Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemical BONDING Chemical Bond A

Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemical BONDING Chemical Bond  A

Chapter 5 Nomenclature Chemical BONDING Chemical Bond A bond results from the attraction of nuclei for electrons All atoms trying to achieve a stable octet IN OTHER WORDS the p+ in one nucleus are attracted to the e- of another atom Electronegativity Molecule: 2 or more atoms joined by

a chemical bond Compound: a molecule composed of atoms of 2 or more different elements bonded together in a fixed ratio Diatomic Molecule Diatomic Molecule: a molecule containing 2 atoms The Diatomic molecules are: Hydrogen (H2) Nitrogen (N2) Oxygen (O2) Fluorine (F2) Chlorine (Cl2) Iodine (I2) Bromine (Br2) Chemical formula: represents the relative

numbers of atoms of each kind in a chemical compound by using atomic symbols and numeric subscripts Bond energy: the energy required to break a chemical bond and form neutral atoms Naming Compounds Types of Chemical Bonds: (4) 1. 2. 3. 4. Ionic bonds Covalent bonds Metallic bonds

Hydrogen bonds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 7 Bond Formation exothermic process E N E R G Y

Reactants Energy released Products Breaking Bonds Endothermic reaction energy must be put into the bond in order to break it E N E R G Y Reactants Products

Energy Absorbed Bond Strength Strong, STABLE bonds require lots of energy to be formed or broken weak bonds require little E Two Major Types of Bonding Ionic Bonding forms ionic compounds transfer of e- Covalent Bonding forms molecules sharing e-

Naming Compounds Return to TOC One minor type of bonding Metallic bonding Occurs between like atoms of a metal in the free state Valence e- are mobile (move freely among all metal atoms) Positive ions in a sea of electrons Metallic characteristics High mp temps, ductile, malleable, shiny Hard substances Good conductors of heat and electricity as (s) and (l)

Its the mobile electrons that enable me-tals to conduct electricity!!!!!! IONic Bonding electrons are transferred between valence shells of atoms ionic compounds are NOT MOLECULES made of ions ionic compounds are called Salts or Crystals IONic bonding Always formed between metals and non-metals [METALS ]+ [NON-METALS ]Lost e-

Gained e- Properties of Ionic Compounds SALTS Crystals hard solid @ 22oC high mp temperatures nonconductors of electricity in solid phase good conductors in liquid phase or dissolved in water (aq) Covalent Bonding molecules

Pairs of e- are shared between non-metal atoms electronegativity difference < 2.0 forms polyatomic ions Properties of Molecular Substances Covalent bonding Low m.p. temp and b.p. temps relatively soft solids as compared to ionic compounds nonconductors of electricity in any phase

Covalent, Ionic, metallic bonding? NO2 sodium hydride Hg H2S sulfate NH4+ Aluminum phosphate KH KCl HF

CO Co Can You Tell What type of bond is formed Drawing ionic compounds using Lewis Dot Structures Symbol represents the KERNEL of the atom (nucleus and inner e-) dots represent valence e- NaCl This is the finished Lewis Dot

Structure How did we get here? [Na] [ Cl ] + - Step 1 after checking that it is IONIC Determine which atom will be the +ion Determine which atom will be the - ion Step 2 Write the symbol for the + ion first. NO DOTS Draw the e- dot diagram for the ion

COMPLETE outer shell Step 3 Enclose both in brackets and show each charge Draw the Lewis Diagrams LiF MgO CaCl2 K2 S Drawing molecules using Lewis Dot Structures Symbol represents the KERNEL of the atom (nucleus and inner e-) dots represent valence e-

Always remember atoms are trying to complete their outer shell! The number of electrons the atoms needs is the total number of bonds they can make. Ex. H? O? F? N? Cl? C? one two one three one four Methane CH4 This is the finished Lewis dot structure How did we get here? Step 1 count total valence e- involved Step 2 connect the central atom (usually the first in the formula) to the others with single bonds

Step 3 complete valence shells of outer atoms Step 4 add any extra e- to central atom IF the central atom has 8 valence e- surrounding it . . YOURE DONE! Sometimes . . . You only have two atoms, so there is no central atom, but follow the same rules. Check & Share to make sure all the atoms are happy. Cl2 Br2

H2 O2 N2 HCl DOUBLE bond atoms that share two e- pairs (4 e-) O O TRIPLE bond atoms that share three e- pairs (6 e-) N N

Draw Lewis Dot Structures You may represent valence electrons from different atoms with the following symbols x, , CO2 NH3 Draw the Lewis Dot Diagram for polyatomic ions Count all valence e- needed for covalent bonding Add or subtract other electrons based on the charge REMEMBER! A positive charge means it LOST electrons!!!!!

