Early French Settlers Samuel de Champlain Samuel de
Early French Settlers Samuel de Champlain Samuel de Champlain
Navigator, explorer, cartographer. The Father of New France. He founded New France and Quebec City in 1608. Made the first accurate map of the coast and he helped establish the settlements. Was the first European to explore and describe the Great 1620: Louis XIII ordered him to administer the country (essentially becoming Governor, though was not a noble). He established trading companies that sent goods, primarily fur, to France, and oversaw the growth of New France in the St. Lawrence River Valley until his death in 1635.
Occupation of the Territory Colonization began in earnest in the early 1600s.
Expeditions and exploration led France to control the area (based on trading posts). Entrepreneurs were granted monopolies who agreed to establish colonies and evangelize the Aboriginal populations. In 1608, Champlain settled in Quebec City a location known by Europeans and good for commerce (trading with Aboriginal groups). Despite renewed interest in settlement of the area, growth of Quebec City was slow. It was not until the 1630s that the population was over 100.
Class Work/Homework Read pages 26-27. Interpretation Question 1 to 4. Answers p 26-27 1.What were the different methods used by the French to occupy the territory? The different methods used to occupy the territory were the seigneurial system, the fur trade, exploration and the building of forts and religious missions to convert the aboriginals.
2.What allowed cities and villages to grow? the factors that allowed cities and villages to grow were commercial activity ( the buying and selling of goods) and a high number of births. Answers p 26-27 3. What are the consequences of exploration on the territory?
the consequences of exploration was that many single men didn't want to settle the land, but instead wanted to explore, join the fur trade, evangelize to the aboriginals about God or simply wanted adventure 4. What impact did the occupation of part of the territory by the English have on the French? the impact of the British occupying territory was that competition for the French trading networks this led eventually to wars which resulted in parts of the New France territory being given over the British. Seigneurial system
8 Seigneurial system The seigneur rented most of the land to tenants, known as censitaires or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, and farmed the land. In turn the habitants would pay fees to the seigneur ( lord) and a tithe to the church. These fees were paid with the best of their crops ( wheat etc).
9 Champlains Society Project Champlain was an advocate for the colonization of the St. Lawrence Valley. In 1618, he suggested proposals to Louis XIII and French Chamber of Commerce to establish and settle the colony.
These included: Have entire families immigrate. Set up an administration. Found Cities. Build forts with garrisons. Develop the Christian faith. Open a route to Asia. Individual interests, and lack of government initiative, put the idea of colonization on the backburner. Champlain died in 1635, never fulfilling his expectations.
After Champlains project failed Obligations vs. Interests Companies were given monopolies if they settled and evangelized the new territory, however these proved to be costly, so they neglected these duties. They also saw newcomers as competition. Company of New France Cardinal de Richelieu relaunched colonization efforts, recruiting 100
investors. War between England and France hindered the growth of the company. The English attacked ships containing colonists. The English forced most inhabitants out of Quebec. The English nearly bankrupted the Company of New France, although it held on until 1663 when it was dissolved. It
promoted immigration, but lower than expectations. How did the evangelization of New France help encourage settlers? 14 Evangelization Missionaries worked hard to settle and convert the new territory. They received funding from people in
France, or encouraged others to join them in the colony. In order to maintain the colony clergy were given large seigneuries. In 1674, 55% of the area granted were given to religious communities. Louis XIV: The Sun King
Unsatisfied, Louis XIV and Jean Tallon set about reorganizing colonial empire. After a census in 1666, it was determined that there were only 3,215 habitants. As a result, the king took over management occupation, defence and exploring/exploiting natural resources. This included: System of engag. Filles du Roi. Offering seigneuries to troops. Prisoners were also sent.
Threat of withdrawal of land. The Situation in New France The private company, the Company of 100 Associates, had not fulfilled its charter to poplate the country by 1629, only 21 people lived in New France; by 1662 it had increased to 1,100 men vastly outnumbered women and the King wished to increase the population to compete with the English colonies
Filles du Roi The Filles du Roi were brought to Quebec to increase the population about 770 young women were transported and settled in New France under the sponsorship of King Louis XIV The King also provided a dowry of 50 livres for the girls to be married
http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=wd01qOl btYc 1:30 The dowry of 50 livres was a considerable amount, a common labourer in France would the same in a year some of the girls came from orphanages from cities, but were generally not cut out for pioneer life those from the country fared better
some were filles de qualit and were daughters of the business and professional classes Carignan Salires Regiment Faced with many attacks from the Mohawk, the King sent French regular troops to New France
some 1200 troops and officers arrived in Quebec in 1665 they established forts along the Richelieu River and campaigned against the Mohawk about 450 men remained in New France and some married the Filles du Roi Many of the soldiers used their dit names similar to also known as these names were received as
recruits and were their official army names only officers kept their real names example: Antoine Roy dit Desjardins, Rene Poupart dit La Fleur Jean Talons Measures The Intendant, Jean Talon set up a
number of measures to increase the population: all families with 10 children paid 300 livres a year all families with 12 children paid 400 livres a year all boys 20 and less who marry a girl 16 or less would receive 20 pounds on their wedding day The colony also needed workers in order to grow, so workers (engags) had their transportation paid for they were under contract for 3 years and during which they could be bought and sold
between 1664-1671, 500 out of 1,000 who came stayed in New France All poor people would be better off here than in France, provided they are not lazy. They will not lack for work and they will not be able to say, as they do in France, that they have to scrounge for a living because no one has work for them... - Pierre Bouchard, Merchant What were Jean Talons thoughts on how to increase the population
Who actually immigrated to New France before 1760? Which groups made up the majority of Canadas immigrants? 25 Who actually immigrated to New France before 1760?
In your opinion were measures taken by France effective at increasing the population ? 26 Immigrating to New France Statistics: About 27,000 to 35,000 people arrived in the St. Lawrence Valley. Mostly men: favoured as they were cheaper
(transport), performed the duties of clearing and defending. Despite the Fille du Roi, more than 90% of men 15-29 were single. Slaves were numbered at about 4,100. 27 Who actually immigrated to New France? The group of immigrants to Canada was small compared to the 900,000 Europeans and Africans who arrived in the 13 colonies
of the US. Low immigration was the result of: Harsh climate. Iroquois Wars a.k.a. The Beaver Wars (later resulting in The Great Treaty of Montreal). Fur trade provided few jobs. Few stayed longer than they had to, including soldiers. 28 Map of the 13 colonies
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