# Physics of Music PHY103 Loudness http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/images/e/l/Screaming_.jpg http://greenpack.rec.org/noise/images/noise.jpg Physical

Physics of Music PHY103 Loudness http://www.swansea.gov.uk/media/images/e/l/Screaming_.jpg http://greenpack.rec.org/noise/images/noise.jpg Physical units For a sound wave The amplitude of the pressure variation The amplitude of velocity variations The power in the wave --- that means the

energy carried in the wave Decibel scale A sound that is ten times more powerful is 10 decibels higher. What do we mean by ten times more powerful? Ten times the power. Decibel is abbreviated dB Amplitude in pressure or velocity would be related to the square root of the power.

dB, amplitude and power Energy of a harmonic oscillator depends on the square of the amplitude Average value of pressure or air velocity is zero for a sound wave The mean is not a good estimate for power or loudness Square of sound level and power y2

y The square of the air pressure or air velocity is never zero. Its average gives you the power in the signal Peak and RMS (Root Mean Square) Figure from JBL Sound System Design Reference Manual dB scale is logarithmic

SIL = Sound intensity level in dB P = sound power SIL = 10 log10 (P) + constant Logarithmic scale like astronomical magnitudes or the earthquake Richter scale A sound that is 107 times more powerful than the threshold of hearing has what db level? dB is a relative scale Answer: 10 log10(107) = 70dB Since the dB scale is defined with respect to the

threshold of hearing, it is easier to use it as a relative scale, rather than an absolute scale. You can describe one sound as x dB above another sound and you will know how much more powerful it is. P1/P2 = 10x/10 Over what range of sound power are our ears sensitive to?

In other words: how much more powerful are deafening sounds than barely audible sounds? Combining sound levels Supposing you have two speakers and each produces a noise of level 70dB at your location.

What would the combined sound level be? Combining sound levels 1) The two sounds have the same frequency and are in phase: Amplitudes add, the total amplitude is twice that of the original signal. The power is then 4 times original signal. The change in dB level would be 10log10(4)=6.0 70dB + 6dB = 76dB for total signal

Combining Sound Levels 2) The two signals dont have the same frequency They go in and out of phase. In this case the powers add instead of the amplitudes. We expect an increase in dB level of 10log10(2)=3.0 70dB + 3dB=73dB for total signal Combining signals 1) Summation of two signals with the same

frequency and amplitude The signal -its square -the time average of the square -the power Now the sum of two identical signals -The square -the power is four times as big Combining Signals

2) Two signals with different frequencies with power A2/2 with power A2/2 Add the two and take the square averages to 1/2 averages to 1/2 averages to 0

Power is then A2 which is twice the power of one signal Phase and is it important? For low frequencies the wavelength is large Consider a120Hz signal The wavelength is v / f 334m/s v / f 2.78m

120Hz Constructive and destructive interference can be noticeable when frequencies are low and so wavelengths are large Perceived loudness depends on pitch

Points along one curve are all the same perceived loudness Loud music need less bass. The mix you

need depends on the db level. If you change the volume you need to change the mix. Fletcher-Munson diagram Phons The 10 phon curve is that which passes

through 10db at 1000Hz. The 30 phon curve is that which passes through 30db at 1000Hz. Phons are the perceived loudness level equivalent to that at 1000Hz How is the Fletcher-Munson diagram measured?

It is a perceived loudness diagram? So how would you carry out an experiment to measure this? Done with sine waves. Psychoacoustic experiments: 1) Matching the volume of one sound to that of another with a fixed frequency and volume (reference sound) 2) Rating sounds on a numerical scale (magnitude estimation

Models of Loudness Loudness is somehow related to total neural activity -- Loudness is related to a summation of neural activity across different frequency channels Perceived loudness scale-Sones A sound that we say is twice as loud is not twice as powerful. Rule of thumb: twice as loud (perceived) is equivalent to 10 times in

power or 10 dB Violin sections in orchestra How many violins are needed to make a sound that is twice as loud as a single violin? 10 10 in power or 10dB If all playing in phase or about 3 violins. But that is not likely so may need about 10 violins

Many violins are needed to balance sound and a few dont make much of a difference! Dynamic range Threshold of pain is about 140 dB above the threshold of hearing. A difference of 1014 in power. How is this large range achieved? Loud!