Draw Polyatomics Ammonium Sulfate Types of Covalent Bonds NON-Polar bonds Electrons shared evenly in the bond E-neg difference is zero Between identical atoms Diatomic molecules Types of Covalent Bonds Polar bond Electrons unevenly shared non-polar MOLECULES Sometimes the bonds within a

molecule are polar and yet the molecule is non-polar because its shape is symmetrical. H Draw Lewis dot first and see if equal on all sides H C H H Polar molecules (a.k.a. Dipoles) Not equal on all sides Polar bond between 2 atoms makes a polar molecule asymmetrical shape of molecule +

H Cl - Water is asymmetrical + O - H

+ H Water is a bent molecule H H O H H W-A-T-E-R as bent as it can be!

Waters polar MOLECULE! Waters polar MOLECULE! The H is positive The O is not - not - not - not Making sense of the polar non-polar thing BONDS Non-polar Polar Identical Different MOLECULES Non-polar Symmetrical Polar

Asymmetrical IONIC bonds . Ionic bonds are so polar that the electrons are not shared but transferred between atoms forming ions!!!!!! 4 Shapes of molecules Linear (straight line) Ball and stick model Space filling model

Bent Ball and stick model Space filling model Trigonal pyramid Ball and stick model Space filling model Tetrahedral Ball and stick model

Space filling model Intermolecular attractions Attractions between molecules van der Waals forces Weak attractive forces between nonpolar molecules Hydrogen bonding Strong attraction between special polar molecules van der Waals Non-polar molecules can exist in liquid

and solid phases because van der Waals forces keep the molecules attracted to each other Exist between CO2, CH4, CCl4, CF4, diatomics and monoatomics van der Waals periodicity increase with molecular mass. Greater van der Waals force? F2 Cl2 Br2 I2 increase with closer distance between molecules Decreases when particles are farther away Hydrogen Bonding

Strong polar attraction Like magnets Occurs ONLY between H of one molecule and N, O, F of another H bond Why does H bonding occur? Nitrogen, Oxygen and Fluorine small atoms with strong nuclear charges powerful atoms very high electronegativities

Intermolecular forces dictate chemical properties Strong intermolecular forces cause high b.p., m.p. and slow evaporation (low vapor pressure) of a substance. Which substance has the highest boiling point? HF NH3 H2 O Fluorine has the highest e-neg, SO HF will experience the

WHY? needs the most energy to weaken the i.m.f. and boil strongest H bonding and Density???? H2O(s) is less dense than H2O(l) The hydrogen bonding in water(l) molecules is random. The molecules are closely packed. The hydrogen bonding in water(s) molecules has a specific open lattice pattern. The

molecules are farther apart. Naming Compounds Chemical Names and formulas With all of the compounds and all of the elements to be identified, a systematic method for writing formulas and naming compounds is necessary A correctly written chemical formula must represent the known facts about the composition of a compound Care must be taken so that subscripts are correct Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

67 Naming Compounds Using Chemical formulas Chemical formulas indicate the elements present in a compound and the relative numbers of atoms of each element in the compound In chemical formulas, the elements are given by their symbols and the relative number of atoms of each element by numerical subscript Ex H2SO4 the H, S & O are symbols, the 2 & 4 are subscripts Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

68 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Ion: A charged particle due to loss or gain of electrons Cation: positive charge ion represented by a (+) after the chemical symbol (metal) Ex Na+ Anion: negative charge ion represented by a (-) after the chemical symbol (metal) Ex Cl-

Naming Compounds Monatomic Ions Positive ions are named by the element name followed by the word ion Examples : K+ potassium ion magnesium ion Mg+2 aluminum ion Al+3 Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

72 Naming Compounds Negative ions are named by dropping the ending of the element name and adding the ending ide to it followed by the word ion Examples: FS-2 I-

fluoride ion sulfide ion Iodide ion Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 73 Naming Compounds Learning Check Give the names of the following ions: Ba2+ _________

Al3+ __________ K+ _________ N3 _________ O2 __________ F _________ P3

_________ S2 __________ Cl _________ 74 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Solution Ba2+ barium Al3+

aluminum K+ potassium N3 nitride O2 oxide F fluoride P3 phosphide

S2 sulfide Cl chloride 75 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Binary Compounds

Binary Ionic Compounds Composed of two elements Metalnonmetal Binary Covalent Compounds Nonmetalnonmetal Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

76 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 77 Naming Compounds Binary ionic compounds contain positive cations

and negative anions. Type I compounds Metal present forms only one cation. Type II compounds Metal present can form 2 or more cations with different charges. Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 78 Naming Compounds Type I Compounds Metals (Groups I, II, and III) and Non-Metals Metal _________ Sodium + Non-Metal _________ide Chlorine Sodium Chloride NaCl Return to TOC

79 Naming Compounds Common Simple Cations and Anions Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 80 Naming Compounds Rules for Naming Type I Ionic Compounds 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2. A simple cation takes its name from the name of the element.

