The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century

The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century

The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 The Vietnam War Years The United States becomes locked in a military stalemate in Southeast Asia. U.S. forces withdraw after a decade of heavy war casualties abroad and assassinations and antiwar demonstrations at home. Next Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 The Vietnam War Years SECTION 1 Moving Toward Conflict SECTION 2

U.S. Involvement and Escalation SECTION 3 A Nation Divided SECTION 4 1968: A Tumultuous Year SECTION 5 The End of the War and Its Legacy Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-1 Moving Toward Conflict To stop the spread of communism in Southeast Asia, the United States uses its military to support South Vietnam. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-1 Moving Toward Conflict America Supports France in Vietnam French Rule in Vietnam Late 1800sWW II, France rules most of Indochina

Ho Chi Minhleader of Vietnamese independence movement helps create Indochinese Communist Party 1940, Japanese take control of Vietnam Vietminhorganization that aims to rid Vietnam of foreign rule Sept. 1945, Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent nation Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-1 America Supports France in Vietnam {continued} France Battles the Vietminh French troops move into Vietnam; French fight, regain cities, South 1950, U.S. begins economic aid to France to stop communism

The Vietminh Drive Out the French Domino theorycountries can fall to communism like row of dominoes 1954, Vietminh overrun French at Dien Bien Phu; France surrenders Geneva Accords divide Vietnam at 17th parallel; Communists get north Election to unify country called for in 1956 Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-1

The United States Steps In Diem Cancels Elections Ho has brutal, repressive regime but is popular for land distribution S. Vietnams anti-Communist president Ngo Dinh Diem refuses election U.S. promises military aid for stable, reform government in South Diem corrupt, stifles opposition, restricts Buddhism Vietcong (Communist opposition group in South) kills officials Ho sends arms to Vietcong along Ho Chi Minh Trail Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-1 The United States Steps In {continued} Kennedy and Vietnam Like Eisenhower, JFK backs Diem financially; sends military advisers Diems popularity plummets from corruption, lack of land reform Diem starts strategic hamlet program to fight Vietcong villagers resent being moved from ancestral homes Diem presses attacks on Buddhism; monks burn themselves in protest U.S.-supported military coup topples government; Diem assassinated Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next

The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-1 President Johnson Expands the Conflict The South Grows More Unstable Succession of military leaders rule S. Vietnam; country unstable LBJ thinks U.S. can lose international prestige if communists win The Tonkin Gulf Resolution Alleged attack in Gulf of Tonkin; LBJ asks for power to repel enemy 1964 Tonkin Gulf Resolution gives him broad military powers 1965 8 Americans killed, LBJ orders sustained bombing of North U.S. combat troops sent to S. Vietnam to battle Vietcong

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation The United States sends troops to fight in Vietnam, but the war quickly turns into a stalemate. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-2 U.S. Involvement and Escalation Johnson Increases U.S. Involvement Strong Support for Containment LBJ hesitates breaking promise to keep troops out; works with: Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara, Secretary of State Dean Rusk Congress, majority of public support sending troops The Troop Buildup Accelerates General William WestmorelandU.S. commander in South Vietnam Thinks southern Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) ineffective Requests increasing numbers; by 1967 500,000 U.S. troops Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century

Chapter 22 Section-2 Fighting in the Jungle An Elusive Enemy Vietcong use hit-and-run, ambush tactics, move among civilians Tunnels help withstand airstrikes, launch attacks, connect villages Terrain laced with booby traps, land mines laid by U.S., Vietcong A Frustrating War of Attrition Westmoreland tries to destroy Vietcong morale through attrition Vietcong receive supplies from China, U.S.S.R.; remain defiant U.S. sees war as military struggle; Vietcong as battle for survival Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next

The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-2 Fighting in the Jungle {continued} The Battle for Hearts and Minds U.S. wants to stop Vietcong from winning support of rural population Weapons for exposing tunnels often wound civilians, destroy villages napalm: gasoline-based bomb that sets fire to jungle Agent Orange: leaf-killing, toxic chemical Search-and-destroy missions move civilian suspects, destroy property Villagers go to cities, refugee camps; 1967, over 3 million refugees Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century

Chapter 22 Section-2 Fighting in the Jungle {continued} Sinking Morale Guerrilla warfare, jungle conditions, lack of progress lower morale Many soldiers turn to alcohol, drugs; some kill superior officers Government corruption, instability lead S. Vietnam to demonstrate Fulfilling a Duty Most U.S. soldiers believe in justice of halting communism Fight courageously, take patriotic pride in fulfilling their duty Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-2 The Early War at Home The Great Society Suffers War grows more costly with more troops; inflation rate rising LBJ gets tax increase to pay for war, check inflation has to accept $6 billion funding cut for Great Society The Living-Room War Combat footage on nightly TV news shows stark picture of war Critics say credibility gap between administration reports and events Senator J. William Fulbrights hearings add to doubts about war Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-3 A Nation Divided An antiwar movement in the U.S. pits supporters of the governments war policy against those who oppose it. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-3 A Nation Divided The Working Class Goes to War A Manipulatable Draft

Selective Service System, draft, calls men 1826 to military service Thousands look for ways to avoid the draft Manymostly white, affluentget college deferment 80% of U.S. soldiers come from lower economic levels Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-3 The Working Class Goes to War {continued}

African Americans in Vietnam African Americans serve in disproportionate numbers in ground combat Defense Dept. corrects problem by instituting draft lottery in 1969 Racial tensions high in many platoons; add to low troop morale Women Join the Ranks 10,000 women serve, mostly as military nurses Thousands volunteer: American Red Cross, United Services Organization Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-3 The Roots of Opposition The New Left