In response to loud sounds, the tensor tympani muscle tightens the eardrum and through the tendon between the hammer and anvil and shifts the stirrup backward from the oval window of the inner ear. This shifting of the ossicles reduces the transmitted force to the inner ear, protecting it. However, it is a relatively slow action and cannot protect the ear from sudden loud sounds like a gunshot. The process is less effective in older ears. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu Outer and

middle ear contribute to the sensitivity and dynamic range of the ear. A small motion on the eardrum causes a larger

motion on the oval window connecting to the inner ear. Sound in space Power goes as distance-2 How would you expect the

dB level to depend on distance? Inverse square law in dB P d 2 P power d distance SIL 10 log10 ( P ) constant SIL 10 log10 (d 2 ) constant 20 log10 ( d ) constant A factor of 10 in distances leads

to a change of what in dB? Is the inverse square law relevant for room acoustics? Figure from JBL Sound System Design Reference Manual What is relevant to room acoustics? Locations and angles of reflections Timing of reflections

Quality of reflections: as a function of frequency what amount absorbed Number of reflections Modes in the room that are amplified 3 rooms time

direct sound looking closer A pattern of echoes that slowly dies away Timing of echos

Speed of sound is 340m/s. 1/340 ~ 0.003 ~ 3ms 3 milliseconds per meter. Echo across a room of 10m is 30ms. Decay rates related to the travel time across a room. Effect of Echoes

ASAdemo 35 Speech in 3 rooms and played backwards so echoes are more clearly heard Echo suppression How do we describe a decay? A timescale. How about a halftime? Like a half life?

After t 1/2 the sound is the power We could use a function to describe the power We can write this P(t) = P02-t/t_1/2 Or we could use P(t) = P0 exp(-t/tdecay) exponential drop

Or we could use something like this P(t) = P010-t/td. Actually if you adjust td or tdecay these three expressions can be the same function.

An exponential decay becomes a line on a log plot drops to half again log P P

drops to half drops to half again time time The height decreases very quickly at first, and then decreases

more slowly. A curve with this exact shape is called an exponential curve. So, since the current is decreasing (or decaying) along a curve of this shape, we call this exponential decay. Measuring a half life Suppose we measure power in dB. How many dB change corresponds to twice the power? 10log102 ~ 3.0dB Measure the time it takes to drop in power

by 3dB and that corresponds to the t1/2. Room acoustics It is now recognized that the most important property of a room is its reverberation time. This is the timescale setting the decay time, or the half time of acoustic power in the room Surfaces absorb sound so the echoes get weaker and weaker. The reverberation time depends on the size of the room and the way the surfaces absorb sound.

Larger rooms have longer reverberation times. More absorptive rooms have shorter reverberation times. Reverberation time

The reverberation time, RT60, is the time to drop 60 dB below the original level of the sound. The reverberation time can be measured using a sharp loud impulsive sound such as a gunshot, balloon popping or a clap. Why use 60dB to measure the reverberation time? the loudest crescendo for most orchestral music is about 100 dB and a typical room background level for a good music-making area is about 40 dB. 60dB corresponds to a change in power of a million! It is in practice hard to measure sound volume over this range. However you can estimate the timescale to drop by 20 dB and multiply by ......?

What is a good reverberation time for a room? If you are using the room for lectures (speech) then a long reverberation time makes it difficult for the audience to understand words. However long reverberation times are desirable for example in churches for organ music. Rooms that are good for both speech and music typically have reverberation times between 1.5 and 2 seconds. If the direct sound is week compared to the echo, then

speech sounds garbled. Estimating the reverberation time Sabines formula V/Se in m, RT60 in seconds V/Se in feet, RT60 in seconds V is the volume of the room and Se the effective area Se a1S1 a2 S 2 a3 S3 ... Si surface area for a type of surface ai absorption coefficient for this surface

People or seats also can be given effective areas. Sabines formula A decay timescale proportional to a Volume/Area is a length Time between reflections depends on length Decay time depends on length Bigger rooms have longer decay times Sabines formula

Se a1S1 a2 S 2 a3 S3 ... Si surface area for a type of surface ai absorption coefficient for this surface If each more energy is absorbed each reflection then the decay timescale is shorter Higher absorption on walls means shorter decay timescale Standing waves in a Room x,y,z wave-numbers

loud in corners problem at low frequencies/large wavelengths corner foams to damp low frequencies Just Noticeable Differences JND in Sound Intensity A useful general reference is that the just noticeable difference in sound intensity for the

human ear is about 1 decibel. JND = 1 decibel In fact, the use of the factor of 10 in the definition of the decibel is to create a unit which is about the least detectable change in sound intensity. JND as a function of loudness There are some variations. The JND is about 1 dB for soft sounds around

30-40 dB at low and midrange frequencies. It may drop to 1/3 to 1/2 a decibel for loud sounds. Acoustic Gain and Feedback Figure from JBL Sound System Design Reference Manual

Gain: increase in dB at the position of the listener. What is the maximum gain without feedback? Acoustic Gain and Feedback Figure from JBL Sound System Design Reference Manual

Can turn up the speaker until the signal at the microphone from the speaker is as loud as the voice Acoustic Gain and Feedback

Figure from JBL Sound System Design Reference Manual Difference in dB for direct voice between speaker and mic locations 20 log10 4 = 12.0 dB Here 4/1 is ratio of distance between speaker and mic and mic and person. You can amplify the voice by up to x4 the amplitude (with no feedback safety margin).