3. A simple anion is named by taking the first part of the element name (the root) and adding ide. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 81 Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds (Type I) Examples: KCl

Potassium chloride MgBr2 Magnesium bromide CaO Calcium oxide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 82 Naming Compounds

Exercise What is the name of the compound SrBr2? a) b) c) d) strontium bromine sulfur bromide strontium dibromide strontium bromide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

83 Naming Compounds Strontium bromide. Sr is the symbol for strontium. Br is the symbol for bromine, take the first part of the element name (the root) and add ide to get the name bromide. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 84 Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II)

Metals in these compounds can form more than one type of positive charge. Charge on the metal ion must be specified. Roman numeral indicates the charge of the metal cation. Transition metal cations

usually require a Roman numeral. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 85 Naming Compounds Type II Compounds Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals Metal ______ Iron +Roman Numeral (__) III + Non-Metal ________ide Bromine Iron (III) Bromide FeBr3

Compare with Iron (II) Bromide FeBr2 Metals (Transition Metals) and Non-Metals Older System Metal (Latin) _______ Ferrous + ous or ic + Non-Metal ________ide Bromine Ferrous Bromide FeBr2 Compare with Ferric Bromide FeBr3 Return to TOC 86 Naming Compounds Different names are needed for positive ions of 2 different charges formed by the

same metal Old system: ous ending for lower charge ic ending for higher charge New system: gives actual charge on the ion as a roman numeral Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 87 Naming Compounds Common Type II Cations Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 88 Naming Compounds Rules for Naming Type II Ionic Compounds 1. The cation is always named first and the anion second. 2. Because the cation can assume more than one charge, the charge is specified by a Roman numeral in parentheses. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 89

Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds (Type II) Examples: CuBr Copper(I) bromide FeS Iron(II) sulfide PbO2

Lead(IV) oxide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 90 Naming Compounds Exercise What is the name of the compound CrO2? a) b) c) d)

chromium oxide chromium(II) oxide chromium(IV) oxide chromium dioxide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 91 Naming Compounds Chromium(IV) oxide. Cr is the symbol for chromium. O is the symbol for oxygen, but take the first part of the element name (the root) and add ide to get the name oxide.

Since chromium can have more than one charge, a Roman numeral must be used to identify that charge. There are two oxygen ions each with a 2 charge, giving an overall charge of 4. Therefore, the charge on chromium must be +4. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 92 Naming Compounds Exercise What is the correct name of the compound that results from the most stable ion for sulfur and

the metal ion that contains 24 electrons? a) b) c) d) iron(III) sulfide chromium(II) sulfide nickel(III) sulfate iron(II) sulfide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 93 Naming Compounds

Iron(II) sulfide. For sulfur, take the first part of the element name (the root) and add ide to get the name sulfide. Iron with a +2 charge (as the Roman numeral indicates) contains 24 electrons (26p 24e = +2 charge). Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 94 Naming Compounds Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 95 Naming Compounds Rules for Naming Type III Binary Compounds 1. 2. 3. 4. Formed between two nonmetals. The first element in the formula is named first, and the full element name is used.

The second element is named as though it were an anion. Prefixes are used to denote the numbers of atoms present. The prefix mono- is never used for naming the first element. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 96 Naming Compounds Type III Compounds Non-Metals and Non-Metals Use Prefixes such as mono, di, tri, tetra, penta, hexa, hepta, etc.

CO2 Carbon dioxide CO Carbon monoxide PCl3 Phosphorus trichloride CCl4 Carbon tetrachloride N2O5 Dinitrogen pentoxide CS2 Carbon disulfide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 97 Naming Compounds Prefixes Used to Indicate

Numbers in Chemical Names Additional Prefixes 9 nona- 10 deca- 11 undeca- 12

dodeca- 13 trideca- 14 tetradeca- 15 pentadeca- 16 hexadeca-

17 heptadeca- 18 octadeca- 19 nonadeca- 20 icosa Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 98 Naming Compounds Binary Covalent Compounds (Type III) Examples: CO2 Carbon dioxide SF6

Sulfur hexafluoride N2O4 Dinitrogen tetroxide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 99 Naming Compounds Exercise What is the name of the compound SeO2? a)

b) c) d) selenium oxide selenium dioxide selenium(II) oxide selenium(IV) dioxide Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 100 Naming Compounds

Selenium dioxide. Se is the symbol for selenium. O is the symbol for oxygen, take the first part of the element name (the root) and add ide to get the name oxide. Since they are both nonmetals, prefixes are used to identify the elements (except mono- is not used for the first element). Two oxygen atoms require the use of the prefix di-, making the name dioxide. Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 101 Naming Compounds Flow Chart for Naming Binary Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 102 Lets Practice! Naming Compounds Name the following. CaF2

