lobal and Local Winds Winds What is wind? - Wind is air in motion What causes winds?
Differences in air pressure More of a difference in pressure = faster winds Lots of difference Why does Air Move ?
The movement of air caused by differences in air pressure is called WIND Air moves from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure Differences in air pressure is caused by unequal heating of the earth *the SUN is the major source of energy for heating that generates winds
Air at the equator is warmer and less dense so it rises creating an area of LOW PRESSURE At the poles, the air is colder and more dense so it sinks creating areas of HIGH PRESSURE This cold polar air then flows towards the equator
Air Rises @ Equator Air Sinks @ Poles You know Warm air rises = less dense Cool air sinks = more dense
Now understand Warm air = less dense = low pressure Cool air = more dense = high pressure Global Winds Created by unequal heating of Earths
surface. What is the Coriolis Effect ? The apparent curving of the path of winds and ocean currents due to earths rotation is called the CORIOLIS EFFECT Because of the coriolis effect, in the Northern Hemisphere
winds traveling north curve east ( clockwise) and winds traveling south curve west ( counterclockwise) Flipped in the Southern Hemisphere Global Winds cont
The unequal heating of Earths atmosphere by sunlight produces global winds. The combination of high-pressure polar air + low-pressure equatorial air, and the Coriolis effect produce global winds.
The angle at which sunshine strikes Earths surface is MAINLY responsible for the unequal heating of Earths surface. Global Winds The global wind pattern is also known as the "general circulation" and the surface winds of each hemisphere are divided into three wind belts
Global Winds Polar Easterlies: From 60-90 degrees latitude. Prevailing Westerlies: From 30-60 degrees latitude (aka Westerlies). Tropical Easterlies: From 0-30 degrees latitude (aka Trade
Winds). Doldrums Where the trade winds meet around the equator Very little wind because the warm air rising = low pressure Horse Latitudes High pressure areas 300N and 300S Very week winds
Jet Streams Bands of high speed winds Upper troposphere and lower stratosphere Blow from west to east at speeds of 200-400 km/hr. Help airplanes save fuel and time when traveling east.
Local Winds LOCAL WINDS generally move short distances and can blow from any direction; caused by unequal heating of Earths surface within a small area They are affected by the geographical features of an area, which can produce temperature differences that cause local winds TYPES:
o SEA BREEZE & LAND BREEZE o MOUNTAIN BREEZE & VALLEY BREEZE Sea Breeze (Morning) Land heats up faster than water. Hot air over land rises (Low Pressure), cool air over water falls (High Pressure). Winds move from the water (High Pressure) to the land (Low Pressure).
Land Breeze (Evening) Land cools off faster than water. Cool air over land falls (High Pressure), warm air over water rises (Low Pressure). Winds move from the land (High Pressure) to the water (Low Pressure). Valley Breeze (Day)
During the day the sun warms the air slopes, creating a valley breeze at nightfall, the air along the mountain slopes cools Mountain Breeze (Night) This cool air moves down the slopes into the valley, producing a mountain breeze!
Wind Vane Measuring Wind Winds are described by their direction and speed. Wind direction is determined with a wind vane points in the direction the wind is moving!
Wind speed is measured with an anemometer. The increased cooling that a wind can cause is called the wind chill factor. Anemometer The cups catch the wind, turning faster when the wind blows faster.
WEATHER results from differences in pressure, heat, air movement, and humidity. As water evaporates from lakes, oceans, and plants, it becomes water vapor, or moisture in the air. Water vapor is invisible. The amount of water vapor in the air is called HUMIDITY.
RELATIVE HUMIDITY is the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the maximum amount of water vapor that the air can hold at a certain temperature. The Higher the Temperature, the More Water Vapor the Air Can Hold or the Higher Relative Humidity!
The dew point is the temperature at which a gas condenses into a liquid. Condensation occurs when the air reaches 100% humidity When the temperature of the air cools to its dew point, the air has reached saturation and
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