselves to the rocks. Taking inspiration from nature, a team reasoned that it could help keep minerals in contact with dentin long enough for the rebuilding process to occur. They have invented a gooey substance that allows the dentin and enamel to grow together (see picture on PhysOrg). This solution would be far better than the current band-aid treatment of brushing with special toothpaste that deadens the nerves. Instead, 01/26/20 27 the adhesive could allow the teeth to be reconstructed for good. Happy New Biomimetics Year Pearl of great price: The beauty of pearl and mother-ofpearl (nacre) goes beyond its attractiveness in jewelry. The material is also desirable for its durability against cracks. Biomimetics engineers would like to imitate the

construction of similar materials, but understanding how the mollusk does it is a prerequisite. It looks like imitation will be a way off; in a PNAS paper, researchers described how they identified 80 shell matrix proteins, among which 66 are entirely unique. Although they believed that shell-making was key to the evolutionary success of mollusks, they didnt describe how these unique proteins arose, each one being a highly improbable outcome for a blind evolutionary process (see online book). The French team said, 01/26/20 28 Happy New Biomimetics Year This is the only description of the whole biomineralization toolkit of the matrices that, at least in part, is thought to regulate the formation of the

prismatic and nacreous shell layers in the pearl oysters. We unambiguously demonstrate that prisms and nacre are assembled from very different protein repertoires. This suggests that these layers do not derive from each other. 01/26/20 29 Happy New Biomimetics Year Imitating rapid steroid synthesis: Researchers at Scripps Institute are achieving a feat that only nature could make on a large scale the synthesis of polyhydroxylated steroids. These compounds. used in heart-failure medications and

other drugs, have been notoriously problematic to synthesize in the laboratory, PhysOrg reported. The work points the way to a scalable formation and modification of a variety of useful compounds that had been obtainable in significant quantities only from plants or animals. They reduced the number of steps from 41 to 21, making natures feat still look superior. 01/26/20 30 Happy New Biomimetics Year Bioinspired catalysts: Nature makes it look so easy. Naturally occurring metalloenzymes have long been recognized as attractive catalysts for aerobic oxidations because they can operate

under mild conditions with complete chemoselectivity, Science Magazine said. Simulation of the function of these enzymes has led to the discovery of many biomimetic oxidation catalysts. Martine Largeron and Maurice-Bernard Fleury described progress in this dynamic research field. Researchers arent yet close to catching up with what living cells do every 01/26/20 31 day: Happy New Biomimetics Year Many challenges remain, including the development of biomimetic catalytic systems that operate effectively at room temperature with ambient air rather than pure molecular oxygen. The development of recyclable heterogeneous

nanocluster catalysts that contain biocompatible rather than rare and precious metals would also be welcome. From a more general viewpoint, mimicking the function of amine oxidase enzymes would provide environmentally friendly organic synthesis because air is the cheaper and less polluting stoichiometric oxidant. 01/26/20 32 Happy New Biomimetics Year Mitochondria-inspired fuel cells: Inspired by how cellular organelles like mitochondria and chloroplasts harvest sunlight so efficiently, researchers at the University of Reading have built

nanowire networks with vastly increased surface area that can reside on plastic substrates, promising fuel cells and other products that are more efficient, cheaper, lightweight, and environmentally friendly. PhysOrg headlined this, Nanomaterial inspired by nature paves way for greener energy. If you dont mind the goofy music, a video clip shows the manufacturing 01/26/20 33 process. Happy New Biomimetics Year Living buildings: Imagine buildings of the future hosting lichens and mosses that can absorb excess C02. Thats becoming an option, reported Science Daily, with a drawing of a building with a vegetated facade making the most of the sunlight. The new material, designed at a university in Barcelona, Spain,

offers environmental, thermal and aesthetic advantages over other similar construction solutions. It also improves the thermal comfort of people inside. The innovative feature of this new (vertical multilayer) concrete is that it acts as a natural biological support for the growth and development of certain biological organisms, to be specific, certain families of microalgae, fungi, lichens and mosses. The layered structure captures rainwater for use by the organisms, and as they grow, the buildings will change in color over time. The researchers see their patented concrete being used for renovating buildings, creating vertical gardens and designing architectures that blend into the landscape. 01/26/20 34 Happy New Biomimetics Year Everyone can love biomimetics. Many of the above are unique stories, not mentioned here before. Faster,

better, cheaper nature shows us the way. Darwin-talk drops out of the discussion when the focus is on natural design we can use to improve our lives. 01/26/20 35 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized A proposed solution for keeping the Earth warm when the sun was 25% cooler leaves other evolutionists doubtful. The faint young sun paradox has been a worry for decades. Theoretically, stars like our sun would

have been 2030% cooler in their early years about the time when the Earth was preparing for life in evolutionary scenarios. How did the Earths surface avoid becoming frozen solid, from which an escape to springtime was impossible? Besides, records of the oldest crustal rocks show signs that oceans were liquid 34 billion years ago in the 01/26/20 36 evolutionary timeline. Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized A new solution was proposed in the 4 Jan issue of Science Magazine by Robin Wordsworth and Raymond Pierrehumbert of the University of Chicago. They propose that higher levels of nitrogen combined with 10% hydrogen would have increased collisional and rotational states in these

gases. That would produce global warming enough to keep the surface from freezing. This new proposal adds to earlier hypotheses about other greenhouse gases that might have been present, such as methane or more carbon dioxide. 01/26/20 37 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized But in the same issue of Science, James Kasting of Penn State threw cold water on the new proposal. Hydrogen gas was unlikely to have existed once life evolved, because methanogens would have eaten it out of the atmosphere in short order. In addition, Sara Reardon in New Scientist noted that fossil raindrop imprints, which are large and show free fall through a thin atmosphere, contradict the idea that nitrogen and

hydrogen were abundant. She also pointed out that volcanoes do not typically exude the amount of hydrogen needed in the new model. And on, Charles Q. Choi said that Past research had suggested that the early Earth was not rich in hydrogen. Even Wordsworth admitted, Hydrogen is such a rare gas in Earths atmosphere today that at first glance, it seems crazy that it could ever have played a role in warming the climate. 01/26/20 38 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized While not overthrowing the new proposal, Kasting, Reardon and Choi suggested that the paradox will require further work to resolve. Woodworth agreed: Theres been lots of previous work on the faint young sun paradox, and were sure our

study wont be the last word on the matter, Wordsworth added. Its of course quite possible that the early Earth was kept warm by a combination of effects. 01/26/20 39 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized Nevertheless, the headlines in the popular media put the proposal in a positive light. Because Titans atmosphere has more hydrogen than Earths, New Scientist titled its entry, Titan holds clue to faint young sun paradox. This is misleading because the hydrogen does not contribute significantly to warming on Titan due to the low temperature,

according to Kasting. And promised but did not deliver on its headline, How Early Earth Kept Warm Despite Faint Sun. 01/26/20 40 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized This is a classic case of special pleading. Planetary evolutionists need a warm Earth to fit their old-age ideas of the sun and the planet, but the Earth has to maintain a stable temperature as the sun gets warmer and life evolves. So they invent scenarios to walk that tightrope. The Earth could have stayed warm if hydrogen made up 10% of the atmosphere and nitrogen was 23 times as dense as it is today. This implausible ad hoc scenario could conceivably

have increased surface temperatures by as much as 10 to 15C. But then the hydrogen had to leak out, and the nitrogen become less dense, to match the increasing temperature of the sun over time. 01/26/20 41 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized Building on the house of cards, Kasting says it could have been caused by pressure broadening of CO2 and H2O lines with the higher nitrogen levels. Climbing higher on the house of cards, he says the realization that H2 can warm terrestrial planet climates could be important for the prebiotic Earth, early Mars, and young Earth-like exoplanets. Wowwe got

from one implausible hypothesis to life all over the place! Isnt evolution wonderful. It explains everything. (So does unbounded imagination.) 01/26/20 42 Faint Young Sun Paradox Solution Criticized The faint young sun paradox is a selfcontradiction within evolutionary theory. It does not exist for creationists. They know that God created Earth to be inhabited from the start, not that long ago. 01/26/20 43

A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel Dont take a star trek unless you want to arrive demented. According to Science Daily, prolonged exposure to cosmic radiation accelerates the development of dementia, including Alzheimers Disease. The headline says it: Space Travel May Be Harmful to the Brain, Study Suggests; Prolonged Cosmic Radiation Exposure Could Hasten Alzheimers. The press release at the University of Rochester put it this way: Houston, We Have Another 01/26/20 44 Problem. A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel

A study published in PLoS ONE (open access) found that mice at Brookhaven National Lab exposed to radiation levels similar to those in space had accelerated levels of dementia. This damage adds to the well-known cancer risks and potential for muscle atrophy for long trips in weightlessness. The new study shows that galactic cosmic rays not only have cardiovascular and musculoskeletal impacts 01/26/20 45 they slowly destroy the brain. A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel

Why is galactic cosmic radiation so damaging? Cant NASA guard against it? The press release explains, While space is full of radiation, the earths magnetic field generally protects the planet and people in low earth orbit from these particles. However, once astronauts leave orbit, they are exposed to constant shower of various radioactive particles. With appropriate warning, astronauts can be shielded from dangerous radiation associated with solar flares. But there are also other forms of cosmic radiation that, for all intents and 01/26/20 46 purposes, cannot be effectively blocked. A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel

Thats because cosmic rays are so energetic; shielding cannot stop them, or else it creates a shower of lowerenergy particles that are also damaging. Heavy ion particles sent out from galaxies would be impossible to deflect: One would have to essentially wrap a spacecraft in a six-foot block of lead or concrete, coauthor M. Kerry OBanion said. Try launching that out of Earth gravity. There arent as many cosmic particles as those in the solar wind, but the damage they cause accumulates. Because this radiation exists in low levels, the longer an astronaut is in deep space, the greater the exposure. At this rate, forget star travel; the effects may be too harsh for astronauts on NASAs drawing-board proposals for a 301/26/20 47 year mission to Mars. A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel

Update 1/07/13: Science NOW reported on results from the Mars500 mission simulation, during which six practice crewmen lived in the confinement of a space capsule for 520 days the length of time for a Mars round trip. In short, they became couch potatoes: lethargic, bored, and unenthusiastic. This is another reality that mission planners will have to take into account. 01/26/20 48 A Brain Wouldnt Survive Star Travel

This updates an entry from 9/23/2006, showing that the problem has not gone away with six more years of research. The take-home lesson should be gratitude for the safety bubble we inhabit in the cosmic shooting gallery, allowing us to live, love, and enjoy the beauty of creation. Safe within our bubble, Hollywood screenwriters can envision epic space voyages (acted out by actors in Earth-bound studios), and astronomers can search out the most distant galaxies and strive to understand the entire universe from a protected platform our Privileged Planet. 01/26/20 49 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab Plants avoid wilting with pairs of guard cells performing chemical wizardry. Leaves are peppered with oval pores called stomata (singular, stoma). Surrounding these pores are guard cells that control the rate of

moisture escape and carbon dioxide intake. Under dry conditions, the guard cells relax and close the pores; when moisture is plentiful, they stiffen, opening the pore. But how do they do it? How do they know its dry, and what causes them to open the gates? 01/26/20 50 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab A new paper in Current Biology found something interesting: the guard cells know how to make abscisic acid (ABA*) from scratch. ABA is required to close the stoma. Its remarkable that no one really figured this out till now, especially since Francis Darwin (Charless son), way back in 1898, observed stomata closing when the relative humidity (rh) drops. That observation was relatively simple; however, our understanding of

the signaling pathway responsible for coupling changes in rh to alterations in stomatal aperture is fragmentary. Heres what Bauer et al., a team of 14 mostly in Germany, found out by stressing plants with dry air and watching the genes that responded: 01/26/20 51 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab The results presented here highlight the primacy of abscisic acid (ABA) in the stomatal response to drying air. We show that guard cells possess the entire ABA biosynthesis pathway and that it appears upregulated by positive feedback by ABA. When wild-type Arabidopsis and the ABA-deficient mutant aba3-1 were exposed to reductions in rh, the aba3-1 mutant wilted, whereas the wild-type did not. However, when aba3-1 plants, in which ABA synthesis had

been specifically rescued in guard cells, were challenged with dry air, they did not wilt. These data indicate that guard cell-autonomous ABA synthesis is required for and is sufficient for stomatal closure in response to low rh. Guard cell-autonomous ABA synthesis allows the plant to tailor leaf gas exchange exquisitely to suit the 01/26/20 52 prevailing environmental conditions. Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab The team found 588 genes whose expression profiles changed when exposed to dry air. Of those, 131 belong to the class of guard cell-enriched genes, they said. But thats not all: Within the pool of guard cell-expressed genes, 1,550 appeared sensitive to ABA, with 1,080 being upregulated and 470 being

downregulated. Within the cluster of robust ABA-induced genes, they found candidate genes that respond to humidity. 01/26/20 53 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab One of the most striking features of their observations was that guard cells contain all the genes necessary to synthesize abscisic acid. Thats not as easy as it looks. In their Figure 2A, they list 8 intermediate steps required to go from Beta-carotene to ABA, the first five steps taking place in the plastids of the guard cells, the last three in the cytosol. 01/26/20

54 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab Our results suggest that guard cells express the entire repertoire of ABA biosynthesis genes and that the abundance of their transcripts increases after exposure to ABA. This latter result suggests the existence of a positive feedback loop. 01/26/20 55 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab They further found that ABA is essential for stomal closure. Without it, leaves wilted. The leaves could be

rescued, though, by turning on the ABA-expressing genes. In their final discussion you can sense their excitement at elucidating this elegant system: 01/26/20 56 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab Understanding how stomata respond to changes in atmospheric rh has been a key challenge since the phenomenon was first described by Francis Darwin. Our work and data from Okamoto et al. reveal a significant role for ABA in the stomatal response to both reduced and elevated rh. We also show that stomata are capable of responding to a reduction in rh in a cell-autonomous way,

and this is mediated through the highly localized production of ABA. 01/26/20 57 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab Guard cell-autonomous ABA synthesis not only allows an individual stoma to respond to changes in leaf hydration but also permits it to respond to changes in atmospheric rh and other stresses that use ABA as a signal. This in turn presents the plant with the possibility of exquisitely tuning leaf gas exchange to highly local environmental conditions. Furthermore, because our transcriptomic data are suggestive of a positive ABA-mediated feedback on ABA production, the possibilities for tightly controlled self-regulation at a highly local level over gas exchange are

apparent. Our data add a new level of complexity to the overall understanding of how plants couple photosynthesis and water loss to changes in their 01/26/20 58 environment. Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab The authors made no comment on how this new level of complexity arose by natural selection. *The plant hormone ABA is also known as (2Z,4E)-5-[(1S)-1hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-4-oxocyclohex-2-en-1-yl]-3-methylpenta2,4-dienoic acid. It has 15 carbons and 3 rings; its formula is C15H20O4. According to Wikipedia, the C15 backbone of ABA is formed after cleavage of C40 carotenoids in MEP. Zeaxanthin is the first committed ABA precursor; a series of enzyme-catalyzed epoxidations and isomerizations via violaxanthin, and final cleavage of the C40 carotenoid by a dioxygenation reaction yields the proximal ABA precursor, xanthoxin, which is then

further oxidized to ABA. Abscisic acid, produced throughout the plant, is also involved in seed maturation, fruit ripening, leaf fall, photosynthesis rate, and salt stress. It can move rapidly throughout the plant in the xylem vessels. 01/26/20 59 Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab Wonderful discovery; good experimental work by this team from Germany. If you want to know, heres the recipe the guard cell has to know to cook up ABA (these things have to be synthesized in order): first, in the plastid, (1) beta-carotene, (2) zeazanthin, (3) antheraxanthin, (4) violaxanthin, (5) neoxanthin, (6) 9-cis violaxanthin; then, in the cytosol, (7) xanthoxin, (8) abscisic aldehyde, and finally (9)

abscisic acid (ABA). Thats the ABA Biosynthesis Pathway involving at least 29 01/26/20 60 genes. Wilt Thou? Not with Guards in the Chem Lab If old Frankie D. had known this earlier, he might have told Pop Charlie, Hey dad, we have a problem. This natural selection thing doesnt look like it can cut it with guard cells. Theyre a LOT more complicated than we thought. Maybe you should stop making like a phylogenetic tree, and leaf. 01/26/20 61 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance

- Behind the confidence of uranium-lead dates hides worry about numbers that dont match up. Uranium-lead (U-Pb) dating is a staple of the billions-of-years claims about igneous and metamorphic rocks and meteorites giving rise to the consensus age of the solar system at 4.55 billion years. The technique has been refined over the last century, but discordances (mismatches) remain. Thats because there are two isotopically distinct yet chemically identical decay chains, F. Corfu described in the Geological Society of America Bulletin this month: the 235U to 207Pb pathway, and the 238U to 206Pb pathway. (The ratios of the products,207Pb/206Pb, can also be measured.) These twin decay systems, running at different speeds, allow an immediate verification of the validity of their ages, which must be concordant to be considered valid, although under favorable circumstances, discordant data can be extrapolated to the correct age. Since uranium is often locked in tightly-bound minerals called

zircons, from which parent and daughter product are locked in, the 01/26/20 62 method is thought by modern geologists to provide a reliable clock. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - In A century of U-Pb geochronology: The long quest towards concordance, Corfu, a geologist at the University of Oslo, described geologists frustration at persistent discordance between the two methods. The discordances are small; around 1% or less. Still, he finds it troubling that there should be any discordance if the same physical processes are operating for the same amount of time. At the beginning of the article, he quoted T. E. Krogh: Only one answer is the right one, and only that one is

01/26/20 63 good enough. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - The progress in developments of the U-Pb method is both a history of technical discoveries and advances, as well as a history of a long struggle toward concordance, toward an understanding of the causes of discordance, and toward ways to eliminate it. Despite the enormous progress achieved in this field, the problems of U-Pb discordance have not yet been completely resolved and will be one of the main hurdles to overcome in the future.