K2S CoI2 SnF2 SnF4 OF2 CuI2 CuI SO2 SrS LiBr Calcium Flouride Potassium Sulfide Cobalt (II) Iodide or Cobaltous Iodide Tin (II) Fluoride or Stannous Fluoride Tin (IV) Fluoride or Stannic Fluoride Oxygen diflouride

Copper (II) Iodide or Cupric Iodide Copper (I) Iodide or Cuprous Iodide Sulfur dioxide Strontium Sulfide Lithium Bromide Return to TOC 103 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 104

Naming Compounds Polyatomic ions are charged entities composed of several atoms bound together. They have special names and must be memorized. We will be using our Fat Daddy Chart to help us with naming the polyatomic compounds Those used often enough will be memorized just out of sheer practice

Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 105 Naming Compounds Names of Common Polyatomic Ions (page 130) Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 106 Naming Compounds

Naming ionic compounds containing polyatomic ions follows rules similar to those for binary compounds. Ammonium acetate Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 107 Naming Compounds Examples NaOH

Sodium hydroxide Mg(NO3)2 Magnesium nitrate (NH4)2SO4 Ammonium sulfate FePO4 Iron(III) phosphate Return to TOC

Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 108 Naming Compounds Learning Check Select the correct name for each. A. Fe2S3 1) iron sulfide 2) iron(II) sulfide 3) iron(III) sulfide B. CuO 1) copper oxide 2) copper(I) oxide 3) copper(II) oxide

109 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Solution Select the correct name for each. A. Fe2S3 3) iron(III) sulfide B. CuO 3) copper(II) oxide Fe3+ S2 Cu2+ O2 110

Return to TOC Naming Compounds Overall Strategy for Naming Chemical Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 111 Naming Compounds Exercise What is the name of the compound KClO3? a) b)

c) d) potassium chlorite potassium chlorate potassium perchlorate potassium carbonate Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 112 Naming Compounds Exercise

Examine the following table of formulas and names. Which of the compounds are named correctly? a) b) c) d) I, II I, III, IV I, IV I only Formula Name

I P2O5 Diphosphorus pentoxide II ClO2 Chlorine oxide III PbI4 Lead iodide

IV CuSO4 Copper(I) sulfate Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 113 Naming Compounds Only Formula I is named correctly.

Formula II is chlorine dioxide. Formula III is lead(IV) iodide. Formula IV is copper(II) sulfate. Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 114 Naming Compounds Acids

Acids can be recognized by the hydrogen that appears first in the formulaHCl. Molecule with one or more H+ ions attached to an anion. Most lab acids are either: binary acids ( composed of Hydrogen and another element) or oxyacids (composed of Hydrogen, oxygen and a third element Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 115

Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 116 Naming Compounds Rules for Naming Acids If the anion does not contain oxygen, the

acid is named with the prefix hydro and the suffix ic attached to the root name for the element. Examples: HCl Hydrochloric acid HCN Hydrocyanic acid H2S Hydrosulfuric acid Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 117

Naming Compounds Acids That Do Not Contain Oxygen Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 118 Naming Compounds Rules for Naming Acids If the anion contains oxygen: The suffix ic is added to the root name if the anion name ends in ate.

Examples: HNO3 Nitric acid H2SO4 Sulfuric acid HC2H3O2 Acetic acid Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 119 Naming Compounds

Rules for Naming Acids If the anion contains oxygen: The suffix ous is added to the root name if the anion name ends in ite. Examples: HNO2 Nitrous acid H2SO3 Sulfurous acid HClO2 Chlorous acid

Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 120 Naming Compounds Some Oxygen-Containing Acids Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 121 Naming Compounds Flowchart for Naming Acids

Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 122 Naming Compounds Exercise Which of the following compounds is named incorrectly? a) KNO3 potassium nitrate b) TiO2

titanium(II) oxide c) Sn(OH)4 tin(IV) hydroxide d) PBr5 phosphorus pentabromide e) H2SO3 sulfurous acid Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved

123 Naming Compounds The correct answer is b. The charge on oxygen is 2. Since there are two oxygen atoms, the overall charge is 4. Therefore, the charge on titanium must be 4+ (not 2+ as the Roman numeral indicates). Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 124

Naming Compounds Examples Sodium hydroxide NaOH Potassium carbonate K2CO3 Sulfuric acid H2SO4

Dinitrogen pentoxide N2O5 Cobalt(III) nitrate Co(NO3)3 Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 125 Naming Compounds Exercise

A compound has the formula XCl3 where X could represent a metal or nonmetal. What could the name of this compound be? a) b) c) d) phosphorus trichloride carbon monochloride tin(IV) chloride magnesium chloride Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 126