New Leftyouth movement of 1960s, demand sweeping changes Students for a Democratic Society (SDS), Free Speech Movement (FSM): criticize big business, government; want greater individual freedom Campus Activism New Left ideas spread across colleges Students protest campus issues, Vietnam war Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-3 The Protest Movement Emerges The Movement Grows In 1965, protest marches, rallies draw tens of thousands

1966, student deferments require good academic standing SDS calls for civil disobedience; counsels students to go abroad Small numbers of returning veterans protest; protest songs popular From Protest to Resistance Antiwar demonstrations, protests increase, some become violent Some men burn draft cards; some refuse to serve; some flee to Canada Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-3 The Protest Movement Emerges {continued} War Divides the Nation

Doves strongly oppose war, believe U.S. should withdraw Hawks favor sending greater forces to win the war 1967 majority of Americans support war, consider protesters disloyal Johnson Remains Determined LBJ continues slow escalation, is criticized by both hawks and doves Combat stalemate leads Defense Secretary McNamara to resign Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4 1968: A Tumultuous Year An enemy attack in Vietnam, two assassinations, and a chaotic political convention make 1968 an explosive year.

Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4 1968: A Tumultuous Year The Tet Offensive Turns the War A Surprise Attack 1968 villagers go to cities to celebrate Tet (Vietnamese new year) Vietcong among crowd attack over 100 towns, 12 U.S. air bases

Tet offensive lasts 1 month before U.S., S. Vietnam regain control Westmoreland declares attacks are military defeat for Vietcong Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4 The Tet Offensive Turns the War {continued} Tet Changes Public Opinion

Before Tet, most Americans hawks; after Tet, hawks, doves both 40% Mainstream media openly criticizes war LBJ appoints Clark Clifford as new Secretary of Defense After studying situation, Clifford concludes war is unwinnable LBJs popularity drops; 60% disapprove his handling of the war Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4 Days of Loss and Rage Johnson Withdraws Senator Eugene McCarthy runs for Democratic nomination as dove Senator Robert Kennedy enters race after LBJs poor showing in NH

LBJ announces will seek peace talks, will not run for reelection Violence and Protest Grip the Nation Riots rock over 100 cities after Martin Luther King, Jr. is killed Kennedy wins CA primary; is fatally shot for supporting Israel Major demonstrations on over 100 college campuses Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4 A Turbulent Race for President Turmoil in Chicago

Vice-president Hubert Humphrey wins Democratic nomination Over 10,000 demonstrators go to Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley mobilizes police, National Guard Protesters try to march to convention; police beat them; rioting Delegates to convention bitterly debate antiwar plank Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-4

A Turbulent Race for President {continued} Nixon Triumphs Nixon works for party for years, wins 1968 Republican nomination Campaign promises: restore law and order, end war in Vietnam Governor George Wallace is third-party candidate Champions segregation, states rights; attracts protest-weary whites Nixon wins presidency Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-5 The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon institutes his Vietnamization policy, and Americas longest war finally comes to an end. Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-5 The End of the War and Its Legacy President Nixon and Vietnamization The Pullout Begins New president Richard Nixon finds negotiations not progressing

National Security Adviser Henry Kissinger works on new plan VietnamizationU.S. troops withdraw, S. Vietnam troops take over Peace with Honor Nixon calls for peace with honor to maintain U.S. dignity Orders bombing of N. Vietnam, Vietcong hideouts in Laos, Cambodia Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-5 Trouble Continues on the Home Front Mainstream America Silent majoritymoderate, mainstream people who support war

The My Lai Massacre News breaks that U.S. platoon massacred civilians in My Lai village Lt. William Calley, Jr., in command, is convicted, imprisoned The Invasion of Cambodia 1970, U.S. troops invade Cambodia to clear out enemy supply centers 1.5 million protesting college students close down 1,200 campuses Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-5 Trouble Continues on the Home Front {continued}

Violence on Campus National Guard kills 4 in confrontation at Kent State University Guardsmen kill 2 during confrontation at Jackson State in MS 100,000 construction workers rally in NYC to support government The Pentagon Papers Nixon invades Cambodia; Congress repeals Tonkin Gulf Resolution Pentagon Papers show plans to enter war under LBJ Confirm belief of many that government not honest about intentions Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-5 Americas Longest War Ends

Peace is at Hand 1971, 60% think U.S. should withdraw from Vietnam by end of year 1972 N. Vietnamese attack; U.S. bombs cities, mines Haiphong harbor Kissinger agrees to complete withdrawal of U.S.: Peace is at hand The Final Push S. Vietnam rejects Kissinger plan; talks break off; bombing resumes Congress calls for end to war; peace signed January 1973 The Fall of Saigon Cease-fire breaks down; South surrenders after North invades 1975 Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 Section-5

The War Leaves a Painful Legacy American Veterans Cope Back Home 58,000 Americans, over 2 million North, South Vietnamese die in war Returning veterans face indifference, hostility at home About 15% develop post-traumatic stress disorder Further Turmoil in Southeast Asia Communists put 400,000 S. Vietnamese in labor camps; 1.5 million flee Civil war breaks out in Cambodia; Khmer Rouge seize power Want to establish peasant society; kill at least 1 million people Continued Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22

Section-5 The War Leaves a Painful Legacy {continued} The Legacy of Vietnam Government abolishes military draft 1973 Congress passes War Powers Act: president must inform Congress within 48 hours of deploying troops 90 day maximum deployment without Congressional approval War contributes to cynicism about government, political leaders Previous Copyright by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company Next The Americans: Reconstruction to the 21 st Century Chapter 22 This is the end of the chapter presentation of lecture notes. Click the HOME or EXIT button.

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