01/26/20 64 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - The paper is technical, so detailed evaluation of the contents should be left to geophysicists. The following quotes give a sense of the kinds of problems Corfu discussed, and their implications. Alert readers will want to watch for instances of card stacking, circular reasoning, extrapolation and sidestepping. Philosophers of science will want to watch for data manipulation, unargued interpretation and possible self-deception. 01/26/20

65 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance Now, 60 yr later, we see two contrasting trends, two philosophies: one that continues the battle to eliminate discordance, but also a second one that bypasses the problem and solves the Gordian knot by essentially eliminating the concept, declaring U-Pb systems concordant by definition (see section Administrative Concordancy). [By 1956] There was a gradually growing consensus that the dominant cause of discordance was loss of Pb, and

different attempts were made to rationalize the 01/26/20 66 effect and extract reliable ages. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - While intellectually stimulating, these models and discussions could not provide unique and fully reliable solutions, and the problems of discordant U-Pb data remained a challenge. 01/26/20 67 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance

- The rebound from these rather discouraging early phases in the development of U-Pb can be credited largely to the work and imagination of Leon Silver, at Caltech in Pasadena. He realized that the weak point in the analytical procedure was the absence of a suitable approach in selecting samples from which data could be successfully systematized and interpreted (Silver, 1963a, 1963b, p. 281). He understood that zircon populations in rocks can be extremely variable in terms of composition, crystallinity, and other parameters. He experimented in separating fractions according to size and magnetic variability, and his measurements of the U-Pb ratios of the different fractions revealed extreme variation in the degree of discordance, which correlated with U content and degree of radioactivity. The U-Pb results defined collinear arrays for which intercepts could be interpreted in terms of primary crystallization and secondary Pb loss (Silver, 1963a, 1963b; Silver and Deutsch, 01/26/20 68 1963).

Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Silvers developments set up analytical approaches that were to become standard procedures in the following two decades. Given that discordance was next to unavoidable in most samples, the strategy became that of maximizing the spread in order to establish more robust discordia lines and increase the reliability of their intercept ages. A major hurdle, however, remained the immense analytical effort needed to produce individual analyses from zircon fractions of 100500 mg (Silver and Deutsch, 1963), which severely limited the utility of the 01/26/20 69 method. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance

- The change of focus by Tom Krogh, then at the Carnegie Institution of Washington, to U-Pb geochronology from his previous involvement with Rb-Sr dating (Kamo et al., 2011) represents the next major step in the evolution of the method, and the one that really enabled the more widespread application and testing of the principles and analytical approaches defined by Leon Silvers work. Although this flurry of activities and new applications helped to solve many geological questions, many of the studies involving zircon had to rely on extrapolating the age from discordant arrays, which in complex cases had detrimental effects on the precision and 01/26/20 70 accuracy of the ages.

Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Since model solutions to discordance did not work very well, and since extrapolating the ages from discordant arrays could be problematic in all those cases that had undergone a Pb evolution involving more than just two stages, Tom Krogh concluded that the only reliable strategy had to be that of finding, isolating, and analyzing concordant domains of zircon. Because altered domains are easily soluble and could be separated from the unaltered zircon by partial dissolution, several workers experimented with partial dissolution techniques. The results, however, were not encouraging because the technique introduced secondary effects, fractionating U from Pb in the remaining parts of the zircons (e.g., Pidgeon and Hopgood, 1975; Todt and Bsch,

1981; Turek et al., 1982). 01/26/20 71 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Krogh (1982a) chose instead a different track. To avoid the side effects of the chemical attacks, he opted to remove the outside of the grains, or of fragments of grains, by spinning them around in a steel chamber with a jet of compressed air (air abrasion method). His tests showed that, in many cases, the technique could indeed strip most of the discordant zircon matter In general, to achieve the best results, these methods had to be combined with careful inspection and selection of the grains under a binocular microscope, and in specific cases with imaging (cf. Corfu et al., 2003). [From here, Corfu discusses other method

refinements and cross-correlation techniques leading up to the ion microprobe.] 01/26/20 72 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance When compared to ID-TIMS [isotope dilutionthermal ionization mass spectrometry], the main disadvantage of the ion probe was a considerable decrease in precision, and hence loss of temporal resolution. This stemmed mainly from the much smaller amount of material available for measurement. Another critical step was the determination of the U-Pb ratios, which in SIMS [secondary ionization mass spectrometry] must be calibrated against the corresponding ratios of an external standard, in contrast to ID-TIMS, where the ratios are obtained by mixing a tracer of known composition with the sample. Because the sputtering of U and Pb is controlled to some degree by the composition and/or structure of the sample (McLaren

et al., 1994), discrepancies can arise between sample and standard when they have quite distinct basic properties. The anomalous behavior is evident in some zircons very rich in U, such as the cases reported by Harrison et al. (1987) and Wiedenbeck (1995). This potential problem is now largely recognized in the SIMS community, and modern analytical protocols are generally 01/26/20 73 concerned with proper matching of the reference zircons. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - The latest addition to the arsenal of U-Pb dating methods is the laser ablationinductively coupled plasmamass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) technique. The first experiments with U-Pb dating by LA-ICP-MS were done in the early 1990s (Fryer et al., 1993), and from there the technique rapidly improved. In less than a

decade, many laboratories worldwide had adopted it, contributing to many improvements and refinements. The method is attractive mainly because of the high throughput capability, which makes it ideal for the study of large populations, such as in detrital zircon studies. The main initial challenges for LA-ICP-MS were achieving control of the analytical fractionation between U and Pb, and correcting for common Pb. 01/26/20 74 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - In my experience, it is generally difficult to apply the [chemical abrasion] method to U-rich and metamict grains because they dissolve too easily, even in

cases where the grains, though rich in U, are free of alteration and yield concordant data when treated with air abrasion (e.g., Svensen et al., 2012). The Pb-Pb method is a special branch of U-Pb geochronology, but it has been used mostly to pursue a different type of problem, namely, employing the Pb composition of U-poor or U-free minerals and rocks to study the genesis of rocks rather than to date them. Occasionally, however, the two tracks 01/26/20 75 overlap and complement each other. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - One of the most prominent applications of Pb isotopic analysis to dating was that of Patterson (1956), who determined the first (essentially) correct age of 4.55 Ga for meteorites and, by extension, the

planet Earth. THE ROAD TOWARD CONCORDANCE: A UTOPIAN GOAL? 01/26/20 76 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - At present, U-Pb dating is the method of choice in many studies of magmatic systems, metamorphism, and provenance. Thousands of studies have examined the behavior of the decay system, the behavior of U-Pb in different minerals, and the response in different geological settings. The preoccupation with discordance, which laid a cloud of skepticism over the initial enthusiasm, has

been largely dispersed by the subsequent developments. Today, we have reasonably good control of the behavior of U-Pb systems. Yet, do we really understand discordance; do we really know how to navigate around it? Although the basic definition of concordance is clear-cut, as soon as the analytical error is considered, the term becomes somewhat fuzzy, 01/26/20 77 occasionally progressing into extreme fogginess. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - However, even the use of the better matching decay constant does not always succeed in bringing data sets into concordance. Another factor that can affect the degree of discordance is the U isotopic composition. A second set of causes that has

been widely discussed, and convincingly proven in some cases, is related to initial disequilibrium in the decay chains from U 01/26/20 78 to Pb. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance A related phenomenon is the excess of 231Pa [protactinium], which produces an excess of 207Pb (Fig. 2A-I). The phenomenon has been demonstrated convincingly in two cases (Parrish and Noble, 2003; Anczkiewicz et al., 2001) where the effect is very strong, but it has been discussed as a possible cause in

many other cases where the discordance toward too high 207Pb/235U ratios for uniform 206Pb/238U is distinct, but not extreme. 01/26/20 79 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - In practice, subtle disequilibrium effects can be difficult to distinguish from effects caused by other factors, such as small amounts of inheritance of xenocrystic material, Pb loss, incorrect common Pb corrections, or simply analytical biases from improper blank corrections, fractionation, and instrumental nonlinearities. More severely discordant data will generally have been produced by either Pb loss or

mixing. 01/26/20 80 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - By contrast, Pb loss by recrystallization and/or redistribution ofl ead means that there may not be any parts of a mineral left with preserved closesystem relationships and thus that are capable of providing concordant ages. SOME MODERN DILEMMAS The main difficulty in interpreting such UPb data is in identifying correctly the reasons for the specific distribution of 01/26/20 81 discrete data patterns.

Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - One critical question affecting modern studies done with chemical abrasion ID-TIMS is whether Pb loss effects can be completely eliminated by the chemical abrasion procedure. Some examples show that this assumption is not always valid (Schoene et al., 2010a). A similar uncertainty, but in the opposite direction, is introduced by the difficulty of evaluating whether some slightly too old grains might indicate the presence of antecrysts or traces of xenocrystic material. 01/26/20 82 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance

- Finally, the not always easily controllable role of disequilibrium in 230Th, 231Pa, and 222Rn, discussed previously, can further complicate the interpretation of high-resolution data. Ultimately, the overriding criterion for the validity of an interpretation is the mutual coherence of the data, their consistency with the various properties of the analyzed zircons, the consistency with coexisting minerals, and the consistency within the geological framework. 01/26/20 83

Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - A somewhat related dilemma, which becomes more acute in interpreting Paleozoic and older U-Pb data sets, concerns the interpretation of data that are nearly, but not fully, concordant (Fig. 2A-III). One common solution is to extrapolate to the concordia curve. In some cases, the choice is strongly supported by the combined available evidence, whereas in other cases, it is very much open to debate and often decided on the basis of the interpreters bias. 01/26/20 84

Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - The question as to whether discordant data should be interpreted in terms of modern or ancient disturbances can also have a large impact on the use of Hf [hafnium] isotopic compositions in zircon. the examples stress the importance of a proper consideration of the reality, and the causes and the effects of U-Pb discordance on the results and their interpretations. Evidently simply ignoring discordance distorts the reality, because, as the present examples show, discordance matters. 01/26/20

85 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - [Regarding a graph in Figure 5] The initial and the final peaks correspond to the two real events, but the intermediate ones are spurious and geologically meaningless. The example shows that an awareness of discordance and precision are important for accurate interpretations. However, in a modern detrital zircon study, such a pattern would normally be interpreted as indicating real ages, and the possibility that individual subconcordant data may be recording partial resetting or mixing is rarely, if ever, considered. This may not be a very important factor in sedimentary rocks produced from relatively simple sources, such as an island arc, but it is likely to have serious

repercussions on the apparent age distribution produced in zircon derived from more complex high-grade terranes. 01/26/20 86 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Administrative Concordancy [i.e., user choice to consider the data concordant by fiat] Some contamination by common Pb (and U) is essentially unavoidable in all dating techniques. The ID-TIMS method introduces Pb and U contamination during the dissolution, the chemical separation, and the loading on a filament in preparation for the mass spectrometry. In SIMS and LA-ICP-MS measurements,

contaminant Pb (and U) can be introduced mainly during the mounting and polishing process. Practitioners of all three methods are concerned with keeping the common Pb levels as low as possible, and have devised specific techniques to achieve this goal. Nevertheless, it is likely that some contamination will affect every analysis. 01/26/20 87 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Questions affecting the precision are usually related to the proportion of blank versus initial Pb, and to how well one knows, or can estimate, their compositions and uncertainties. These factors propagate into the total uncertainty, and for very small

samples they become its dominant element. In LA-ICP-MS analyses, the main problem is caused by the interference on 204Pb by 204Hg introduced with the Ar gas. It is, in principle, possible to minimize the amount of Hg present and correct for it by measuring the abundance of 202Hg (Gerdes and Zeh, 2009), but most users consider that this correction introduces too much uncertainty, and choose instead to either make no correction at all, based on the assumption that zircon has no common Pb and that the blank is negligible, or they correct the common Pb with a model calculation that assumes a coherent behavior of Th/Pb and U/Pb and estimates the time of the isotopic disturbance (Andersen, 2002). Both approaches can have problematic implications for the accuracy of the data and the 01/26/20 88 geological deductions. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance -

Factors that are important for a proper interpretation of U-Pb data include the geological and mineralogical context of the studied minerals, the internal textures of the minerals, the age relationships between different components of a mineral and between different coexisting minerals, the type and spatial arrangement of inclusions, and the minerals chemical composition. 01/26/20 89 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance -

Progress in the development of U-Pb dating techniques has been driven forward by the spirit of technical innovation, but at the same time, it has been moderated by some inherent limitations. Many imaginative approaches had to be developed to make the system work. Discordance, however, remains a general problem, the minimization of which still requires work and creative solutions, unless, out of convenience, the historical consciousness of discordance simply disappears from the collective awareness. 01/26/20 90 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance -

In that last sentence, Corfu warns that researchers could simply ignore discordance out of convenience. They could pretend that the problems dont exist or arent important, because its too much work to get to the one right answer that Tom Krogh said is the only one thats good enough. If ignoring the problem becomes the choice of the collective awareness, credibility of the U-Pb dating methodor any other method 01/26/20 91 will suffer as a result. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - For anyone taking the time to wade through all

those sample quotations from the paper, or even to scan through the bold parts, it should become evident that a great deal of guesswork, human interference and manipulation precedes those confident announcements that such-and-such a rock is xyz million years old. None of these techniques are simple; the potential for investigator interference is large. The rock doesnt just talk on its own. Under enough torture, it can be made to squeal out any age the 01/26/20 92 investigator wants. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - Sometimes in science, the discordant data is the most significant part. Remember when

some 19th-century physicists downplayed the ultraviolet catastrophe in blackbody radiation theory? Most of the theory worked just fine. Those darned outliers were seen as a problem that would soon be solved within the consensus paradigm. When a bold maverick, Max Planck, decided to focus on the outlier data, he gave birth to quantum mechanics a revolutionary new paradigm that changed everything. 01/26/20 93 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - As a human with biases, a scientist can be prone to cover up the outlier data points when showing a graph to their colleagues that mostly shows a

perfect fit. In this paper, Corfu has done a good job identifying the known factors that can cause discordance. But what about the unknowns? What about the unknowable factors? Since some of the known causes of discordance came to light over decades, we have no confidence now that new unknowns yet to be identified will not color or revolutionize the interpretations of age accepted today by the consensus. 01/26/20 94 Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - One big factor is built into the interaction between geologist and lab. Its typical for the lab to ask the geologist how old

he thinks the rock is based on its provenance in the geologic column. How many discordant dates are simply tossed and never published because they are obviously wrong? Theres a huge space there for circular reasoning. How often, if ever, do labs perform true blind tests, publishing results with no prior knowledge of the expected date, letting the sample speak for itself? Creation geologists have submitted blind samples (i.e., not telling the lab what date to expect), and obtained wildly discordant results that profoundly contradict evolutionary expectations. See geologist Andrew Snellings Earths Catastrophic Past, Vol. 2, ch. 103 for examples. This is a huge topic that deserves 01/26/20 95 more collective awareness. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance -

No human was present when the rocks were laid down. The apparently minor discordances Corfu identified should be reevaluated in light of what he said about assumptions and interpretations. They could be much more important than even he, as an evolutionist and believer in long ages, would admit. His statements waffle between not a problem and big problem! For instance, he claimed that Pattersons estimate of the age of meteorites (and by extension, planet earth) was (essentially) correct. But a little later he said, The main handicap of the method has been the necessity to rely solely on the Pb composition, without assistance from U-Pb, thus limiting the ability to evaluate the state of concordance of the analyses. So what is it, correct or handicapped? Could it be a case of extreme fogginess he warned about? Maybe the consciousness of discordance simply disappeared from his individual awareness, for 01/26/20 96 the sake of convenience, in that instance. Uranium-Lead Dating Fraught With Discordance - The role of prior belief in millions of

years in interpreting the rocks to be millions of years old would make a good study. We hope our spotlight on Corfus paper will stimulate thinking along those lines. 01/26/20 97 Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death Nowhere does the divide between left and right show more starkly than in policies about killing the innocent. Leftist liberals, who are the most supportive of Darwinism, seem to have no problem with tinkering with human life to the point of killing it. 01/26/20 98

Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death 1. Stem cell case denied: The 3-year long effort by James Sherley and Theresa Deisher to stop federal funding of embryonic stem cell research (2/13/2011) came to an end this week when the U.S. Supreme Court declined to take up the case, leaving intact a lower courts decision to permit it (4/30/2011). Sherley and Deisher based their lawsuit on federal policy that denies funding for killing human embryos. The lawsuit wavered back and forth in the courts, including one decision by Judge Lamberth in 2010 that shocked the science community by shutting down hESC funding (but only for 17 days until another court stayed the injunction,9/26/2010). That was followed by an appeals court ruling in favor of the defendants in August 2012. 01/26/20 99

Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death The Supreme Courts action permits federal funding for research on human embryos to continue unabated. According to a newsletter from Family Research Council (item #2), its very likely that a great deal more human embryos will be destroyed in this research now. Whats notable is the reaction of the leading pro-Darwin journals. Science Magazine touted it as a victory for scientists, patients, and the entire biomedical research community. Nature quoted one researcher saying, What a great day for science, noting also that NIH director Francis Collins (a nominal Christian in favor of Darwinism and opposed to intelligent design) was very pleased. The plaintiffs consolation is that during the interim more researchers turned to research on adult stem cells that do 01/26/20 100 not raise ethical issues (5/23/2011).

Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death 2. Planned unParenthood: Its undeniable that Democrats, liberals and the current administration are predominantly pro-choice (pro-abortion) while their opponents are predominantly pro-life (anti-abortion). Its also undeniable that Planned Parenthood, the leading abortion provider in the U.S., rooted strongly for Obama. Voters might remember efforts in the last two years to de-fund Planned Parenthood, led by conservative Congressman and governors in line with the pro-life majority of the country, that were attacked by liberals who claimed it would deny essential health services to women. Now the truth comes out. 01/26/20 101 Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death

According to a newsletter from Family Research Council, Planned Parenthood is making a killing with taxpayer money, garnering more funding than ever from federal and state governments in the last year over half a billion dollars despite providing fewer nonabortion services (and zero mammograms, contrary to the claims of some liberal congresspersons that mammography was one of the essential womens services PP provided). Fox News investigated the income and practices of Planned Parenthood based on their annual report. The results were shocking; The numbers showed roughly 45 percent of Planned Parenthoods budget now comes from taxpayer 01/26/20 102 dollars. FRC wrote, Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death

Fox News crunched the numbers and was shocked to find that government support for Planned Parenthood had jumped by 167% in the last 10 years alone. Of course, as more states aggressively step in to defund Planned Parenthood, the Left has been just as aggressive in filling the gap. They claim the money helps women, but based on this report, Planned Parenthood was too busy reelecting President Obama to help anyone! Cancer screenings (the theme of [Cecile] Richardss incessant election ads) dropped by a stunning 29% in 2011-12, and contraception services slumped 12%. Of course, the number of mammograms performed at Planned Parenthood stayed the same: 01/26/20 103 zero. Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death While all of this vital medical care plunged, the groups

primary moneymaker-abortionraked in more than ever. It was one of the bloodiest years in the organizations history, as unborn casualties climbed to 333,964enough to fill Yankee stadium six and a half times. The loss of life represented a 4,519 spike in abortions (almost twice the enrollment of Regent University). In just three years, Richardss group has claimed credit for 995,687 deaths through abortionand that doesnt include the handful of women lost to botched abortions in the last 12 months. Perhaps the biggest misnomer about the organization is this: most people arent planning parenthood when they visit these clinics; theyre planning abortions. That was obvious from the tiny sliver of adoption referrals from Richardss network: 2,300barely one half of one percent of the total abortions performed. 01/26/20 104 Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death

So while The President complains about tax breaks for millionaires, FRC writes, he supports welfare for billionaire organizations such as Planned Parenthood, an organization whose main mission (killing the unborn) flies in the face of the ethics of most people in America, certainly conservatives, who tend to be predominantly theistic in outlook. 01/26/20 105 Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death A common comeback by liberals is, Well, dont conservatives support the death penalty? Theres a big

difference. The death penalty is about killing the guilty. Abortion and human embryonic stem cell research kill the most innocent and vulnerable humans of all the unborn. How can anyone stomach the ugly euphemism by Cecile Richards (president of Planned Parenthood) that any effort to stop the carnage is blocking womens access to health care? Marjorie Dannenfelser of the Susan B. Anthony List put it straight: While government subsidies to Planned Parenthood have reached an all time high, so too has the number of lives ended by this profit-driven abortion 01/26/20 106 business. (Fox News) Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death Are you a pastor reading this? Are you concerned about abortion? Is your church planning to take part in Sanctity of Human Life Sunday on January 20th? Have you ever made the

connection between Darwinism, which devalues human life, and the evil fruits as seen in the abortion and embryonic stem cell industries? (Darwin Day in America by John G. West elucidates the connection). Maybe its time you attack the root and not just the fruit. An evil tree produces evil fruit, the Lord said. The evil tree will continue producing evil fruit, day after day, year after year, until the evil foundation of the tree, the secularist worldview dependent on Darwinian evolution, is uprooted. Do that by counteracting the secular worldview with the truth of God, wielded wisely where it needs to strike, at doctrines of demons who work to destroy the image of God in man. Death and life are in the power of the tongue, Solomon said, and those who love it will eat 01/26/20 107 its fruit (Proverbs 18:21). Give Me Liberalism and Give Me Death Dont allow yourself to get discouraged, either. Its been 40 years now since Roe v. Wade granted a

cryptic Constitutional right of abortion. Remember that many great causes of freedom, like the anti-slavery movement, suffered great setbacks. It took many years to turn the mood of the country. Now most decent people hate slavery and are appalled at racism. Persistence in a righteous cause can pay off in due time. Even if not, the Lord loves those who rescue the perishing, and who obey Him whatever the cost. 01/26/20 108 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations The ways various news organizations cover the same

news story why swimmers fingers get wrinkled provides a test case on whether evolutionary theory adds any value. Its one of those things we all know from experience but only a scientist would want to explain: why do our fingers get wrinkled like prunes after about 5 minutes underwater? Recent studies show that the phenomenon is controlled by the autonomous nervous system. Tom Smulders, an evolutionary biologist at Newcastle University in the United Kingdom, decided to run some experiments. Bottom line: the wrinkles may serve a purpose, helping us to grip things better underwater. 109 01/26/20 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations We could leave it at that, but some news sources wanted to

invoke evolutionary theory to explain it. Other sources, though secular and supportive of evolution, didnt refer to it. Heres the breakdown: Jonathan Amos at the BBC News gave evolution the most credit. Right off the bat, he said prune fingers suggest our ancestors may have evolved the creases as they moved and foraged for food in wet conditions. Finding that they are under nervous system control led scientists into thinking there must be some deeper evolutionary justification for the ridges. Smulders considered it less of a leap to assume there must be a function for it, and that evolution has selected it. And evolution wouldnt have selected it unless it conferred some sort of advantage. 01/26/20 110 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Helen Thomson at New Scientist didnt

refer to evolution at all. Why do our fingers do prune impressions when soaked? It could be an adaptation that gives us better grip underwater, she said, referring only to the functional purpose of a better grip. A lot of her readers, though, got into evolution debates in the comments. 01/26/20 111 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Sid Perkins at Science Now invoked evolution three times. Having something under the direct control of a nerve, even an involuntary one, suggests it serves an evolutionary purpose, he said, adding later, Its also unclear

whether wrinkles evolved to help us grasp underwater objects, or whether theyre simply a byproduct of a nervous system quirk. Weber says finding out whether such puckering occurs in other primates might shed light on the evolutionary origins of the phenomenon. 01/26/20 112 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Becky Summers at Nature News brought in evolution only tangentially, mentioning that In 2011, Mark Changizi, an evolutionary neurobiologist at 2AI Labs in Boise, Idaho, and his colleagues, suggested that wrinkling, being an active process, must have an evolutionary function. But the next statement

focused on the design, noting that wrinkling appeared to be optimized for providing a drainage network that improved grip. But until now, there was no proof that wrinkly fingers did 01/26/20 113 in fact offer an advantage. Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Charles Choi at Live Science repeatedly gave evolution the credit, quoting Smulders that the functional feature has very likely been selected for by evolution. Looking for a potential explanation of why this effect might have evolved, he quoted Smulders speculating that it could have helped with gathering food from wet vegetation or streams. Smulders took more of a leap to assume, further, that the wrinkling on

the toes might have helped our ancestors in the trees. It will take further research to shed light on when and why it evolved. 01/26/20 114 Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Science Magazines feature Random Samples didnt mention evolution at all in four paragraphs on the subject, other than to note that Tom Smulders is an evolutionary biologist. The pale wrinkles that adorn fingertips after an extended soaking may be unsightly, but they serve a purpose: They help us get a stronger grip on slippery objects, the article said, focusing on purpose. So while most reporters invoked evolution, a couple did

not. Were they lacking anything for the omission? All of the articles noted that there appears to be a purpose for wrinkled fingers underwater, but none of them explained how a purposeless process could arrive at 01/26/20 115 purpose. Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations The only vestigial organ left in evolutionary theory is evolution itself. You can see how it was completely useless as an explanation for this simple phenomenon, a vestige of an outworn Victorian myth. The reporters either (1) cheat or (2) misunderstand evolution when they say that prune fingers evolved to or evolved for anything. Evolve is not an active verb; its passive. Its a passive result of happenstance, not a force leading to a purposeful end. If wrinkly fingers appeared by happenstance, and they happened to have a function, evolution

couldnt care less. Its especially hilarious to believe that the evolution made the autonomic nervous system fine-tune this adaptation, enabling it on fingers and toes but not on biceps or buttocks (dont monkeys sit on rocks underwater?). When speaking of purpose, adaptation, and function, we should be thinking intelligent design the only cause capable of achieving 01/26/20 116 purposeful ends. Prune Fingers and Evolutionary Explanations Here are some new oxymorons provided by the reporters to add to your Darwin Funnies file: evolutionary justification, evolutionary purpose, evolutionary function. Think about that first one for awhile until you LOL. Evolution gets tacked onto these stories by human beings who innately understand purpose. They purposefully add evolution

as an entertaining wrinkle on their story, but it doesnt help scientific explanation get a 01/26/20 117 grip. Stampeding Dinosaur Tracks Made in Water What were these dinosaurs running from? Science Daily reported that dinosaur trackways in Australia, formerly presumed to have been made by a stampeding herd on land, were actually formed in water. Queensland paleontologists have discovered that the worlds only recorded dinosaur stampede is largely made up of the tracks of swimming rather than running animals, the article began.

01/26/20 118 Stampeding Dinosaur Tracks Made in Water Some of the tracks look like vertical impressions of toes; others are long grooves. These would fit impressions made as the dinosaurs at least the smaller individuals were partially buoyed up by water. Larger individuals left flat footprints as if wading up to their legs. The tracks are identified as ornithopod, ranging in size from chickens to ostriches. The tracks are found in sandstone and siltstone near Queensland and Lark Quarry. The new interpretation changes the scenario from a stampede to a river crossing, the article 01/26/20

119 said. Stampeding Dinosaur Tracks Made in Water The question they are not asking is, How did footprints in water get preserved? Wouldnt such vulnerable impressions get washed out quickly if made in a shallow river? Wouldnt dinosaur tracks like this be ubiquitous around the world, if made the way these evolutionary paleontologists assume, in shallow rivers over millions of years? There should have been numerous rivers in the paths of numerous dinosaurs like this. 01/26/20 120 Stampeding Dinosaur Tracks Made in Water

The dinosaurs probably knew something the scientists dont: flood waters were coming, and a huge wall of sand and silt-filled water was aimed right at them. They were running for their lives. This was a rare, catastrophic occurrence, the last thing they would have seen. 01/26/20 121 Human Genome in Meltdown Most of the deleterious mutations in the human population arose in the last 5,000 to 10,000 years, a survey claims. According to a study published Jan. 10 in Nature by geneticists from 4 universities including Harvard, Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of

most human protein-coding variants. By recent they mean really recent on evolutionary timescales: 01/26/20 122 Human Genome in Meltdown We estimate that approximately 73% of all protein-coding SNVs [singlenucleotide variants] and approximately 86% of SNVs predicted to be deleterious arose in the past 5,000 10,000 years. The average age of deleterious SNVs varied significantly across molecular pathways, and disease genes contained a significantly higher proportion of recently arisen

deleterious SNVs than other genes. 01/26/20 123 Human Genome in Meltdown The authors explained this in evolutionary terms as the result of explosive population growth and that selection has not had sufficient time to purge them from the population. They claimed Europeans had more variants consistent with weaker purifying selection due to the Out-of-Africa dispersal. The last paragraph assesses the impact of their findings: 01/26/20

124 Human Genome in Meltdown More generally, the recent dramatic increase in human population size, resulting in a deluge of rare functionally important variation, has important implications for understanding and predicting current and future patterns of human disease and evolution. For example, the increased mutational capacity of recent human populations has led to a larger burden of Mendelian disorders, increased the allelic and genetic heterogeneity of traits, and may have created a new repository of recently arisen advantageous alleles that adaptive evolution 01/26/20 125 will act upon in subsequent generations.

Human Genome in Meltdown As for advantageous mutations, they provided NO examples. Thats merely an assumption, based on neoDarwinian theory, that evolution would need beneficial mutations as raw material for adaptive evolution in the future. What they observed, by contrast, was a larger burden of Mendelian disorders afflicting mankind. 01/26/20 126 Human Genome in Meltdown

The findings depend on models and assumptions, but appear to support the thesis of John Sanfords book Genetic Entropy and the Mystery of the Genome, which argues that the genetic load increases so rapidly that mankind could not have survived for tens of thousands of years, to say nothing of millions (see recent YouTube interview part 1 and part 2). How can such rapid rate of degradation be sustained over evolutionary time? The authors seemed a bit baffled by their findings. The following paragraph gives a hint of that 01/26/20 127 (compare expected vs observed): Human Genome in Meltdown The site frequency spectrum (SFS) of protein-coding SNVs revealed an enormous excess of rare variants (Fig. 1a).