Naming Compounds Phosphorus trichloride. Carbon monochloride has the formula CCl. Tin(IV) chloride has the formula SnCl 4. Magnesium chloride has the formula MgCl2. Phosphorus trichloride has the formula PCl 3 and is therefore the correct answer Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 127 Naming Compounds

Lets Practice Some More! HF Hydroflouric acid Na2CO3 Sodium carbonate Carbonic acid H2CO3 Potassium permanganate KMnO4 Perchloric acid HClO4 Hyrdogen sulfuric acid H2S NaOH Sodium hydroxide Copper (II) sulfate or Cupric sulfate CuSO4

Lead (II) chromate or Plubous chromate PbCrO4 Hydrooxic acid (nojust water) H2O Nitrogen trihydride (no..just ammonia) NH3 Return to TOC 128 Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 129

Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 130 Naming Compounds Identifying Ionic Charges Group A elements use the periodic table to determine ionic charge * elements in same group have same ionic charge * Group 4A and Noble gases almost never form ions

Group B elements many have more than one ionic charge 131 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Identifying Ionic Charges http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/476/488316/ch04.html Charge on cations corresponds to group #. Charge on anions is found by subtracting 8 by group number 132 the number 8 is used b/c it represents # of valence e- in Noble gases Return to TOC

Naming Compounds Naming Cations and Anions Potassium ion Copper (II) ion Chloride ion Oxide ion Ba2+

S2Au3+ Nitrite ion Hydroxide ion Phosphate ion SO42- CrO42 ClO32133 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Binary Ionic Compounds

Compounds composed of 2 different monatomic elements To write binary formulas write cation first, then anion *criss-cross charges to determine how many of each ion you need *use subscripts to denote number of ions ex: Ca2+ + Cl1CaCl2 Na1+ + Cl1- NaCl 134 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Ternary Ionic Compounds

Compounds containing at least one polyatomic ion; at least 3 different elements To write ternary formulas: write cation first, then anion *criss-cross charges to determine how many of each ion you need *use subscripts to denote number of ions *must use parentheses around polyatomic if more than one is needed!!! ex: Na1+ + SO32Na 2SO3 Mg2+ + OH1MgOH2] Mg(OH) 2 [not same as 135 Return to TOC Naming Compounds

Ionic Compounds NaNO3 CaSO4 (NH4)2O CuSO3 Fe(OH)3 NaF Lithium sulfide

Iron (III) phosphide Magnesium fluoride Barium nitrate Aluminum hydroxide Potassium phosphate Practice making ionic compounds! 136 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Molecular Compounds P2O5 N2O NO2

CBr4 CO2 tetraiodine nonoxide sulfur hexafluoride nitrogen trioxide carbon tetrahydride phosphorus trifluoride 137 Return to TOC

Naming Compounds Examples of Ionic Compounds with Two Elements Formula Ions Cation Anion Name NaCl Na+ Cl

sodium chloride K2S K+ S2 potassium sulfide MgO Mg2+ O2 magnesium oxide

CaI2 Ca2+ I calcium iodide Al2O3 Al3+ S2 aluminum sulfide 138 Return to TOC

Naming Compounds Learning Check Write the formulas and names for compounds of the following ions: Br S2 N3 Na+ Al3+ 139 Return to TOC

Naming Compounds Solution Br Na+ Al3+ S2 N3 NaBr Na2S sodium bromide sodium sulfide

Na3N AlBr3 Al2S3 aluminum bromide aluminum sulfide AlN aluminum nitride

sodium nitride 140 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Transition Metals Form Positive Ions Most transition metals and Group 4(14) metals, Form 2 or more positive ions Zn2+, Ag+, and Cd2+ form only one ion. 141 Return to TOC Naming Compounds

Guide to Writing Formulas from the Name 142 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Writing Formulas Write a formula for potassium sulfide. STEP 1 Identify the cation and anion. potassium = K+ sulfide = S2 STEP 2 Balance the charges. K+

S2 K+ 2(1+) + 1(2) = 0 STEP 3 Write the cation first. 2K+ and 1S2 = K2S1 = K2S 143 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Writing Formulas Write a formula for iron(III) chloride. STEP 1 Identify the cation and anion. iron (III) = Fe3+ (III = charge of 3+) chloride = Cl STEP 2 Balance the charges. Fe3+

Cl Cl Cl 1(3+) + 3(1) = 0 STEP 3 Write the cation first. 1Fe3+ and 3Cl = FeCl3 144 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Learning Check The correct formula for each of the following is: A. copper(I) nitride 1) CuN 2) CuN3 3) Cu3N

B. lead(IV) oxide 1) PbO2 2) PbO 3) Pb2O4 145 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Solution The correct formula for each of the following is: A. copper(I) nitride 3) Cu3N 3Cu+ + N3 = 3(1+) + (3) = 0

