Review of Bio 161: 4 important observations. 1.

Review of Bio 161: 4 important observations.

1. Population growth: 2. Resource availability:

Conclusion from (1) and (2):

3. Individuals of a population: Conclusion from (1), (2) and (3):

4. Traits are inherited:

Conclusion from (1), (2), (3), and (4): Potential for rapid

reproduction Constant resources and

population size over time

Competition for survival and reproduction

Variability in structures and behavior

Natural Selection: on average, the fittest organisms leave the most offspring

Observation Conclusion based

on observation Some variability is

inherited Evolution:

the genetic makeup of the population changes over time, driven by natural selection

If Evolution by Natural Selection then:

Doing science in context of Evolution: Invasion of the land.

Evolution science is predictive: If there were lobe-finned fishes but not terrestrial vertebrates 390 Mya, and clearly terrestrial vertebrates 360 Mya, Shubin et al.

predicted that if transitional forms existed, their fossils would be found in strata of freshwater sediment around 375 My old. () Shubin and colleagues zeroed in on paleontologically unexplored

region of the Canadian Arctic: Ellesmere Island, which sits in the Arctic Ocean north of Canada: Tiktaalik roseae (large freshwater fish)

Fish: gills, scales, fins fish tail

Amphibian: flat head; eyes, nostrils on top, breathes above water; robust fins, neck

Tiktaalik

Tiktaalik roseae Tiktaalik roseae

Acanthostega

Doing science in context of Evolution: Origin of birds.

Evolution science is predictive: Around 200 Mya, the fossil record shows plenty of theropods but nothing that looks even vaguely bird-like,

By 70 Mya, we see fossils of birds that look fairly modern. We predict to see reptile-bird transition in rocks between 70-200 My old.

- Archeopterix lithographica (145 Mya) - Jeholornis (140 Mya) - Microraptor gui (120 Mya)

- Anchiornis Huxleyi (160 Mya) Jeholornis: long-tailed, seed-eating

bird of the early cretaceous of China. (Nature 2002, 418 p405).

Microraptor gui (120 Mya) New studies suggest the feathered dromaeosaurid Microraptor used its hind legs

as rudders to steer among the trees. Science 2 November 2012 vol 338 p591.

Anchiornis Huxleyi (160 Mya) Anchiornis Huxleyi

(160 Mya) Doing science in context of Evolution:

Archaeopteryx. 3 Questions:

Doing science in context of Evolution: Archaeopteryx. Argument by consilience:

In science and history, consilience is the principle that evidence from independent, unrelated sources can

"converge" on strong conclusions. Is Archaeopteryx a dinosaur or a bird?

BIRD DINOSAUR

Could Archaeopteryx fly? YES

NO

Did Archaeopteryx live in the trees or on the ground? Tree

Ground

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