Indeed, we observed an SNV approximately once every 52 base pairs (bp) and 57 bp in European Americans and African Americans, respectively, whereas in a population without recent explosive growth we would expect the SNVs to occur once every 257 bp and 152 bp in European Americans and African Americans, respectively (Supplementary Information). Thus, the European American and African American samples contain approximately fivefold and threefold increases in SNVs, respectively, attributable to explosive population growth, resulting in a large burden of rare SNVs predicted to have arisen very recently (Fig. 1b). 01/26/20 128 Human Genome in Meltdown For example, the expected age of derived

singletons, which comprise 55.1% of all SNVs, is 1,244 and 2,107 years for the European American and African American samples, respectively. Overall, 73.2% of SNVs (81.4% and 58.7% in European Americans and African Americans, respectively) are predicted to have arisen in the past 5,000 years. SNVs that arose more than 50,000 years ago were observed more frequently in the African American samples (Fig. 1b), which probably reflects stronger genetic drift in European Americans associated with the Out-of01/26/20 129 Africa dispersal. Human Genome in Meltdown But how can they claim Europeans probably had stronger genetic drift at the

same time Africans did not? Genetic drift is not racist. It appears they are fudging assumptions. To the degree they have empirical support, their findings seem to fly in the face of long ages but support a human population that has only been in existence for 10,000 years or less, as indicated in the Genesis record. 01/26/20 130 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory A record-breaking structure in the universe defies theory,

the news said, ignoring that theory has been defied for decades since smaller large structures were found (the lumpiness problem). PhysOrgs article begins with an image of it. Its 4 billion light-years across, Science Dailys headline reads. And National Geographic led off with: Biggest Thing in Universe FoundDefies Scientific Theory. What is it? a huge Large Quasar Group (LQG), found in data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Talk about a whopperastronomers have discovered a structure in the universe so large that modern cosmological theory says it should not exist, a new 01/26/20 131 study says. Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

Well, then, will they junk theory and start over? Roger Clowes confessed, It could mean that our mathematical description of the universe has been oversimplifiedand that would represent a serious difficulty and a serious increase in complexity. Nobody seems ready, however, to jump ship, even with the confessions: This structure is bigger than we expect based on the shockwaves formed in the universe after the big bang, said [Gerard] Williger. 01/26/20 132 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

This discovery was very much a surprise, since it does break the cosmological record as the largest structure in the known universe, said study leader Roger Clowes, an astronomer at University of Central Lancashire in England. So this represents a challenge to our current understanding and now creates a mystery rather than solves one, Clowes said. One theory holds that this type of colossal collection of quasars may be precursors to galaxy superclusters in the modern universebut the exact nature of their connection is still a 01/26/20 133 mystery.

Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory Theory will survive because they need it to solve other problems. National Geographic speculates, .the massive structure could possibly shed light on the evolution of galaxies like our own Milky Way. Quasars, which pump out powerful jets of energy, are among the brightest and most energetic objects from when the universe was still young. They represent an early, but brief, stage in the evolution of most galaxies. not that anyone has seen that happen, but it fits with theory. 01/26/20

134 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory The Lumpiness Problem in cosmology is old.* PhysOrg writes, Since 1982 it has been known that quasars tend to group together in clumps or structures of surprisingly large sizes, forming large quasar groups or LQGs. Geller and Huchra threw down the first challenge in 1989 with their discovery of a Great Wall of galaxies. This LQG is so big, though, that big bang theory cannot deal with it. It spans 1/20 the observable universe. Thats 500 Mpc (megaparsecs), far exceeding the limit of theory: Based on the Cosmological Principle and the modern theory of cosmology, calculations suggest that astrophysicists should not be able to find a 01/26/20 135

structure larger than 370 Mpc. Well, now they do. Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory The team, led by Dr. Roger Clowes from UCLans Jeremiah Horrocks Institute, has identified the LQG which is so significant in size it also challenges the Cosmological Principle: the assumption that the universe, when viewed at a sufficiently large scale, looks the same no matter where you are observing it from. 01/26/20 136 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

New Scientist says the trend to find larger and larger structures has been ongoing: As time went on, people did more and more surveys, says Clowes. Each time they found structures the size of the new survey, and you began to wonder when it would all stop. Previous calculations gave a value of one billion light years as the maximum possible size of a cluster. The 1991 LQG is at this supposed limit, but Huge-LQG smashes right through it. The researchers say this could undermine the cosmological principle, although it may simply mean that we need to revise upwards the size limit on large structures. 01/26/20 137

Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory Ahathat suggests that theory can be rescued with a revision, something like raising the national debt ceiling. But the Huge-LQG is not the only crisis: a controversial stream of galaxies all moving in the same direction, called the dark flow, also flies in the face of theory. 01/26/20 138 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory Getting from a smooth beginning to a universe of structure has long proved a challenge to modern

cosmology. Now, at the other end of the problem, according to another article on Science Daily, spacetime is a smoother brew than we knew. Its not foamy like beer, but smooth like whiskey, the reporter quipped. So how does one get from a smooth spacetime, and a cloud of expanding gas, to dense clusters of dense matter in long chains of quasars? If it was hard to imagine in 1982, its much worse now. 01/26/20 139 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

The responses of some cosmologists are instructive. Reporter Jacob Aron at New Scientist ends with these: The search for such large structures is key to furthering our understanding of the universe and creating new and improved cosmological models, says Subir Sarkar of the University of Oxford. All of this suggests there is structure on scales at which the universe is supposed to be boring, he says. But the cosmological principle is so ingrained that it is hard for researchers to shake. People are maybe understandably reluctant to give up the thing, because it will make cosmology too bloody complicated, says Sarkar. 01/26/20 140 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

In the NG article, Gerard Williger opined about what it would take to replace current theory: There is very likely some mechanism [that] is turning on quasars over a large scale like thisand in a short timewhich could relate to some condition in the early universe. With that, the cosmologists, briefly awakened from their dogmatic slumbers, rolled over and went back to sleep. *For previous entries on the Lumpiness Problem, see 11/10/2000, 6/05/2001, 8/22/2001,10/24/2003, 1/02/2004, 6/12/2008, or search on lumpiness in the Search Bar. 01/26/20 141 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory

Try that kind of language in government to explain to a Congressional committee an unexpected expense doubling the limit of funding. There is very likely some mechanism that could relate to some condition in the early accounting. 01/26/20 142 Cosmologys Lumpiness Problem Defies Theory So is the big bang falsified? The Huge-LQG broke through the limit set by theory. That should account for falsification. Can we move on now to design theories? The universe isnt boring any more. Its downright

exciting. Its far more complex than the secular consensus had oversimplified. Let the evidence speak, and get to work. 01/26/20 143 Monkey Pucker Logic Scientists measured lip-smacking by macaques and concluded thats where human language came from. Is that logical? Only if an arbitrary requirement is imposed on scientific explanations. The materialism rule in science is a de facto requirement that no intelligent causes are allowed in explanation. Also known as methodological naturalism, the rule requires that everything be

reducible to physics and chemistry. This is what powers Darwinism, a materialist account for the origin of everything biological and everything human. Scientists enslaved to this rule never seem to catch on 01/26/20 144 that it leads to absurdity. Monkey Pucker Logic An example can be found in a new paper in PNAS that alleges lip-smacking behavior in macaques led to human language. Because there appears to be a similarity in the frequency of lip smacks and the tempo of human vocalization, the evolutionists imagine a causal link between them, ignoring all other possible explanations (such as the physical constraints on lip muscles). The authors

stated this in the abstract: 01/26/20 145 Monkey Pucker Logic we tested rhesus monkeys in a preferential-looking procedure, measuring the time spent looking at each of two side-by-side computer-generated monkey avatars lip-smacking at natural versus sped-up or slowed-down rhythms. Monkeys showed an overall preference for the natural rhythm compared with the perturbed rhythms. This lends behavioral support for the hypothesis that perceptual processes in monkeys are similarly tuned to the natural frequencies of communication signals as they are in humans. Our data provide perceptual evidence for the theory that speech may have evolved from

ancestral primate rhythmic facial expressions. 01/26/20 146 Monkey Pucker Logic But surely the scientists are overlooking the most important element of language: meaning. The focus on mechanical lip action is misdirected. Its also self-refuting, because it would imply that the scientists own language has no more meaning that lip-smacking.. Besides, macaques still exist side-by-side with humans and have not developed symbolic language of their owncomplete with syntax, semantics, and understandingin the same time humans allegedly came out of the trees and 01/26/20

147 developed tensor calculus. Monkey Pucker Logic Another example in another PNAS paper alleges that human fairness evolved from chimpanzees, because chimps and children gave similar responses in a simplistic game that required a choice between sharing and not sharing: Both apes and children responded like humans typically do. If their partners cooperation was required, they split the rewards equally. However, with passive partnersa situation akin to the so-called dictator gamethey preferred the selfish option. Thus, humans and chimpanzees show similar preferences regarding reward division, suggesting a long evolutionary history to the human sense of

01/26/20 148 fairness. Monkey Pucker Logic But surely the authors would know, if they thought about it, that this is illogical, because it only displaces the question of the origin of fairness. Where did the chimpanzees get it? Where did the imaginary long evolutionary history of fairness begin? And what is fairness, if it is not referring to a principle that cannot evolve? Additionally, it is not logical for a scientist to ignore all the possible true causes of a phenomenon, and simply stop at the evolutionary explanation. Because methodological naturalism is the de facto rule, they leave themselves with no alternative but the illogical position. These papers illustrate how the materialism rule is bad for science. Its a science 01/26/20

149 stopper. Monkey Pucker Logic Its also bad for public education, because the news media, similarly bound to the materialism rule, accept the conclusions uncritically rather than act as evidential watchdogs. Science Daily, for instance, headlined that apes sense of fairness [had been] confirmed. The BBC News echoed the conclusions as well, with only a slight caveat that further evidence would be needed to show clearly that chimps had a natural tendency towards fairness. That caveat could hardly compete with Victoria Gills big, bold headline, Sharing: Chimp study reveals origins 01/26/20 150 of human fair play.

Monkey Pucker Logic Tip of the day: cure yourself of scientism. A good way to do it is to read Discovery Institutes latest book, The Magicians Twin: C. S. Lewis on Science, Scientism and Society. Understand the argument from reason thoroughly, to the point you can explain it and defend it in debate, including responses to the pseudoscholarly comeback arguments like evolutionary epistemology. 01/26/20 151 Monkey Pucker Logic

Then look for signs of scientists drunk with scientism making self-refuting statements: alleging that language has no ultimate meaning, therefore undermining their own language, or alleging that morals have no ultimate validity, undermining their own efforts to present scientific research as true. Once this principle clicks in your mind, youll see things clearly. Papers like these two will be exposed as illogical and absurd. Proper wielding of this logical sword by an army of trained interlocutors would go far to unmask the aura of scientism and produce the logical outcome: former addicts of methodological naturalism laughing at themselves and wondering, 01/26/20 152 How could we have been so dumb? Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations

A pigeon in the plaza may seem pretty ordinary, but its a highly skilled stunt bird. In Aerial Acrobats: Pigeons Whoosh Through Tight Space, Elizabeth Pennisi wrote for Science Now about a presentation at the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. The [pigeons] are doing a lot of things aerodynamically and flightwise that we havent realized, said one biomechanics expert. With high-speed cameras, researchers from Harvard filmed pigeons coaxed to fly and perch on the other side of an obstacle resembling jail bars. They started the birds with 30-centimeter-apart bars, then narrowed it down to 11 centimeters the birds body width plus a centimeter on 01/26/20 each side. The birds navigated the course with ease. 153 Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations

In wider gaps, the pigeons tend to hold their wings up highpausing briefly at the top of the wing strokeas they pass through the bars, Williams reported at the meeting. In this way, the birds can quickly do a down stroke once they get through to help stay airborne. But when the gap is too narrow, the birds instead fold their wings, holding them close to the chest, and glide through. Thus, they are less likely to be 01/26/20 154 knocked off course should they strike a bar. Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations Another Harvard researcher examined how pigeons prepare for a turn. Highspeed images showed that they make use of a stabilizing reflex, first turning

their head. The rest of the body follows, banking and turning to allow a steady gaze. Nice as this is to know, human designers now have some new data to imitate: 01/26/20 155 Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations With studies like these two, We are starting to get at the strategies used to [ensure] robustness, flexibility, and stability in biological movements, Sponberg says. Understanding these strategies is really critical for any applied stuff, such as robots that can control themselves in flight.

These autonomous flyers would be useful for exploring unknown terrain or doing reconnaissance for search-and-rescue operations after earthquakes or other natural disasters, Ros says. Toward that end, he and Williams collaborators are incorporating these results to help build pathfinding computer programs that will direct future aerial robots. 01/26/20 156 Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations In another article on birds, Science Daily reported that a multinational team created a 3-D image of a zebra finchs voicebox, the syrinx (analogous to the human larynx). The colorful diagram shows multiple interacting parts.

The syrinx, located at the point where the trachea splits in two to send air to the lungs, is unique to birds and performs the same function as vocal cords in humans. Birds can have such a complete control over the syrinx, with sub-millisecond precision, that in some cases they are even able to mimic human speech. The model is able to show in detail the delicate balance between strength, and lightness of bones and cartilage required to support and alter the vibrating 01/26/20 157 membranes of the syrinx at superfast speeds. Pigeon Aerobatics Exceed Expectations See? There are talking animals on earth. Pretty good trick to sail right through bars only 11

centimeters (4.3) apart. Now consider that bats can do this trick in the dark, using sonar. This is exemplary of so many things in the living world: the more you examine them, the more amazing they become. Never take a pigeon for granted. Our best designers would like to do what they do. But dont minimize your own gifts, either; some birds can mimic human speech, but none of them have been found to compose poetry, translate a foreign language in real time, or hold a two-way conversation with relatives on 01/26/20 158 the other side of the world. The Rapture and Bosh of Glittering Generalities Grand scenarios of cosmic evolution sound angelic, but the devil is in the details. Neil Shubin needs to get

real. Birger Schmitz was almost ecstatic about Neil Shubins new book, The Universe Within: Discovering the Common History of Rocks, Planets, and People (Pantheon, 2013), after he was initially mesmerized by his earlier masterpiece, Your Inner Fish. In a book review in Nature Jan. 3, Schmitz looked forward to more stunning clarity [about] how every aspect of our anatomy goes back to our distant ancestors. In the new work, Shubin expanded his evolutionary vision into an extensive 01/26/20 159 cosmic story: The Rapture and Bosh of Glittering Generalities

Shubin starts with the formation of the Universe 13.7 billion years ago, segueing into that of the Solar System 4.6 billion years ago. Much later, about 200 million years ago, when the supercontinent Pangaea broke up, the continents and ocean basins we know today began to form. This was accompanied by the rapid evolution of more complex life forms dinosaurs, mammals and birds. Yet Schmitz was not so utterly inebriated with the new charming and enjoyable read to let completely go of his wits: 01/26/20 160 The Rapture and Bosh of Glittering Generalities

There is a familiar feel to some of the sections, and the books title raises expectations that are not really met. Where are the mysteries of the brain, the laws of thought and our consciousness? These, to me, are the most amazing aspects of the universe within. And what if our view of the Universe continues to change as much as it did in the past century? From Shubin, one gets the impression that much is now solved. But the mystery of why we are here is perhaps greater than ever. It sounds like Schmitz is not quite ready to advance to the next level in the cult of evolutionary everything-ism. Apparently finding a debunked transitional form like 01/26/20 161 Tiktaalik does not qualify one to play philosopher. The Rapture and Bosh of Glittering Generalities

Darwinism thrives on the Glittering Generalities fallacy (see cartoon by Brett Miller). Carl Sagan in Cosmos once spent almost a half hour showing the grand sweep of evolution from molecules to man, then pronounced with a dramatic musical background, These are some of the things that hydrogen atoms do, given 15 billion years of cosmic evolution. Uh, sir, there was this Cambrian explosion problem, and the origin of life; and how do you account for consciousness? And like Darwin said, how can you trust the thoughts of a monkeys mind, if there are thoughts in such a mind? How would you ever know your thoughts about evolution are true if they were derived from an aimless process preserving only survival, even if by deceit? Sorry to ask these devilish questions, but maybe youre on the wrong side of the looking glass, where the angels only look like devils. Maybe you could explain on what evolutionary basis you would ever know the difference. 01/26/20 162

Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion Fossils of members of phylum entoprocta, known from the Jurassic, are now found in Cambrian strata in abundance. The oldest certain fossils from phylum entoprocta are in Jurassic strata, claimed by evolutionists to be 145 million years old. In 1977, A fossil from the Burgess Shale (Cambrian) was claimed by Simon Conway Morris to be an entoproct, but others denied it (see Wikipedia). Now, according to Live Science, hundreds of clearly-identifiable entoprocts have been found in Cambrian strata in China, dated in the evolutionary scale at 520 million years old three and a half times 01/26/20

163 older than previously assumed. Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion The fossils show tulip-shaped animals that were attached to the seafloor by a stalk. The tulip part contains a Ushaped digestive tract, with mouth and anus side by side. Tentacles allowed the animals to filter feed as they swayed in the current. 01/26/20 164 Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion

According to reporter Stephanie Pappas, the fossil animals have a body plan that is almost identical to living species except that the fossils were up to 8 times larger as much as 56 mm. Also, Unlike what is found in living entoprocts, the stem and flowerlike feeding cup of the ancient creature were covered by tiny hardened protuberances called sclerites, which may have formed a sort of hard exoskeleton for the creatures. 01/26/20 165 Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion

OK, evolutionists: its time to face up to the fossil evidence. Here is another example of an animal phylum appearing suddenly in the oldest layers containing multicellular animals. It bursts onto the scene, fully formed, and doesnt change its basic body plan for 520 million years! This is true of virtually all the animal phyla now. How does that fit with Darwins theory? 01/26/20 166 Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion Stephanie Pappas tried to protect Darwin by

claiming the creature was likely an ancestor of a group known as the entoprocta. Come on. Dont put us on. How can this be an ancestor, when it was larger and more complex than the modern counterparts? That would put Darwins tree upside down. and wheres the evolution? Its body plan is virtually identical to the living ones no evolution in 520 million years in 01/26/20 167 your mythical timeline. Another Phylum Found in Cambrian Explosion Lets stop playing games and protecting Charlie in a phony Kings X zone. His theory has been falsified (see the documentary Darwins Dilemma

for more proof of that). He himself considered the sudden appearance of animals as the greatest challenge to his theory. He hoped new fossils would fill in the gaps, but 150 years of global research has only made the problem worse. His time is up; hes struck out. Take him out of the science books, and put him in the history books. His tale should be told as a sad case of The Biggest Loser who misled the world for a century 01/26/20 168 and a half. Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years News from Titan and Mercury continue to challenge current theories that they formed billions of years ago.

Mercury Science Magazine highlighted new results from the MESSENGER spacecraft, now orbiting the inner planet, about deep ice found in shadowed craters in its polar regions. For ice to be stable, it would have to be at a very low temperature to avoid loss by sublimation, requiring it remain permanently blocked from the heat of the nearby sun, and blanketed with an insulating layer of dust. Theoretically, such temperatures can be achieved in shadowed craters, but can such deep deposits of water ice and organics be expected to 01/26/20 169 survive for billions of years? Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years 1. Planetary scientists are never at a loss to

rescue the old ages with various scenarios of how the ice stays there. Neumann et al. published evidence for bright and dark deposits at the poles. The dark areas may have a protective blanket over the ice, but light areas appear to be deposits of nearly pure water ice up to several meters thick. To account for these, they had to invoke comets as delivery vehicles to replenish the 01/26/20 170 ice over geologic time: Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Detailed thermal models suggest that surface temperatures in the majority of the high-latitude craters with RB [radar-bright] deposits that MLA [Mercury laser altimeter] has observed to date are too warm to support persistent water ice at the surface,

but the temperatures in their shadowed areas are compatible with the presence of surface dark organic material. Modeled subsurface temperatures in these dark regions are permissive of stable water ice beneath a ~10-cm-thick layer of thermally insulating material. In contrast, thermal modeling of the bright areas is supportive of surface water ice. This interpretation of the surface reflectance at 1064 nm is fully consistent with the radar results as well as with neutron spectroscopic measurements of Mercurys polar regions. The bright and dark areas can be ascribed collectively to the deposition of water and organic volatiles derived from the impacts of comets or volatile-rich asteroids on Mercurys surface and migrated to polar cold traps 01/26/20 171 via thermally stimulated random walk. Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years 2. In another paper in the same issue of Science, Lawrence et al. agree with the comet

hypothesis. Theres a lot of water up there: Combined neutron and radar data are best matched if the buried layer consists of nearly pure water ice. The upper layer contains less than 25 weight % water-equivalent hydrogen. The total mass of water at Mercurys poles is inferred to be 2 1016 to 1018 grams and is consistent with delivery by comets or volatile-rich asteroids. 01/26/20 172 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Even so, depletion of the ice by sublimation is rapid enough that they said, The average thickness of the upper layer

inferred from neutron spectrometry therefore suggests that Mercurys polar water ice was emplaced sometime in the last 18 to 70 My [million years], a tiny fraction of the assumed 4.5 billion years Mercury has supposedly been orbiting the sun. 01/26/20 173 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years 3. Paige et al. took on the task of modeling how long water ice could survive for billions of years. Yes,

sublimation can be very slow (1 mm per billion years) if the conditions are right. A lot depends on the assumptions and the temperature: the temperature at which a water ice deposit can be considered thermally stable depends on the time scale under consideration. At a temperature of 102 K, for instance, a meter-thick layer of pure water ice would sublimate to space in 1 billion years, whereas at a temperature of 210 K, a meter-thick layer of pure water ice would sublimate in 35 days. 01/26/20 174 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years

But under certain measured conditions, a one-meter depth of ice would sublimate in just 1000 years, they said: Today, thick deposits of ground ice are found near 75N in areas with biannual maximum surface temperatures in excess of 150 K. At these temperatures, pure exposed water ice deposited by a cometary impact would sublimate at a rate of 1 m per 1000 years. The ice deposit would disappear on time scales of tens of thousands of years if not thermally protected by a ~10-cm-thick layer of overlying ice-free material, but this geometry is problematic because the time scales for burial to these depths by impactgardened soil from adjacent regions is estimated to be 01/26/20 175 on the order of tens of millions of years. Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years In short, they decided that the dark deposits require replenishment. Because metastable ice deposits

must accumulate on time scales that are shorter than those at which they sublimate, the formation of the MLA-dark deposits by sublimation lag is compatible with episodic deposition of water and other volatiles by asteroids and comets. 01/26/20 176 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years 4. In a review of these three papers in the same issue, Paul G. Lucey described a wet and volatile Mercury that requires ongoing dynamical processing to last very long. His description of what is required sounds like a stretch, a composite explanation of maybe this,

maybe that: 01/26/20 177 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Mercurys polar cold traps appear to have been filled by one or more comet impacts that introduced massive quantities of water and other volatile vapors in the tenuous atmosphere that promptly migrated to the polar cold traps. Ices began to immediately sublimate, and to acquire organic lag deposits, probably from radiation-induced chemical synthesis. The colder parts of the poles now exhibiting radar anomalies retained water ice below the lag deposit, while in warmer portions the ice entirely sublimed away, leaving the lowreflectance organic residue. Not depicted are the rare veryhigh-reflectance spots that are confined to the coldest portions of the pole. These may indicate a slow continuous production of water from small wet meteorites, solar wind

proton interactions with oxygen in Mercurys surface, or inhibition by the very low temperatures of the organic 01/26/20 178 synthesis occurring elsewhere. Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years He says the new data reveal a dynamic history of these deposits, meaning that theory requires a dynamic history, not that the data actually reveal it. The water ice wont last long. It requires continual resupply: The results also show that the charging of the cold traps can temporarily overcome thermal instability and can be used to derive a high

lower limit on the amount of water vapor that can be at least transiently retained in a transient atmosphere of Mercury in a comet impact to account for the distribution of the dark deposits.179 01/26/20 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Titan Far out in the cold at Saturn, Titan presents other long age problems. After 8 and 1/2 years in orbit, the Cassini spacecraft has radar-mapped about 50% of the surface. A study of Titans 30 or so craters discovered so far, compared with those on the comparably sized moon Ganymede at Jupiter, shows Titans craters generally shallower, suggesting infilling of some sort. Some suggest the sand from the ubiquitous dunes that belt the

equatorial regions. A NASA press release echoed on Science Daily describes the head-scratching required between finding sources of methane (rapidly depleted by the solar wind) and crater-filling mechanisms, as revealed 01/26/20 180 by the number of However clauses: Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Since the sand appears to be produced from the atmospheric methane, Titan must have had methane in its atmosphere for at least several hundred million years in order to fill craters to the levels we are seeing, says Neish. However, researchers estimate Titans current supply of methane should be broken down by sunlight within tens of

millions of years, so Titan either had a lot more methane in the past, or it is being replenished somehow. 01/26/20 181 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years Team members say its possible that other processes could be filling the craters on Titan: erosion from the flow of liquid methane and ethane for example. However, this type of weathering tends to fill a crater quickly at first, then more slowly as the crater rim gets worn down and less steep. If liquid erosion were primarily responsible for the infill, then the team would expect to see a lot of partially filled

craters on Titan. However, this is not the case, says Neish. Instead we see craters at all stages; some just beginning to be filled in, some halfway, and some that are almost completely full. This suggests a process like windblown sand, which fills craters and 01/26/20 182 other features at a steady rate. Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years For those who want to relive the exciting landing of the Huygens Probe on Titan 8 years ago this month, Astrobiology Magazine posted the European Space Agencys latest animation re-creating its bouncy, skidding landing from various angles. Viewers will notice the cloud of dry dust cast up into the atmosphere, reemphasizing the contrast between the

predicted global ocean and the reality of a mostly dry world. 01/26/20 183 Titan and Mercury: Challenges to Billions of Years One measure of the strength of a scientific hypothesis is the number of auxiliary hypotheses required. A recent creation of these worlds requires very few additional assumptions. But when secular astronomers have to bring in boatloads of comets and wet asteroids to keep Mercurys poles icy, or an unknown mechanism for keeping Titans methane replenished somehow

(see the hands wave), the burden is on 01/26/20 184 them. Scientocracy Is Coming The scientocracy C. S. Lewis feared is seriously being considered by left-leaning, abortionpromoting scientism communities. Time for science to seize political power blazes a headline on New Scientist by Michael Brooks. In your wildest dreams, could you imagine a government that builds its policies on carefully gathered scientific evidence? One that publishes the rationale behind its decisions, complete with data, analysis and supporting arguments? Well,

dream no longer: thats where the UK is heading. 01/26/20 185 Scientocracy Is Coming But why would they need to seize political power instead of use the methods of democracy? Brooks used the either-or and loaded-words tactics of portraying anything but scientocracy as hunchbased politics, failing to define evidence in scientific evidence, a philosophically vexed notion. His description of science fits the classic definition of scientism: the belief that the scientific method is the only sure pathway to truth. 01/26/20

186 Scientocracy Is Coming If a scientific government sounds appealing, it will not grant equal rights for all. The scientific community is largely controlled by leftists who abhor conservatives and embrace Darwinism, with its principle of survival of the fittest. They also embrace liberal causes like unfettered abortion. Look how leading science news outlets portrayed the 40th anniversary of the U.S. Supreme Court decision that legalized it: Live Science: 40 Years After Roe vs. Wade, Most Dont Want Abortion Decision Overturned.

Science Daily: Abortions Are Safe When Performed by Nurses Practitioners, Physician Assistants and Certified Nurse Midwives, Study Suggests [safe for whom?] Science Daily: more young people all of whom were born at least 20 years after the decision identify as pro-choice rather than pro-life 01/26/20 187 Scientocracy Is Coming The last article provided some balance, saying that the results may obscure a deeper divide on the issue, and that young people dont consider the potential of overturning Roe v. Wade as important as some other issues, like war or terrorism. Still, Live Science employed typical leftist talking points, such as describing Roe v. Wade as the decision that protected a womans right to have an abortion. They were not so concerned about the

right to life for the unborn, or the millions of aborted babies since 1973 who never had a chance to experience their right to life, liberty, and the pursuit 01/26/20 188 of happiness. Scientocracy Is Coming Consequently, advocates of scientocracy may have less concern than conservatives about the lives of other humans: the elderly, the mentally ill, the disabled. Ironically, they will promote the rights of criminals to escape punishment on the grounds that evolution made them do what they do. Meanwhile, their idealistic schemes of protecting the planet will undoubtedly severely weaken individual rights and national economies.

01/26/20 189 Scientocracy Is Coming C. S. Lewis respected science, but he deeply feared a scientocracy: scientists aggrandizing themselves with their presumptive authority to grasp political power. He portrayed the potential consequences in his dystopic novel, That Hideous Strength, based on real ideologies and developments underway around World War II. Those developments have not slept in the interim. 01/26/20

190 Scientocracy Is Coming Read The Magicians Twin: C. S. Lewis on Science, Scientism and Society so that you can be forewarned of what is coming and know how to stand up against it before its too late. Another possible outcome, though, since scientists tend to take the liberal line of appeasing terrorists rather than fighting them, is that the members of the scientocracy will all be beheaded, leaving their weakened countries to suffer under rule 01/26/20 191 of Islamic tyrants. Pick your poison. Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles

A creative science reporter compares the gears of molecular motors in your muscle cells to those of high-performance cars. A short but potent article in PhysOrg, A nanogear in a nano-motor inside you, describes dyneina molecular motor that transports cargo in cells and helps muscles work. In so doing, the reporter shows how nature outsmarted scientists who thought the motor was slow and inefficient. First, the build-up sets the stage in hunting terms: 01/26/20 192 Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles To live is to move. You strike to swat that irritable mosquito, which skillfully evades the hand of death. How did that happen? Who moved your hand, and what saved the

mosquito? Enter the Molecular Motors, nanoscale protein-machines in the muscles of your hand and wings of the mosquito. You need these motors to swat mosquitoes, blink your eyes, walk, eat, drink just name it. Millions of motors tug as a team within your muscles, and you swat the mosquito. This is 01/26/20 193 teamwork at its exquisite best. Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles Zooming into the cell, the article describes how a scientists used to wonder why nature made a counter-intuitive choice to use dynein, a rather sluggish motor, instead of the more powerful kinesin. By measuring the forces on dynein, a team at Tata Institute of

Fundamental Research (TIFR), led by Dr. Roop Mallik, found the answer: dynein has gears. Mallik explained, 01/26/20 194 Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles Each dynein showed a special ability to shift gears, just like you shift gears in your car to go uphill. Therefore, each dynein in a team could speed up or slow down, depending how hard it was pulled back. This allowed the dyneins to bunch close together as they were pulling. The bunching helped dyneins to share their load equitably, and therefore work efficiently to generate large forces. Remarkably, motor-teams made up of another motor (called kinesin) which is much

stronger than dynein, could not generate comparable forces. The reason? Well you 01/26/20 195 guessed it right. Kinesin does not have a gear!! Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles The double exclamation points put the delight in finding the answer. Because of this, dyneins do much better at teamwork than other stronger motors that cannot change gears, the article explained. And even though dynein gears are orders of magnitude smaller than those on a performance car, the principle is the same: 01/26/20 196 Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles

Taken together, these new studies show that Nature may have learnt how to use the gear in a motor much before we made our Ferraris and Lamborghinis. But, what boggles the mind is that dyneins gear works on a size scale that is ten-million times smaller than the Ferraris gear. This led to a bit of debate in the comments about evolution vs. intelligent design, even though the article didnt mention evolution. 01/26/20 197 Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles

Evolutionists try to explain this by saying that natural selection uses whatever works, even if the design is inelegant. But surely the key question is how did a molecular motor arise in the first place. It would seem a diversity of motors for different purposes is a good design. And if the reporter here thought of Ferraris and Lamborghinis by comparison, how can the Darwinist invoke blind natural selection? From uniform experience, the only cause sufficient to arrange parts for gear-driven function is intelligence. Animals as diverse as flies and mammals share the same motors in their respective muscles. On the face of it, these considerations falsify neo-Darwinism, but Darwinians are clever. They say that the common ancestor invented the motors, then they stayed the same for millions of years along different evolutionary branches. They say, Nature evolves to the point of good enough. Such insufferable ingrates. Say that to a Ferrari 01/26/20 198 designer. Ferrari-Like Gears Move Your Muscles

Gimme that old time selection, Gimme that old time selection; Gimme that old blind selection; Its good enough for me. It was good enough for Darwin, It was goody for Dobzhansky, It was good enough for Dawkins; Its good enough for me. 01/26/20 199 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab For those who trust scientists, it may come as a shock that some bad apples are getting rehab. Violations of scientific ethics have

skyrocketed over the last decade. Plagiarism, falsifying data, outright fraud these and other examples of ethical breaches have produced some notable scandals. What should be done? Nature on January 8 reported about a new program to rehabilitate the bad apples: 01/26/20 200 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab With the rapid growth of misconduct cases, some scientists are worried that preventative training in research ethics might not be enough. Nor will it be possible simply to dismiss all violators from science. Scientific rehabilitation, they say, will have to become a necessary

tool for research-integrity offices. 01/26/20 201 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab This seems to be a new problem. The US Office of Research Integrity received double the complaints from 2011 last year. Why is that? Its another question, not addressed in the article. The focus is on whether rehab works, and whether bad scientists deserve a second chance. 01/26/20 202 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab

The hero of the article is James Dubois (Saint Louis University), who is trying to make saints out of sinners with his nifty RePAIR program (Restoring Professionalism and Integrity in Research). We believe that if we can equip them with certain skills, they can return to the field as very productive individuals, he said. Through information, informal discussions and management programs, he processes his students and funnels them back into the mainstream with a certificate of completion to 01/26/20 203 potentially fool their managers. Crooked Scientists Get Rehab No conflict of interest there. Dubois program has a $500,000 grant behind it from the National Institutes of Health, and Dubois charges $3,000

per penitent. Lets hope when Dubois teaches about self-serving biases on day one, he does it righteously. A program like this might have more credibility if it were taught by a volunteer or a respected clergyman known for his integrity. For more articles on scientific misconduct, search on fraud or peruse the category 01/26/20 204 Politics and Ethics. Crooked Scientists Get Rehab We hope rehab works with some, but isnt it just like liberals to prefer rehab over punishment? Some of Dubois inmates may have misappropriated thousands of taxpayer dollars, ruined others reputations, or garnered fame

from fraud. Dubois believes the really bad apples are only 1015% of the ones caught. There there, Dr. Liar, lets just have a group chat session to see why you committed that crime. You couldnt help it; it was your selfish genes. Darwin made you do it. 01/26/20 205 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab What these scientists need is repentance and conversion. Give skills to a crook, and you make him a more skillful crook. Some of the graduates of RePAIR could easily fake penitence then take the information they gathered back to the lab, having learned how better to avoid getting caught.

Without a genuine change of heart, why not? Dubois is not teaching repentance. He seems to be building self-esteem. 01/26/20 206 Crooked Scientists Get Rehab This story underscores the need for righteousness in science. As with any other field of human endeavor, science cannot work without honest practitioners. You cannot trust any conclusion from a scientific enterprise that condones (or doesnt recognize) unethical behavior. Science requires honesty and integrityeternal values that cannot evolve. Theres only one world view that can defend a foundation for true ethical behavior; the

Judeo-Christian world view. 01/26/20 207 Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 Tree ring data from the 8th century hint that a cosmic catastrophe was averted on the privileged planet. As if you didnt have enough to worry about, there are things out there that could kill us. Asteroids or comets, solar flares, and exploding stars are just some of the planet-killing dangers that have not (yet) destroyed civilization as we know it. Some faint smoking-gun evidence suggests that while Charlemagne was marching through Westphalia in 775 AD conquering the Saxons, his army was

completely unaware of a cosmic battle of epic proportions taking place overhead. 01/26/20 208 Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 According to Astrobiology Magazine, one of the universes most energetic events may have occurred that year, sending a torrent of deadly gamma rays at Earth. Completely invisible, these rays could have sterilized the planet in seconds had the source been close enough. From at least 3,000 light-years away, though, Earths atmosphere was capable of shielding the biosphere. The energy was safely absorbed by gases in the atmosphere. Nobody 01/26/20

209 felt a thing. Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 In 2012 scientist Fusa Miyake announced the detection of high levels of the isotope carbon-14 and beryllium-10 in tree rings formed in 775 CE, suggesting that a burst of radiation struck the Earth in the year 774 or 775. Carbon-14 and beryllium-10 form when radiation from space collides with nitrogen atoms, which then decay to these heavier forms of carbon and beryllium. The earlier research ruled out the nearby explosion of a massive star (a supernova) as nothing was recorded in observations at the time and no 01/26/20

210 remnant has been found. Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 Prof. Miyake also considered whether a solar flare could have been responsible, but these are not powerful enough to cause the observed excess of carbon-14. Large flares are likely to be accompanied by ejections of material from the Suns corona, leading to vivid displays of the northern and southern lights (aurorae), but again no historical records suggest these took place. 01/26/20 211

Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 The leading explanation remaining, then, was a GRB between 3,000 and 12,000 light-years away sent an intense storm of particles that was undetectable to kings and peasants of 8th-century Europe. Being sufficiently distant, it was harmless. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can take less than two seconds to blast high-energy radiation in all directions. Only discovered in 1967, they are believed to occur when compact objects like white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes collide and merge. Most of the observed GRBs have been billions of light-years away. A GRB can release as much energy in a few

01/26/20 seconds as the sun could emit in 10 billion years. 212 Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 Tree-ring dating only extends back about 3,000 years (most of recorded human history); this is the only such anomaly found in the data. According to Wikipedias entry, though, there must have been a thousand GRBs close enough to Earth to affect life since life began. 01/26/20 213

Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 The evidence is circumstantial that a GRB caused the tree-ring anomaly, but this points out a couple of interesting things. One is that in all recorded human history, there has not yet been a cosmic extinction eventno superflare from the sun, no massive impact, no GRB. The Tunguska Event (probably a comet) was a close call, but bad as that was, it was isolated. Most people have no concept of the energy out there that could wipe us out as 01/26/20 they live out their lives under the warm sun. 214 Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery

14 The other point to ponder is how Earth could have survived a thousand wallops powerful enough to affect life on Earth, if the evolutionary age of 4.5 billion years is granted. Is that reasonable? Even the period of a few million years for human evolution raises the stakes. Some evolutionists try to link a couple of presumed evolutionary extinctions to cosmic events, but it seems a supreme case of special pleading to expect a thousand GRBs to cause some extinctions but never a planetary extinctionand thats not 01/26/20 counting the chances for superflares or impacts. 215 Was Charlemagne Protected from a Cosmic Disaster? A Carbon-14 Mystery 14 Our luck so far doesnt mean the day

wont come. Some believe some big wallops have been predicted. If you havent seen The Privileged Planet, this might be a good time to watch it and consider many other reasons to believe that a Designer had some purposes for our tiny little patch of the universe. 01/26/20 216 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction For professionals who should be concerned with evidence, many evolutionists are given to rampant speculation. The tipoff is usually a phrase like may have, could have, or conceivably.

Ritual storytelling: Nature (23 Jan 2013) suggested the possibility that civilization evolved from rituals related to combat. Praying, fighting, dancing, chanting human rituals could illuminate the growth of community and the origins of civilization. But then again, they might not. Is author Dan Jones confusing cause with effect? Does the intelligent choice in the minds of the instigators of rituals count for anything, or is Jones really implying that a genetic mutation caused 01/26/20 217 someone to get on their knees and pray? Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction My dogs spot: The leading science sites jumped on a new suggestion that domestic dogs evolved from wolves dining on scrap heaps left by humans (BBC News, Live Science, PhysOrg). Proto-Fidos with the ability to digest starches became poodles.

And that, children, is why Muffy begs at the table. Its not clear what this tale adds to the corpus of scientific knowledge, since even ardent creationists would point out that some domestic dogs are capable of interbreeding with wolves. Yet evolution was woven throughout the story, as in Erik Axelssons remark to the BBC, So, we think our findings fit well with this theory that the dog evolved on the waste dump. 01/26/20 218 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction Fishy tales: Speaking of puppies, the pupfish is centerpiece in a story celebrated on PhysOrg as one of the most comprehensive snapshots of natural selection in the wild that demonstrated a key prediction in evolutionary biology. So what does the alleged snapshot of pupfish

evolution in action reveal, specifically? Nothing Darwinian, thats for sure. Chris Marin of UC Davis hybridized fish with artificial selection and made them compete. Thats how he could allege they are evolving at an explosively faster rate than natural populations. Even so, he only found stabilizing selection small artificially-bred groups getting stranded on fitness peaks, even though he boasted that We can see a surprisingly complex snapshot of natural selection driving the evolution of new specialized species. 01/26/20 219 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction The just-so story that followed was like watered-down gravy on this already small potato: An early burst of variation when fish entered a new environment with little competition could have allowed the shell-eaters and scale-eaters to evolve on San Salvador. Astute

creationists would surely point out that theyre still pupfish, with less variation than domestic dogs that comprise one species. They even might underline this admission in the article: But while the concept [of an adaptive landscape, a common and powerful idea that influences thinking about evolution] is straightforward, it is much harder to map out such a landscape in the wild. 01/26/20 220 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction Tiny bubbles in the OOL: New Scientist teased its readers to pay for the whole article with these whoppers, in fairytale style: IT BEGAN when something fell apart. Somewhere on Earth, over 3.5 billion years ago, a bubble of fat may have

spontaneously broken into smaller ones, giving rise to one of lifes most fundamental properties the ability to 01/26/20 221 make copies of itself. Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction Thats according to Jack Szostak of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute in Boston, who has demonstrated this simple division in the lab. Versions of it are found in many bacteria today, lending some credence to the theory. The simplified cell division also doesnt require any genes or the complex machinery

modern cells use to divide, which suggests it could have been under way before living organisms appeared. We cant be sure thats what happened, says Jeff Errington of Newcastle University in the UK. But its a very plausible explanation. It actually works. Beware when your children see bubbles reproducing in 01/26/20 222 the bathtub. Something slimy might crawl out. Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction The hand is quicker than the fin: What, exactly, is a pre-hand? Its something like a post-fin, according to another evidence-free New Scientist tale, Zebrafish made to grow pre-hands instead of fins. Well, if they were made to grow something,

thats intelligent design, but we dont wish to digress from the story (revealed by its first word in caps): PERHAPS the little fish embryo shown here is dancing a jig because it has just discovered that it has legs instead of fins. Fossils show that limbs evolved from fins, but a new study shows how it may have happened, live in the lab. 01/26/20 223 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction But then, PERHAPS it does nothing of the sort. What would one expect the tortured fish to do when injected with genes from mice that didnt even appear for hundreds of millions of years in the grand evolutionary scenario? Of course, we havent been able to grow hands, the lead magician said, bypassing the little problem that without

muscles and brain to operate them, they would have been bad fins long before natural selection could stumble upon good hands. Nevertheless, the magician kept his dazzle going with sublime visions of the Darwinian land of possibilities: He speculates that hundreds of millions of years ago, the ancestors of tetrapods began expressing more hoxd13 for some reason and that this could have allowed them to evolve autopods. 01/26/20 224 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction Winner fakes all: There were winners and losers in another artificial-selection experiment reported on PhysOrg that advertised Darwins notorious phrase that launched a thousand ships, survival of the fittest, right in the headline. Apparently, some confident Darwinian at Macquarie University decided to add some Darwinian

universal acid to a fish tank to see which sea urchins didnt die (wheres PETA?) He justified this cruel act on the grounds that human-caused global warming is acidifying the oceans anyway. He just wanted to see the effects under controlled conditions; thats science, right? (Dont try this at home in the goldfish bowl.) Our results suggest that some individuals will exhibit enhanced fertilisation in acidified oceans, supporting the concept of winners and losers of climate change at an individual level, Peter Schlegel said, not clarifying the Lamarckian look of this experiment. One thing everyone can agree on; dead sea urchins dont do very well at fertilization. 01/26/20 225 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction

Its no stretch: The phrase its no stretch means someone suspects it is. Sure enough, a PhysOrg entry extrapolated from foraminifera shells on the seafloor (see background of foram evolution at Evolution News & Views) to human-caused global warming. For support, he brought in the Red Queen and the Court Jester from Alice in Wonderland as witnesses. He then suggests the possibility that man-made effects can create a tipping point in the climate; from there Its no stretch to worry about a system thrown out of whack, the Court Jester chuckled. Readers can decide whose system is whacked. Lest readers think that only overly-enthusiastic reporters commit such tale-telling, quoting actual scientists out of context or when they are drunk after the conference sessions, serious journals also have their storytelling addicts. Two examples from Current Biology serve to illustrate. 01/26/20 226 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction

Survival of the dumbest: One Current Biology paper described an artificial-selection experiment where the scientists genetically-modified guppies for larger brains, hoping to re-create some figment of Lucy-to-Charlie (or fish-to-Gish) evolution. Alas, the bigger-brained guppies in the tank didnt reproduce as well as the control group. In Artificial Selection on Relative Brain Size in the Guppy Reveals Costs and Benefits of Evolving a Larger Brain, the Swedes had to admit a failure: Evolution of larger brains leads to smaller guts and lower offspring number. To rescue Darwin in this case, they used the power of suggestion to prime readers with visions of possible evolutionary reasons for survival of the dumbest: This decrease in fertility may therefore be a result of either an evolutionary increase in relative brain size or, alternatively, the change toward a slower life history that 01/26/20 allowed these orders to evolve their unusually large brains.227 Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction

That stinking feeling: In a short dispatch in Current Biology, a scientist and an editor worried about why any self-respecting mouse would develop a use for TMA (trimethylamine), a chemical in urine that has a disgusting smell like rotten fish. Plants dont care about the smell, but how could a mouse or rat use the stink for signaling? Its only found in male urine in one mouse lineage, but both the males and females have an attraction to itdiscounting the suggestion that it acts as a pheromone. The reader is given a choice of evolutionary stories: either TMA is a very kinky sex pheromone that attracts both sexes alike or it serves an altogether different function Alternatively, the change in TMA preference might be innate and thus involve a change at some stage of olfactory processing. As for how the phenomenon arose, they ended, We can only 01/26/20 228 speculate at this point. Evolutionists Storytelling Addiction

No, they can do more than speculate. They can demonstrate or shut up. If they want to speculate, and limit their speculations to Darwinian, materialistic processes, let them join Alice in Wonderland in the English Lit building, where its permissible to imagine six impossible things before breakfast. 01/26/20 229 Make Like a Firefly

Biomimetics puts a new meaning into Make like a tree. Yes, make things like trees, snails, fireflies, and a thousand other creatures do, and life can be inspiring. See what the following organisms have to offer: Fireflies: A new LED inspired by fireflies is 55% more efficient, reported PhysOrg. The team lead said, will continue to explore the great diversity of the natural world, searching for new sources of knowledge and inspiration. 01/26/20 230 Make Like a Firefly

Skin: Who would have thought your skin would inspire design of a generator? Scientists at MIT and Harvard did. In Science, they wrote about their Bio-Inspired Polymer Composite Actuator and Generator Driven by Water Gradients. Theyve designed a water-actuated polymer film that can generate contractile stress up to 27 megapascals, lift objects 380 times heavier than itself, and transport cargo 10 times heavier than itself. They were Inspired by the network structure of animal dermis, in which rigid collagen fibers reinforce an elastic network of elastin microfibrils to form a sturdy and flexible material, they said. 01/26/20 231 Make Like a Firefly

Tissue: Human tissues inspired the creation of 3-D scaffolds for tissue repair, according to Science Daily. A team of researchers from international hospitals designed a stretchable polymer that will allow stem cells to be positioned where needed. The abstract of the paper in Tissue Engineering, entitled Biomimetic ThreeDimensional Anisotropic Geometries by Uniaxial Stretch of Poly(-Caprolactone) Films for Mesenchymal Stem Cell Proliferation, Alignment, and Myogenic Differentiation, states, Here, we present a novel simple, solvent-free, and reproducible method via uniaxial stretching for incorporating anisotropic topographies on bioresorbable films with ambitions to realize stem cell alignment control. 01/26/20 232 Make Like a Firefly

DNA: Science Magazine reported a new record for DNA storage of digitized information: 2.2 petabytes per gram (a petabyte is a thousand terabytes or a million gigabytes). At the storage density achieved, a single gram of DNA would hold 2.2 million gigabits of information, or about what you can store in 468,000 DVDs, the article said. Calling DNA a perfect storage medium, the Nick Goldman and team stored photographs, sound and text, including all of Shakespeares sonnets. The team believes it will remain stable for thousands of years, even without electricity or constant maintenance. The team also retrieved the stored information with 100% accuracy. See also the BBC News, Nature News and PhysOrg. For all the celebration, observers will note that nature had it first, using a stable aperiodic molecule that can store up to an exabit (10 18 bits, a thousand petabits) of information per cubic millimeter, according to Dr. Dean Kenyon in the Q&A section of the film Unlocking the 01/26/20 233 Mystery of Life. Make Like a Firefly

Snails: Snails have teeth? Yes, marine snails called chitons do, and upcoming solar panels might thank them for it. Science Daily shows a large chitons teeth, and promises less costly and more efficient nanoscale materials to improve solar cells and lithium-ion batteries by the skin of their teeth. How can that be? Well, these marine snails that feed on algae on rocks have a rasping tool called a radula, with a conveyer belt-like structure in the mouth that contains 70 to 80 parallel rows of teeth. It allows them to replace the front teeth continuously at the same rate they are shed with materials containing magnetite, one of the hardest minerals known. Cool, said David Kisailus from UC Riverside, who uses nature as inspiration to design next generation engineering products and materials, the article said. Hes amazed at how the chiton uses available materials at room temperature to build these highly-effective tools. His paper analyzing the process includes visions of how the same principles could allow engineers to construct tools from nanocrystals at significantly lower temperatures, which means significantly lower 01/26/20 234 production costs.