B. lead(IV) oxide 1) PbO2 Pb4+ + 2O2 = (4+) + 2(2) = 0 146 Return to TOC Naming Compounds Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 147 Naming Compounds

Percent Composition, Empirical Formulas, Molecular Formulas Return to TOC Naming Compounds Formula Masses and Molar masses: Molecular mass or molecular weight are used instead of the term formula mass. The formula mass of any compound is the sum of the average atomic masses of all of the atoms present in the formula Return to TOC

149 Naming Compounds Example of formula mass H2O 2 H atom weigh 1.0079 each 1 O atom weighs 15.9994 each 2 x 1.oo79 +1x 15.9994 18.0153 formula mass for water Return to TOC 150 Naming Compounds Molar mass as a conversion factor

Moles x grams/mole = mass in grams Mass in grams x 1 mol/grams = moles Thus 2 conversions relate mass in grams to numbers of moles of a substance Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 151 Naming Compounds Example What is the molar mass of Barium nitrate Ba(NO 3)2

Solution 1 mol Ba x 137.33 g/1 mol Ba = 137.33 g Ba 2 moles N x 14.0067 g/1mole N = 28.0134g N 6 moles O x 15.999g/1mol O = 95.9964g Molar mass Ba(NO3)2 = 261.34 Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 152

Naming Compounds Example What is the mass in grams of 2.5 moles of oxygen gas (O2) Solution 80.0g Return to TOC Copyright Cengage Learning. All rights reserved 153 Naming Compounds

Return to TOC Percent Composition Percent Composition the by mass of Percent = percentage each element in a compound Part _______ x 100%

Whole Percent composition of a compound or molecule = Mass of element in 1 mol ____________________ Mass of 1 mol x 100% Percent Composition Example: What is the percent composition of Potassium Permanganate

(KMnO )? 4 Molar Mass of KMnO K= 4 1(39.1) = 39.1 Mn = 1(54.9) = 54.9 O = 4(16.0) = 64.0 MM = 158 g Percent Composition Example: What is the percent composition of Potassium Permanganate (KMnO )? 4

Molar Mass of KMnO %K = 158 g 4 39.1 g K x 100 = 24.7 % 158 g 54.9 g Mn

% Mn K= 1(39.10) = 39.1 Mn = 1(54.94) = 54.9 O = 4(16.00) = 64.0 MM = 158 34.8 % 158 g 64.0 g O %O x 100 =

158 g x 100 = 40.5 % Percent Composition Determine the percentage composition of sodium carbonate (Na CO )? 2 3 Molar Mass Percent Composition 46.0 g Na = 2(23.00) = 46.0

% Na = C = 1(12.01) = 12.0 O = 3(16.00) = 48.0 MM= 106 g x 100% = 11.3 % x 100% = 45.3 %

106 g 48.0 g %O= 43.4 % 106 g 12.0 g %C= x 100% = 106 g Percent Composition

Determine the percentage composition of ethanol (C H OH)? 2 5 % C = 52.13%, % H = 13.15%, % O = 34.72% _______________________________________________ Determine the percentage composition of sodium oxalate (Na C O )? 2 2 4 % Na = 34.31%, % C = 17.93%, % O = 47.76% Percent Composition Calculate the mass of bromine in 50.0 g of Potassium bromide. 1. Molar Mass of KBr K = 1(39.10) = 39.10

Br =1(79.90) =79.90 MM = 119.0 2. 79.90 g ___________ = 0.6714 119.0 g 3. 0.6714 x 50.0g = 33.6 g Br Percent Composition Calculate the mass of nitrogen in 85.0 mg of the amino acid lysine, C H N O . 6 14 2 2

1. Molar Mass of C H N O 6 14 2 2 C = 6(12.01) = 72.06 H =14(1.01) = 14.14 N = 2(14.01) = 28.02 O = 2(16.00) = 32.00 MM = 146.2 2. 28.02 g ___________ = 0.192 146.2 g

3. 0.192 x 85.0 mg = 16.3 mg N Hydrates Hydrated salt salt that has water molecules trapped within the crystal lattice Examples: CuSO 5H O , CuCl 2H O 4 2 2 2 Anhydrous salt salt without water molecules

Examples: CuCl 2 Can calculate the percentage of water in a hydrated salt. Percent Composition Calculate the percentage of water in sodium carbonate decahydrate, Na CO 10H O. 2 3 2 1. Molar Mass of Na CO 10H O 2 3 2

Na = 2(22.99) = 45.98 C = 1(12.01) = 12.01 H = 20(1.01) = 20.2 O = 13(16.00)= 208.00 3. 180.2 g _______ MM = 286.2 2. 286.2 g

Water H = 20(1.01) = 20.2 O = 10(16.00)= 160.00 MM = 180.2 or H = 2(1.01) = 2.02 O = 1(16.00) = 16.00 MM H2O = 18.02 So 10 H O = 10(18.02) = 180.2 2 x 100%=

67.97 % Percent Composition Calculate the percentage of water in Aluminum bromide hexahydrate, AlBr 6H O. 3 2 1. Molar Mass of AlBr 6H O 3 2 Al = 1(26.98) = 26.98 Br = 3(79.90) = 239.7 H = 12(1.01) = 12.12 O = 6(16.00) = 96.00 MM = 374.8 3.

