How Narcissists Cannot Hold an Organization Together: A

How Narcissists Cannot Hold an Organization Together: A

How Narcissists Cannot Hold an Organization Together: A Mixed Method Approach to a Fictitious Puzzle Factory Presenters: Dr. Melissa T. Sasso & Dr. David B. Ross Presenters : Dr. Melissa T. Sasso & Dr. David B . Ross Literature Review Theoretical Framework The term narcissism was initially utilized to label the ancient Greek myth character, Narcissus

1898- Narcissism was coined by Havelock Ellis 1911- Otto Rank, an Austrian psychoanalyst 1914- Sigmund Freud published On Narcissism: An Introduction 1939- Karen Horney Heinz Kohut and Otto Kernberg

Literature Review Leadership Styles Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership Laissez-Faire Leadership Charismatic Leadership

Toxic Leadership Narcissistic Leadership Narcissism and Counterproductive Work Behavior Narcissistic Leaders and Job Satisfaction

Organizational Structure Toxic Culture Power Philosophical Worldviews Worldviews are personal values and beliefs that help a researcher guide the action of their study. Based on researchers their values and beliefs, one can freely choose the methods, techniques, and procedures that

satisfy the needs of the research: 1. Postpositivism: numeric measures of an observation to study the behavior of a subject (Quantitative) 2. Constructivism: understand a phenomenon by developing themes and patterns, and finally, a theory (Qualitative) 3. Advocacy and Participatory: emerged from the postpositivist worldview in the 1980s to the 1990s because researchers felt there was more of a need to study politics, political agendas, and reform to change peoples lives (Mixed Methods) 4. Pragmatism: looks more into the actions, situations, and consequences and all approaches to understand the research problem (Mixed Methods) Philosophical Worldviews: Pragmatism

Consequences of actions Advocacy/Participatory Political Empowerment issue-oriented Problem centered

Pluralistic Collaborative Real world practiceoriented Change-oriented Methodology: Mixed Methods

Mixed methods help researchers find the importance of the study when quantitative or qualitative methods could not have done it alone. This mixed methods study utilized an embeddedcorrelational explanatory (concurrent versus sequential) approach. Embedded design is also known as a nested design. A small amount of either qualitative data or quantitative data are included within a larger qualitative or quantitative study. Investigated how narcissistic characteristics of leaders, toxic leadership characteristics, and power are associated with the climate of an organization. Type of Study An embedded correlational explanatory design. An explanatory design comprises of a simple link between two variables or more than two. The researcher utilized two self-administered surveys:

1. The Survey on Toxic Leadership (Other) (TSTL): created by Dr. David B. Ross. Quantitative and qualitative questions 2. Eight Climate Questions: gathered quantitative data 3. Participants from all over the world, of any gender, all races, over 18, and attain a minimum of an associates degree. Sensitivity Nature of the Study History of developing sensitive research: Researchers from Chicago (1960s). Conducted social research on sensitive topics. Gave it credibility Sensitive research: No setting Recruiting Procedures Demographic Variables

Research Questions RQ1: What is the relationship between narcissistic characteristics of leaders and the perceived quality of an organizational climate? RQ2: What is the relationship between toxic leadership characteristics and the perceived quality of an organizational climate?

RQ3: What is the relationship between leaders who use the power of control over the power of influence and the perceived quality of an organizational climate? Findings Demographic Background of Respondents 87 participants (45 female & 42 male) 52 White, 19 Hispanic, 10 Black, and 6 other. 34 participants (education field), 17 (other), 16 (business field), 7 medical field, 7 (government), and 6 (social services field). Findings (cont.)

Qualitative results- 35 themes discovered 1. Unrealistic demands and expectations 2. Lack of or no motivation 3. Leader causes stress 4. Leader lacks comprehending individual and team dynamics 5. Ineffective at creating a conducive environment for communication and collaboration Mixed methods results Quantitative results supported qualitative results CorrelationsOrganizational Climate Toxic Characteristics Narcissistic

Characteristics Satisfactionstrong Importance weak Perceived Quality - strong Satisfaction strong Importanceweak Perceived Elements of Quality - strong Power Satisfaction strong Importance weak Perceived Quality - strong

How realistic are the demands and expectations of your leader to create a productive and positive work environment? He thinks he is perfect. Wants reports and productivity the way he does. He has not caught up with the job. He never honestly aimed to improve a productive work environment. She placed her own buddies into positions. Buddies praised her and never questioned her decisions. Divided the organization . . . those inside the circle of privileged and those of outside. Conversation and meetings were grounded more in her perceptions than others. The treatment of people is uneven, definitely an inner circle. No way we could please him or complete the tasks demanded. Unnecessary division and competition, not an optimal work environment. Usually demands are not realistic . . . very difficult to have a positive work environment with unrealistic demands.

Explain how your leader understands individual and team dynamics for the organizational culture. He does not understand team dynamics and culture, but wants everyone to agree with him. He always thinks he is right so there being no dissent. She disenfranchised people from the organization and made them feel threatened. Force people to strive on their own. Only born out of her own perspective and mindset. She gave lip service. Built relationships with individual people. The leader would listen and take heed of the problem. Understands very well, but seems to be more self-serving than serving the organization. Did not want united and like-minded thinking employees. The leader as the sole power broker in the organization. Addresses each person with cultural differences and background. No understanding, the decision making is about him and only wants results focused about him.


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