Make Like a Firefly Catalysts: Cells are filled with molecular machines called enzymes that catalyze slow chemical reactions to fantastically rapid rates. A paper in Science 18 January discussed Re-engineering natures catalysts that demonstrates biomimicry paradigm in reverse that is, altering the function of one of natures most versatile biocatalysts is directed to a transformation originally conceived and implemented by synthetic chemists. Actually, its straightforward biomimicry, too: you have an idea, and you look how nature solved it. The authors of this paper claimed, Directed evolution is one of the most successful approaches toward achieving these goals. This method is a laboratory-based, accelerated version of natural evolution.

01/26/20 235 Make Like a Firefly Exercise: Before we tell you, try to identify the fallacy in that last sentence. The wonderful world of biomimetics proceeds apace. Its kind of surprising that the Biomimicry Revolution is happening now, after Darwins Century portrayed a world of happenstance, bloodshed, and survival in a natural world personified as a blind watchmaker, whose invisible hand tinkers with whatever parts are around, cobbling together slapdash solutions to immediate threats to survival. Look at all these exquisite designs in life! They are so good, the worlds greatest minds cant get enough of them. The new view of nature inspires awe. Whole

new biomimicry institutes have sprung up, with new journals to share the latest findings. 01/26/20 236 Make Like a Firefly Scientists are astonished that plants can fix nitrogen at room temperature, that geckos can employ atomic forces to climb glass, and that dragonflies can process optic flow better than high-speed computers. Those are things engineer struggle to do. This is the Information Century, where intelligence is king. Darwinism is a ball and chain holding back this new era. Claiming that lab-based, accelerated selection is like natural evolution is wholly wrong. Its the opposite! Its intelligent design. The researchers have a goal in their minds; then they select out of random trials the results they want. Natural evolution is short-sighted, blind, careless it doesnt even care about survival, because it doesnt care about

anything. Directed evolution is, therefore, a colossal oxymoron. If they really care about making the world a better place with sustainable technology, it will do secular scientists no harm to silently shed their photos of Papa Darwin and get on board with the new show in town thats able to do it. 01/26/20 237 You Are Not a Clone The notion that there are multiple copies of you in parallel universes is mythological, two physicists argue. PhysOrg announced, You dont exist in an infinite number of places, say scientists. If youve read about how modern cosmology may imply

that, in an infinite universe, the existence of planets and the life forms that live on them must be repeated an infinite number of times, you may have been just a little bit skeptical. So are a couple scientists from Spain, who have posted a paper at criticizing the concept of the infinite repetition of histories in space, an idea closely related to the concepts of alternate histories, parallel universes, and the many worlds 01/26/20 238 interpretation, among others. You Are Not a Clone Francisco Jos Soler Gil at the University of Sevilla and Manuel Alfonseca at the Autonomous University of Madrid examined these proposals logically and in terms of quantum physics and found them

wanting. First of all, they lead to infinities in the math, which is something cosmologists should try to avoid. Second, they are speculations based on assumptions, not hard science. 01/26/20 239 You Are Not a Clone Soler Gil and Alfonseca criticize almost all of the assumptions in this proposal, starting with the application of quantum theory to cosmology, which is

currently mere conjecture without evidence But the scientists biggest criticism of the idea of infinite repetition in both proposals is the assumption that the universe is infinite. Whether the universe is infinite or finite is a big open-ended question in cosmology that scientists may never answer. While Soler Gil and Alfonseca cant disprove the proposals of infinite repetition, they emphasize that the point of their critique is to show that the idea remains in the realm of philosophy, mythology, and sci-fi tales, not 01/26/20 240 modern cosmology. You Are Not a Clone The article mentions John Horgans opinion of such proposals. He called them ironic science not true, just interesting. Its good to see someone concerned about

common sense. The Many-Worlds Proposal shows the lengths to which otherwise intelligent people will fall for mythology. You have a big enough list of things to do than to worry about billions of you in parallel worlds. Get busy with what you know. 01/26/20 241 New Feathered Fossil, But Not Simple Evolution You would think evolutionists would celebrate this new feathered dinosaur instead of furrowing their brows. Eosinopteryx brevipenna, a new fossil from

China, was pretty small, according to the artist reconstruction on Live Science less than a foot. It looks something like a sparrow with a long tail. Its reduced feathers suggest it was flightless. Is it a transitional form at last? No. It throws out the classification of Archaeopteryx as a transitional form: 01/26/20 242 New Feathered Fossil, But Not Simple Evolution This discovery sheds further doubt on the theory that the famous fossil Archaeopteryx or first bird as it is sometimes referred to was pivotal in

the evolution of modern birds, researcher Gareth Dyke, a senior lecturer in paleontology at the U.K.s University of Southampton, said in a statement. 01/26/20 243 New Feathered Fossil, But Not Simple Evolution Our findings suggest that the origin of flight was much more complex than previously thought, the article continued. Its reduced plumage suggests that feathering was already diversified by the Late Jurassic, adapted to different ecological niches and purposes. This would seem to suggest

that Eosinopteryx was secondarily flightless, but the paleontologist argues it shows dinosaurs did not use their feathers for flight. 01/26/20 244 New Feathered Fossil, But Not Simple Evolution One cannot trust artist reconstructions, but just about everything in the drawing and the fossil looks suitable for a bird classification. Why is it even being called a dinosaur? Any why do almost all of these weird, mosaic fossils come from China? Couldnt some of them fly out of the reach of hoaxers? Just asking.

Anyway, if it confuses the evolutionary story, that should be cause enough to be skeptical. 01/26/20 245 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? The pro-evolution BBC is squeamish over German anatomy illustrations from cadavers of executed prisoners. Why?

According to the BBC News, German scientists in the 1940s received cadavers from prisoners and nonchalantly used them for science: The University of Vienna had a special streetcar hearse that delivered the cadavers from the execution chamber of the regional court to the anatomy institute, explained Prof Seidelman. Eduard Pernkopf, who was chairman of anatomy there between 1933 and 1945, left a printed legacy in the form of a now infamous anatomy tome. It is now understood that many of the incredibly detailed illustrations in Pernkopfs atlas depicted the bodies of victims of Nazi 01/26/20 246 terror. Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation?

The anatomists welcomed this experimental material for their research, apparently indifferent to where it came from. To them, the cadavers were just inanimate objects for science. If materialism is true, thats really all the cadavers were. Yet the BBC (normally staunchly pro-Darwinian) spoke up for the victims, calling attention to their humanness by promoting efforts of Sabine Hildenbrandt and others to preserve their memories: 01/26/20 247 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation?

Dr. Hildebrandt agrees that the issue still casts a shadow on anatomy today, and while a great deal has been published about the crimes of the perpetrators, German post-war anatomy was built in part on the bodies of [the] victims. She added: Its time to return the names to the numbers to give faces and biographies to the so far anonymous victims of anatomy in the Third Reich in order to remember and honour their humanity and the iniquities they had to endure. 01/26/20 248 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation?

Honor; iniquities; thats the talk of righteous indignation. Early studies had concluded that German scientists colluded in Nazi atrocities (see 2/17/08), making todays scientists in Germany reluctant to repeat errors of the past (7/30/2001, 7/18/2010). Many of the victims were Polish or Russian slave laborers, or opponents of the Third Reich convicted of treason. The article described how repulsive it was to inform a woman of the date of her execution, then examine the body later to study the effects of stress on her reproductive parts. Hermann Stieve, for instance, would do this and then cut up the pelvis looking for changes. Stieve was particularly interested in the effects of stress and psychological trauma on the doomed womans menstrual pattern. The article called it macabre that anyone would do such a thing, adding, Stieve published reports based on those studies without hesitation or 01/26/20

249 apology. Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? But Stieve and Pernkopf didnt kill the prisoners. They would probably argue that the prisoners were going to die anyway, so why not use the material to advance science? The practice was widespread over Germany: Of the 31 anatomical departments at universities in Germany and its occupied territories between 1933 and 1945, Dr. Hildebrandt found that all of them without exception received bodies of the executed from execution chambers.

01/26/20 250 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? Dr. Hildenbrandt said that her research made it painfully clear how little anatomists at the time were interested in the fate of the people whose bodies they were dissecting, implying that they should have been interested or concerned. Here it is 67 years after the end of the atrocities, and The issue only came to public attention in the past two decades.

01/26/20 251 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? You cant keep humanity in a materialistic box. Some part always sticks out. Why would the BBC care about these victims from decades ago, putting their portraits in their Science news section, seeking to revive their personal stories? Weve just seen them arousing sympathy for the formerly anonymous, trying to restore a semblance of dignity to the victims of one of the most heinous regimes of history a regime founded squarely on Darwinist materialism (ask why else would the German scientists call the cadavers inanimate objects or experimental 01/26/20

252 material). Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? In a sense, a cadaver is material. Theists believe theres much more to a person than the body: theres a soul, or spirit, or both (depending on ones theology); the body is a temporary dwelling. If a person wills their body to science voluntarily, or their organs for transplants, thats a personal choice. Some reason that their body will decay to dust in a cemetery plot anyway; why not do something good for humanity by letting science benefit? Dont theists benefit by seeing in more detail how clearly and wonderfully made the human body is? Has not science advanced wonderfully due to dissections of cadavers in medical schools?

01/26/20 253 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? Additionally, anatomy (and art) has a long history of dissections on prisoners. Vesalius, Michelangelo, Leonardo and others in the Renaissance period dissected bodies of convicted criminals or of unknown persons found dead of natural causes. The Church generally did not object; however, because its obvious that fresh bodies are needed for anatomy lessons, fears of anatomy murder and body-snatching, though illegal, rose in some quarters to meet the demand. Whats

01/26/20 254 different about the Nazi regime? Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? One thing is the sheer scale of the atrocity. Another is the coldness of the perpetrators, welcoming the supply of experimental material with no tinge of conscience about where it came from. In previous cases, perpetrators of anatomy murder knew what they were doing was wrong, and they were often punished by law. None of this happened in Nazi Germany. There was no informed consent. The prisoners were killed simply for their race, defects or presumptive resistance to the Reich not for verifiable crimes like murder.

01/26/20 255 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? German scientists had plenty of rationalizations to use; they could say they had nothing to do with the killings; they could say they were turning an ugly thing into a good thing (advancing science); they could say resistance would have been fatal for them, too. Why do those rationalizations seem so repulsive? Why does the cold indifference of these scientists strike us as macabre? Would it have made a difference if the cadavers they used came from real criminals, like murderers, instead of from innocent women targeted because of their race? Would the Nazi anatomists defend themselves by pointing to Renaissance practices, claiming they were just continuing a long tradition? What

about the plasticized bodies on display at some 01/26/20 256 museums? Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? Demand motivates supply. When the sanctity of human life is diminished, people can more easily be looked at as chattel, property, just inanimate material. Demand for fetal parts motivates black markets for abortion. Demand for embryonic stem cells motivates political pressure to consider it just clusters of cells that werent going to ever lead to a birth anyway. It can all sound so righteous; scientists just want to advance knowledge. They just want to lead to cures. There have been cases of ethics violations for paying women to

voluntarily donate eggs for research; were they 01/26/20 coerced? Were they lured on false pretenses? 257 Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? Its incomprehensible why Darwinists should care about what the Nazis did. To them, humans are evolved animals, no different in kind than apes, dogs or pigs that can be dissected without qualms. Groups like PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals) come at this same belief from the opposite extreme; a rat is a pig is a dog is a boy, one of its leaders said, treating the slaughter of chickens for food the same as the Holocaust. Some evolutionists, like David Attenborough, look at humanity as a plague on the planet (see Evolution News & Views). None of these groups have any justification for valuing humanity at all, let alone caring about the tragic story of Liane Berkowitz, featured in the BBC story. A chilling episode in the documentary Expelled: No Intelligence

Allowed shows Ben Stein touring of the Hadamar mental hospital, where the tour guide described the conscience-free coldness of the Nazi executioners, attributing their motivation to 01/26/20 258 Darwinism. Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? In Nazi Germany we see a particularly egregious case of innocent victims supplying an all-too-eager university anatomy program without informed consent, moral law or legal grounds. Many people these days would agree that an organ donor at an accident scene did a good thing to give his or her consent in advance. Many would accept voluntary donations of bodies to science after natural death, provided the person gave informed consent and understood the

choice. The law can permit cases of scientific use of cadavers of accident victims of those with no family or will, or of criminals executed for capital crimes, as long as due process is followed (usually a long, tedious 01/26/20 259 ordeal, laboriously considering every alibi). Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? But greed lies at the door. Beware the government that relaxes capital punishment laws because universities need more cadavers. Beware the scientists who rationalize fetal research on the grounds they were going to be aborted anyway. Beware the scientists who rationalize embryonic stem cell research because the cells could never lead to a live birth anyway. Beware! Only a commitment to the sanctity of human life the conviction that every individual has value

because of the image of God can prevent another Holocaust. That conviction comes from Scripture. Its also evident in the conscience of Sabine Hildenbrandt and the BBC News. Its evident in everyone horrified at the BBC story. Consistent Darwinian materialism has no such scruples, and its ideological roots remain strong. The horrors of Darwinian thinking were not exhausted in the 20th century. 01/26/20 260 Beware! Are Evolutionists Remorseful Over Nazi Experimentation? Suggested reading: Darwin Day in America by John West explores the roots of materialism that devalues human life. Join the discussion! Send your comments about organ

donation, cadaver donation, use of criminals for cadavers, fetal research, or any other issues mentioned in this article and commentary. 01/26/20 261 Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? For a science about designs in nature, some evolutionists seem eager to take credit for biomimetics. Evolutionary Algorithm Evolution Inspires More Efficient Solar Cell