2. 108.1 g _______ Water H = 12(1.01) = 12.1 O = 6(16.00)= 96.00 MM = 108.1 MM = 18.02 or For 6 H2O = 6(18.02) = 108.2 374.8 g

x 100%= 28.85 % Percent Composition If 125 grams of magnesium sulfate heptahydrate is completely dehydrated, how many grams of anhydrous magnesium sulfate will remain? MgSO 1. Molar Mass 4 .7H O 2 2. % MgSO

4 Mg = 1 x 24.31 = 24.31 g S = 1 x 32.06 = 32.06 g 120.4 g X 100 = 48.84 % 246.5 g O = 4 x 16.00 = 64.00 g MM = 120.37 g 3. Grams anhydrous MgSO

4 H = 2 x 1.01 = 2.02 g O = 1 x 16.00 = 16.00 g MM = 18.02 g MM H O = 2 7 x 18.02 g = 126.1 g Total MM = 120.4 g + 126.1 g = 246.5 g 0.4884 x 125 = 61.1 g Percent Composition

If 145 grams of copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate is completely dehydrated, how many grams of anhydrous copper sulfate will remain? CuSO 1. Molar Mass 2. % CuSO Cu = 1 x 63.55 = 63.55 g S = 1 x 32.06 = 32.06 g 4 .5H O 2 4

159.6 g X 100 = 63.92 % 249.7 g O = 4 x 16.00 = 64.00 g MM = 159.61 g 3. Grams anhydrous CuSO 4 H = 2 x 1.01 = 2.02 g O = 1 x 16.00 = 16.00 g

MM = 18.02 g MM H O = 2 5 x 18.02 g = 90.1 g Total MM = 159.6 g + 90.1 g = 249.7 g 0.6392 x 145 = 92.7 g Percent Composition A 5.0 gram sample of a hydrate of BaCl was heated, and only 4.3 grams of the anhydrous 2 salt remained. What percentage of water was in the hydrate? 1. Amount water lost

5.0 g hydrate - 4.3 g anhydrous salt 0.7 g water 2. Percent of water 0.7 g water 5.0 g hydrate x 100 = 14 % Percent Composition A 7.5 gram sample of a hydrate of CuCl was heated, and only 5.3 grams of the anhydrous

2 salt remained. What percentage of water was in the hydrate? 1. Amount water lost 7.5 g hydrate - 5.3 g anhydrous salt 2.2 g water 2. Percent of water 2.2 g water 7.5 g hydrate x 100 =

29 % Percent Composition A 5.0 gram sample of Cu(NO ) nH O is heated, and 3.9 g of the anhydrous salt remains. 32 2 What is the value of n? 1. Amount water lost 5.0 g hydrate 3. Amount of water - 3.9 g anhydrous salt 1.1 g water 0.22 x 18.02 =

2. Percent of water 1.1 g water 5.0 g hydrate x 100 = 22 % 4.0 Percent Composition A 7.5 gram sample of CuSO nH O is heated, and 5.4 g of the anhydrous salt remains. What 4 2 is the value of n? 1. Amount water lost

7.5 g hydrate 3. Amount of water - 5.4 g anhydrous salt 2.1 g water 0.28 x 18.02 = 2. Percent of water 2.1 g water 7.5 g hydrate x 100 = 28 %

5.0 Formulas Percent composition allow you to calculate the simplest ratio among the atoms found in compound. Empirical Formula formula of a compound that expresses lowest whole number ratio of atoms. Molecular Formula actual formula of a compound showing

the number of atoms present Examples: C H 4 10 - molecular C H 2 5 - empirical C H O

6 12 6 - molecular CH O 2 - empirical Formulas Is H O an empirical or molecular formula? 2 2 Molecular, it can be reduced to HO HO = empirical formula

Calculating Empirical Formula An oxide of aluminum is formed by the reaction of 4.151 g of aluminum with 3.692 g of oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula. 1. Determine the number of grams of each element in the compound. 4.151 g Al and 3.692 g O 2. Convert masses to moles. 4.151 g Al 1 mol Al =

0.1539 mol Al = 0.2308 mol O 26.98 g Al 3.692 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O Calculating Empirical Formula An oxide of aluminum is formed by the reaction of 4.151 g of aluminum with 3.692 g of oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula.