Listener has 20 log10 7 = 16.9 dB for direct voice 20 log10 6 = 15.6 dB for speaker Volume 12.0-15.6=-3.6 speaker Volume -16.9 dB direct Difference is 16.9-3.6=13.3 dB. Maximum gain is 13.3 dB. Acoustic Gain and Feedback Max gain

Dvm Dsl Dms Dml Critical Band Two sounds of equal loudness (alone) but close together in

pitch sounds only slightly louder than one of them alone. They are in the same critical band competing for the same nerve endings on the basilar membrane of the inner ear. According to the place theory of pitch perception, sounds of a given frequency will excite the nerve cells of the organ of Corti only at a specific place. The available receptors show saturation effects which lead to the general rule of thumb for loudness by limiting the increase in neural response. Outside the critical band If the two sounds are widely separated in pitch, the

perceived loudness of the combined tones will be considerably greater because they do not overlap on the basilar membrane and compete for the same hair cells. Critical Band continued Critical Bands by Masking ASAdemo2 Tone in presence of broad band noise The critical band width at 2000Hz is about 280Hz so you can hear more steps when the noise bandwidth is reduced below this width.

Critical Bands by Loudness comparison A noise band of 1000Hz center frequency. The total power is kept constant but the width of the band increased. When the band is wider than the critical band the noise sounds louder. ASA demo 3 critical band

The wider the noise bandwidth the more the signal (sine wave) is masked. critical band A sine (signal) in the presence of noise that has a

band width (in frequency) centered around the signal. Past a particular frequency width the masking doesnt increase. Masking 13dB

critical band If a dominant tone is present then noise can be added at frequencies next to it and this noise will not be heard. Less precision is required to store nearby

frequencies. 13 dB miracle If the signal is 13 dB louder than the noise then the noise cant be heard (within a band). Each sub-band is quantized differently depending upon the masking threshold estimated in that band Critical band width as a function of frequency

Size of critical band is typically one tenth of the frequency Critical band concept Only a narrow band of frequencies surrounding the tone those within the critical band contribute to masking of the tone

When the noise just masks the tone, the power of the tone divided by the power of the noise inside the band is a constant. The nature of the auditory filter The auditory filter is not necessarily square actually it is more like a triangle shape Critical band width is sometimes referred to as ERB (equivalent rectangular bandwidth) Shape difficult to measure in psychoacoustic experiments because of side band listening affects

-some innovative experiments (notched filtered noise + signal) designed to measure the actual shape of the filter). Physiological reasons for the masking Basal membrane? The critical bandwidths at different frequencies correspond to fixed distances along the basal membrane. However the masking could be a result of feedback in the neuron firing instead.

Negative reinforcement or suppression of signals. Or swamping of signals. Temporal integration ASA demo8 Bursts are perceived to be louder if they are longer up to a particular threshold time

Temporal effects - nonsimultaneous masking The peak ratio of the masker is important -- that means its variations in volume as a function of time compared to its rms value. Short loud peaks dont necessarily contribute to the masking as much as a continuous noise. Both forward and backward masking - masking can occur if a loud masker is played just after the signal! Masking decays to 0 after 100-200ms

Physiological explanations for temporal masking Basal membrane is ringing preventing detection in that region for a particular time Neurons take a while to recover - neural fatigue Outside the critical band If the two sounds are widely separated in pitch, the perceived loudness of the combined tones will be

considerably greater because they do not overlap on the basilar membrane and compete for the same hair cells. Pushing MP3 to its limits -uncompressed -over compressed mp3 Above compressing to 60kbps Using home.c4.scale.AIFF show mp3 options DEMO with Audition to experiment

mp3 compressions 192 Kbps (44100Hz) 56 Kbps(44100Hz) 32 Kbps(22050Hz) 8Kbps(8000Hz)

bps=bits per second .wav 11.9MBytes 414KBytes 246KBytes 143KBytes 45KBytes Recommended Reading Moore Chap 4 on the Perception of Loudness

Berg and Stork Chap 6 pages 144-156 on the dB scale and on the Human Auditory System or Hall chapters 5+6 On Room acoustics: Berg and Stork Chap 8 or Hall Chap 15.

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