Design, blares an oxymoronic headline on Science News contradictory, because inspiration is a spiritual term, and because efficiency and design are engineering terms not in the Darwin Dictionary. What could the article possibly mean? 01/26/20 262 Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? Using a mathematical search algorithm based on natural evolution, the researchers pinpointed a specific

geometrical pattern that is optimal for capturing and holding light in thin-cell organic solar cells. The researchers employed a genetic algorithm, a search process that mimics the process of natural evolution, explained Wei Chen, Wilson-Cook Professor in Engineering Design and professor of mechanical engineering at McCormick and co-investigator of the research. Due to the highly nonlinear and irregular behavior of the system, you must use an intelligent approach to find the optimal solution, Chen said. Our approach is based on the biologically evolutionary process of survival of 01/26/20 263 the fittest. Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? Only the most convoluted logic could

link an intelligent approach of engineering design to survival of the fittest in the biologically evolutionary sense. Clearly this was an experiment in artificial selection: having a design goal, using an algorithm, and pinpointing a desired result. 01/26/20 264 Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? Functional Information In another example, Live Science began a story that could have been founded on intelligent design theory: Uncovering the Function of Fish Shapes. Katherine Gammons article states, for instance, that eels are designed for

hiding away and sticking in holes. She reported how Kara Feilich of Harvard decided to investigate the theory that the form of a fishs body yield [sic] information on its functioning. Information function those fit 01/26/20 265 well with ID theory. Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? But then evolutionary theory took over. Feilichs mentor Paul Webb described a fishs shape in terms of evolutionary strategy (another oxymoron). Webb explained that when it comes to evolution, an animal doesnt have to be perfect it just has to do a little better than its competition. Next in

the article, a museum curator who studies fish evolution made a cameo appearance. Then came a very strange section mixing intelligent design, engineering, biomimetics and 01/26/20 266 evolution: Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? Feilich said that even though shes more interested in the evolutionary ecology of fish, uncovering the secrets of fish motion can help engineers build better biomimetic robots underwater and also in the sky. What applies to one fluid can apply to another, Feilich said. Having different

sciences draw from each other to answer evolutionary questions is really important. We couldnt do this without engineers. 01/26/20 267 Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? So while Gammons article was primarily about biomimetics and engineering design, evolution made a prominent appearance of doubtful substance, leaving those evolutionary questions vague and undefined. Most biomimetics news articles, like this one on spider silk from PhysOrg, dont even mention evolution. 01/26/20

268 Can Evolutionists Steal Biomimetics? It is said that a Senator is someone who finds which way the crowd is going, then runs up front and proclaims himself their leader. Thats what Charlie D. is doing here, except a better label might be Sin-ator in In-Sin-uator. Hes terrified that biomimetics is leaving his legacy in the trash heap of history, so he is trying to reinvent himself as the head honcho of engineering. If anyone can figure out what on earth a blind, unguided, purposeless process, whose only outcome is to one-up the competition, has anything to do with designs so efficient our best engineers desire to imitate them, please explain provided you can list all the chance mutations from sterile laguna to Charlie Tuna. Otherwise, stop the smokescreen gimmicks like evolutionary algorithm and evolutionary inspiration that presume Evolution is some kind of intelligent goddess haunting the Engineering department. Charlie doesnt believe in spirits, he doesnt have the tools, and he cant order free lunches.

01/26/20 269 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Right out of NCSE talking points, lies flowed from the pen of a reporter intent on stopping academic freedom bills for public schools. On Discovery News (no connection with the Discovery Institute), reprinted on Live Science, Larry OHanlon set the tone of his report from the very first word: Anti-Science Bills Weighed in Four States. The bills being considered in

Colorado, Oklahoma, Missouri and Montana actually protect science and science teachers. Here is the text of the Colorado bill, posted on 01/26/20 270 Evolution News & Views: Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Public school authorities and administrators must permit teachers to help students understand, analyze, critique, and review in an objective manner the scientific strengths and scientific weaknesses of existing scientific theories covered in a given course.

01/26/20 271 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Any fair-minded reader sees immediately that this bill says nothing about evolution, creation, Genesis, or climate change (formerly global warming), but conspiracy theorists are dead sure that creationists in the legislatures are pushing an agenda of some kind. OHanlon writes, Anti-science bills are popping up like daisies after

a spring shower. Five bills in four states have been introduced with the opening of state legislatures across the United States. All of the bills are aimed at undermining the teaching of biology and physical science specifically, evolution and climate 01/26/20 272 change in public schools. Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Here, OHanlon has combined fearmongering with glittering generalities to protect the association of evolution and climate change with the word science. This is also misleading because he didnt define his terms. As it stands, evolution

could mean anything from an albino monkey to molecules-to-man universal common descent by a blind Darwinian process. Climate change could mean anything from the changing seasons to cap-andtrade. But thats not the worst of it. OHanlon ruthlessly and recklessly lied about the Discovery Institute: 01/26/20 273 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science It is almost identical language in all of the bills, said Rosenau. Its a package of bills that weve been tracking since the 2004 Academic Freedom bill. That bill, which was passed into law, was based on language generated by the Discovery Institute, which has long

pushed for the inclusion of biblical creationism and pseudo-scientific intelligent design into science classes in public schools. 01/26/20 274 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science The Discovery Institute does not write bills, for instance, but advises legislators (when asked) on how to avoid legal challenges. More importantly, the Institute specifically and categorically denies advocating biblical creationism be taught in public schools. Its official position is not to promote teaching even intelligent design, but to allow teachers (who desire to) to present Darwinian evolution honestly (its strengths and weaknesses) without fear of incrimination. The

Institute frequently and clearly distinguishes intelligent design a scientific theory used in multiple sciences every day from biblical creation or any other religious-based belief. Yet OHanlon called it pseudo-scientific with utter disregard for the facts. OHanlon even engaged in pseudo-scientific mindreading, pretending to know the secret motivations of his 01/26/20 275 targets of hate. Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Its no wonder, when his sole source was the NCSE, an organization whose sole purpose is to protect whitewashed Darwinism (flawed evidences and all) in the public schools. OHanlon used the voice of NCSEs Josh Rosenau to lie again, saying No one has been expelled by critiquing

Darwinian evolution. Cases of many victims have been documented in the movie by that name and in Jerry Bergmans book, Slaughter of the Dissidents. Despite this, OHanlon and Rosenau called the bills a solution in search of a problem, adding ignorance to to injury by posting a large graphic of the discredited ape-to-man icona picture of the outworn orthogenesis view of evolution that even evolutionary paleoanthropologists dismiss as simplistic and 01/26/20 276 misleading. Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science To cover his bases, in case the fear-mongering doesnt work, OHanlon ended with the claim that the academic freedom bills are unconstitutional, will probably die in committee

anyway, and are rarely considered of great importance or worth the very vocal opposition they engender. Willfully or not, OHanlon ignored the majority of Americans who consider it fair that if the evidence for evolution is taught, the scientific evidences against it should also be taught. It may be rarely considered of great importance by the NCSE, but many states disagree enough to bring these bills up in multiple state legislatures. As for vocal opposition, one only has to witness the over-the-top vituperation at some school board meetings by Darwinists intent on prohibiting academic 01/26/20 277 freedom on this issue to see where the shoe fits. Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science OHanlons lying is not just misinformation; its disinformation: intentional propaganda aimed, not at rational discourse, but at destroying a

targeted group with utter disregard for the facts. It should be self-evident that any media source repeating these lies becomes an accomplice to them. 01/26/20 278 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science You see once again the kind of people you deal with when trying to give teachers and students the honest truth about evolution. An entrenched power structure that cannot tolerate honest inquiry will stop at nothing to propagandize, even using the Stalin-like Big Lie tactic to protect Charlie. Weve been showing this willful, lying pattern of angry

resistance by the Darwinistas for over a decade. Lie Science is just one of the repeat offenders. Its time you stopped pretending this is merely a disagreement about a side issue. Its time you got 01/26/20 279 involved. Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science If you do get involved, make sure (and we cannot stress this enough) that you know the pitfalls and booby-traps the Darwinistas will use against you. Know the facts, know the law, and know the hills worth defending in this intellectual battleground, lest you make matters worse. Know their talking points

cold, and the responses. Most of all, do not stoop to the lying tactics they use. Overcome lies with the truth. 01/26/20 280 Reporter Lies About Academic Freedom Bills, Calls Them Anti-Science Suggestion: Quote to them the words of Charles Darwin himself from the introduction of his Origin of Species: A fair result can only be obtained by fully stating and balancing the facts and arguments on both sides of each question ( and 01/26/20 281

With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive Its difficult to believe any other vaunted science than cosmology would be so rife with fact-free speculation. Well, maybe paleoanthropology, too. The Saga of Stone Tools In an article on Live Science, the stone tools were mere props for the real story: a speculative wandering among possibilities. This can be seen by distilling the key words into a seamless stream of consciousness: Did Rise of Ancient Human Ancestor Lead to New Stone Tools? the emergence of an ancient human ancestor the finding suggests an ancient toolmaking technique may have arisen with the evolution of the new species. We think it 01/26/20

282 might be related to the change of species. With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive emerged probably used scientists believed but proving that was tricky colleagues, however, have found Aucheulean tools that are indistinguishable in age from those found in Kenya, suggesting the symmetric hand axes were widespread in the region increasing the likelihood That the timing of this tool-making emerges at the same time as Homo erectus is intriguing, and allows for the possibility that the tools were made by this ancient lineage But while the new study is suggestive that Homo erectus made these tools, its not a smoking gun. Its tempting to say and thats very difficult to prove. The only tangible facts in this saga consist of a bag of scraping rocks gathered from disparate areas dated by

fallible humans who didnt see when and where they were made by whom. 01/26/20 283 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive The Running Man Run for your life! the hominid shrieked to his hairy companion dropping from the tree. Its the only way to evolve! A slightly more academic version of this short story was told in Live Science, in How Running For Our Lives May Have Made Humans Smarter. The operative phrase is may have, which implies its converse, may not have. The article continues the stream-of-consciousness dreamland scenario of suggestion,

emergence and possibility: Could athletic prowess be linked to the size of our brains? Some new research suggests that exercise-loving mice have larger midbrains then their more mellow counterparts. Scientists now think that the ability to run far and fast helped us evolve both physically and mentally. For evidence, look to the common house mouse. 01/26/20 284 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive It appears that the childhood storybook tale of City Mouse and Country Mouse has evolved (or emerged into) The Couch Potato Dufus and the Precocious Athlete. But since the article promised evidence, its worth looking for evidence of the evidence. Here it is: Mice on treadmills, bred for both their propensity and

abilities on treadmill wheels were found to have slightly larger midbrainsBut the overall size of their brains did not vary significantly. This is a long way removed from the hypothesis at issue. After all, mice are mice, and men are men, whether or not they operate treadmills. Furthermore, the hypothesis sounds like a case of artificial selection, not Darwinism. But it provided enough putative evidence to start the tale: 285 01/26/20 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive Whether the mice evolved larger midbrains because they exercised, or exercised because they had bigger brains, remains to be determined.

In the classic comedy sketch, The 2,000-Year-Old Man, Mel Brooks, playing the title character, said the main form of transportation long ago was mostly fear. Youd hear an animal growling and youd go two miles in a minute, he said. That was probably true, at least in spirit. And so the Lamarckian story ran, based on a comedy sketch. Its frankly hard to know where the comedy sketch left off: 01/26/20 286 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive In 2004, Daniel Lieberman of Harvard University and Dennis Bramble at the University of Utah suggested that one of the reasons humans

survived and evolved is that they learned to run faster and further. That allowed them, like Mel Brooks character, to get away from predators, and they also could walk farther so they could track down animals and bring food home. Those who could run faster and walk farther reproduced more than those who could not, they wrote, so humans evolved endurance. Our legs grew longer, toes shortened; we lost hair, and gained more complex middle ears for balance. 01/26/20 287 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive Where, exactly, was the linkage between

running farther and reproducing more? While were imagining things, one could imagine the lazy guy in the cave having sex, while the distance runner is miles away. Other than that, the story is Lamarckian. Learning how to run faster like Mel Brooks wont make a bit of difference if the trait isnt in the sperm. Back to the stream of consciousness: 01/26/20 288 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive Another thing Garland and his team were trying to test is a theory called mosaic evolution. As animals evolve, do certain areas of their bodies change independently of what happens to the rest of the body, or

does the whole body generally evolve simultaneously? [time out for more mice on treadmills] They love going on the wheels and excel in both motivation and abilities, said Garland seems to support the mosaic evolution concept For whatever reason [a bystander] calls Garlands work an amazing step forward Garlands next experiment, however, is to see whether it is the exercise that is increasing the midbrain in mice instead of the opposite. He thinks using MRIs and questionnaires with living humans could test to see 01/26/20 289 if the same things are true of human joggers. With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive The question was, How Running For Our Lives May Have Made Humans Smarter. Well, the answer is, Yes, it may have. But then again, an equally

valid answer in storytelling is, No, it may not have. 01/26/20 290 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive This gets so tiring. Todays evolutionists think they have done their job if something (anything) suggests that an unobservable event may have made us hairless rocket scientists with opposable thumbs and complex middle ears. Evolution is the mother of invention. Need shorter toes? Got it. Cant keep your balance while running? Semicircular canals coming right up. Need opposable thumb for flaking rocks? Oh, they just emerged right on time! The storytellers weave effortlessly between Lamarckism and Darwinism, sipping their Darwine and plucking

tantalizing speculations from thin air. Ah, science. Aint it wonderful? We can watch our mice on the 01/26/20 291 treadmill and dream, dream, dream. With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive The dream is a lie. One thing these unaccountable, reckless charlatans know with absolute certainty: criticisms of their speculations must be lied about, expelled and silenced (read previous entry). Hearing them would ruin all the fun. 01/26/20 292

With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive Dream, by the Evolutionary Brothers Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam, dream, dream, dream Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam, dream, dream, dream When I want to get a grant I tell a tale, though datas scant, Whenever I want funds, all I have to do is Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam, dream, dream, dream

When I feel lazy in the lab I need a plot line thats pre-fab I grab old Darwin then all I have to do is Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam 01/26/20 293 With Caveman Science, The Dream Is Alive I can make it shine, drinking that Dar-wine Anytime night or day Only trouble is, gee whiz Im dreamin my data away

With critics gone, the medias mine Theyre always there to make me shine Whenever I want fame, all I have to do is Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam, dream, dream, dream Drea-ea-ea-ea-eam, dream, dream, dream [fade out] 01/26/20 294

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    Turnitin UK: Electronic Plagiarism Detection By Catherine Ogilvie Department for the Enhancement of Teaching, Learning and Assessment (DELTA) What is plagiarism? plagiarize or plagiarise verb (plagiarized, plagiarizing) tr & intr to copy (ideas, passages of text, etc) from someone else's...
  • Intro to Genetics and Punnett Square Review Game!

    Intro to Genetics and Punnett Square Review Game!

    Square. Review . Game! GENETIC. VOCABULARY. MENDEL'S LAWS. PUNNETT. SQUARES. SIMPLE. PUNNETT. SQUARE. WORD PROBLEMS ... Use the following information to answer the questions about the trait of flower color: Purple is dominant (P) White is recessive (p) CROSS a...
  • Fraser South - McCreary Centre Society

    Fraser South - McCreary Centre Society

    Due to increased participation of school districts in other parts of the Fraser, we are able to produce a Fraser South report for the first time. (CLICK) The black areas of the map are the 3 school districts in BC...
  • Circuits  Lesson 01: Charge  Lesson 02: Circuit Diagrams

    Circuits Lesson 01: Charge Lesson 02: Circuit Diagrams

    Current - voltage graphs Current-voltage graph for a bulb Current voltage graph for a diode Current-Voltage Graphs Thermistor Light Dependant Resistors (LDR) Voltage, Current and Resistance 2 recap Revision 12/03/2008 Slide 94 Slide 95 Definitions Equations IV Graphs Circuits Electricity...
  • Metric Conversions

    Metric Conversions

    Level: 6 Starter: recap Area of Plane Shapes Compound shapes - split the shape into other shapes with lengths that you are given / can work out. 10cm 8cm 22cm Area of Plane Shapes Area of Plane Shapes 5cm 10cm...