3. Find ratio by dividing each element by smallest amount of moles. 0.1539 moles Al = 1.000 mol Al 0.1539 0.2308 moles O = 1.500 mol O 0.1539 4. Multiply by common factor to get whole number. (cannot have fractions of atoms in compounds) O = 1.500 x 2 = 3 Al = 1.000 x 2 = 2

therefore, Al O 2 3 Calculating Empirical Formula A 4.550 g sample of cobalt reacts with 5.475 g chlorine to form a binary compound. Determine the empirical formula for this compound. 4.550 g Co 1 mol Co = 0.07721 mol Co 58.93 g Co

5.475 g Cl 1 mol Cl = 0.1544 mol Cl 35.45 g Cl 0.07721 mol Co 0.1544 mol Cl =1 0.07721 0.07721

CoCl 2 =2 Calculating Empirical Formula When a 2.000 g sample of iron metal is heated in air, it reacts with oxygen to achieve a final mass of 2.573 g. Determine the empirical formula. Fe = 2.000 g 2.000 g Fe O = 2.573 g 2.000 g = 0.5730 g 1 mol Fe = 0.03581 mol Fe

55.85 g Fe 0.573 g O 1 mol O = 0.03581 mol Fe 16.00 g 1:1 FeO Calculating Empirical Formula A sample of lead arsenate, an insecticide used against the potato beetle, contains 1.3813 g lead, 0.00672g of hydrogen, 0.4995 g of arsenic, and 0.4267 g of oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula for lead arsenate. 1.3813 g Pb

1 mol Pb = 0.006667 mol Pb 207.2 g Pb 0.00672 gH 1 mol H = 0.00667 mol H 1.008 g H 0.4995 g As 1 mol As = 0.006667 mol As 74.92 g As

0.4267g Fe 1 mol O = 0.02667 mol O 16.00 g O Calculating Empirical Formula A sample of lead arsenate, an insecticide used against the potato beetle, contains 1.3813 g lead, 0.00672g of hydrogen, 0.4995 g of arsenic, and 0.4267 g of oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula for lead arsenate. 0.006667 mol Pb = 1.000 mol Pb 0.006667 0.00667 mol H

= 1.00 mol H 0.006667 0.006667 mol As 0.006667 0.02667 mol O 0.006667 = 1.000 mol As = 4.000 mol O PbHAsO 4 Calculating Empirical Formula

The most common form of nylon (Nylon-6) is 63.38% carbon, 12.38% nitrogen, 9.80% hydrogen and 14.14% oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula for Nylon-6. Step 1: In 100.00g of Nylon-6 the masses of elements present are 63.38 g C, 12.38 g n, 9.80 g H, and 14.14 g O. Step 2: 63.38 g C 1 mol C = 5.302 mol C 9.80 g H 12.01 g C

12.38 g N 1 mol N 14.01 g N 1 mol H = 9.72 mol H 1.01 g H = 0.8837 mol N 14.14 g O 1 mol O 16.00 g O

= 0.8832 mol O Calculating Empirical Formula The most common form of nylon (Nylon-6) is 63.38% carbon, 12.38% nitrogen, 9.80% hydrogen and 14.14% oxygen. Calculate the empirical formula for Nylon-6. Step 3: 5.302 mol C = 6.000 mol C 6:1:11:1 0.8837 0.8837 mol N

= 1.000 mol N 0.8837 9.72 mol H C NH O 6 11 = 11.0 mol H 0.8837 0.8837 mol O 0.8837 = 1.000 mol O Calculating molecular formula

It is not possible to determine the correct molecular formula unless the molecular mass of the substance has been determined The relationship between the simplest formula and the molecular mass is: (simple formula)x = molecular formula Where x is a whole number multiple of the simple formula Calculating Molecular Formula A white powder is analyzed and found to have an empirical formula of P2O5. The compound has a molar mass of 283.88g. What is the compounds molecular formula? Step 3: Multiply Step 1: Molar Mass P = 2 x 30.97 g = 61.94g

(P O ) = 2 5 2 O = 5 x 16.00g = 80.00 g 141.94 g Step 2: Divide MM by Empirical Formula Mass 238.88 g 141.94g =2 P O 4 10

Calculating Molecular Formula A compound has an experimental molar mass of 78 g/mol. Its empirical formula is CH. What is its molecular formula? (CH) = 6 C = 12.01 g H = 1.01 g 13.01 g C H 6 6 78 g/mol =6 13.01 g/mol

Oxidation Numbers Are used to indicate general distributions of electrons among bonded atoms. Refer to handout for rules of oxidation numbers Ex find oxidation # of following: UF6 ClO3- Solution U = +6

F = -1 Cl =+5 O =-2

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