Decision Support: More Than Guidelines presenter location Event
Decision Support: More Than Guidelines presenter location Event (LS #1 or an introduction) Chronic Care Model Community
Resources and Policies SelfManagement Support Informed, Activated Patient Health System Health Care Organization
Delivery System Design Productive Interactions Decision Support
Clinical Information Systems Prepared, Proactive Practice Team Functional and Clinical Outcomes
Decision Support Systems A process for incorporating guidelines, education, expert advice and practice aids into routine clinical practice NCQA Decision Support Embed evidence-based guidelines which describe stepped-care into daily clinical practice. Integrate specialist expertise and primary care.
Use proven provider education methods. Share evidence-based guidelines and information with patients to encourage their participation. What is evidence-based medicine? Evidence-based medicine is the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual
patients. -David Sacket, BMJ 13 Jan 1996 What is evidence-based medicine? Evidence-based medicine is an approach to health care that promotes the collection, interpretation, and integration of valid, important and applicable evidence. The best available evidence, moderated by patient circumstances and preferences, is
applied to improve the quality of clinical judgments. McMaster University What is evidence-based practice? Efforts made to base clinical & other healthcare decisions on the best available evidence Evidence is critically appraised & synthesized The evidence synthesis is adapted to assist providers & patients in making decisions about
specific clinical conditions. Embed evidence-based guidelines into daily practice Clinical Practice Guidelines Clinical guidelines are systematically developed statements to assist practitioners and patients in choosing
appropriate healthcare for specific conditions. -The Institute of Medicine Clinical Practice Guidelines Efforts to distill a large body of medical knowledge into a convenient, readily usable format. - Eddy. The challenge. JAMA 1990;263:287-290
The purpose of clinical practice guidelines GAP Current Practice Current outcomes Health status
Satisfaction Cost Utilization Optimal Practice Optimal Outcomes Evidence-based Practice
Begin with NIH Guidelines all team members should be familiar Identify thought/opinion leaders within your organization and outside systematic literature review organized learning within organization Steve Simpson, MD Kansas University Evidence-based practice, cont.
Customize guidelines to your setting Embed in practice: able to influence real time decision-making Flow sheets with prompts Decision rules in EMR Share with patient Reminders in registry Standing orders Have data to monitor care
Attributes of Good Guidelines Clear definition of condition and population Exceptions are described Evidence summaries are available with links to key articles Clinical actions for stepped-care are clearly stated Nice-tos that are not evidence-based are omitted Regularly updated to incorporate new data
Stepped Care Often begins with lifestyle change or adaptation (eliminate triggers, lose weight, exercise more) First choice medication Either increase dose or add second medication, and so on Includes referral guideline Integrating Specialist and
Primary Care Expertise Clarifying roles and working together Definitions Referral: transfer of care Consultation: one-time or limited time Collaboration: on-going co-management Effective specialty-primary care interactions
When to consult trouble making a diagnosis specialized treatment goals of therapy not met Adapted from material by Steve Simpson, MD Kansas University Using Consultants Effectively Make your consultants partners 1st principle of partnership - communication
communication begins with you ask a specific question specify type of consult: ongoing (referral), one time only, duration of specific problem Steve Simpson, MD Kansas University Communicating Telephone or in person Letter
Letter with supporting objective data e-mail e-mail must be encrypted Steve Simpson, MD Kansas University Example of an agreement in place Primary Care 1. State that you are requesting a consultation 2. The reason for the consultation and/or question(s) you
would like answered 3. List of any current or past pertinent medications 4. Any work-up and results that has been done so far 5. Your thought process in deciding to request a consult 6. What you would like the Specialist to do Source: HealthPartners, MN The agreement in place Specialty Care
1. State that you are returning the patient to primary care for follow-up in response to their consult request 2. What you did for the patient and the results 3. Answers to Primary Care Physicians questions in their consult request 4. Your thought process in arriving at your answers 5. Recommendations for the Primary Care Physician and educational notes as appropriate 6. When or under what circumstances the Primary Care Physician should consider sending the patient back to you
Source: HealthPartners, MN Going beyond referral and consultation: integrating specialist expertise Shared care agreements Alternating primary-specialty visits Joint visits Roving expert teams
On-call specialist Via nurse case manager Use proven provider education methods Beyond CME Effective educational methods Interactive, sequential opportunities in small groups or individual training
Academic detailing Problem-based learning Modeling (joint visits) Effective educational methods Build knowledge over time Include all clinic staff Involve changing practice, not just acquiring knowledge Result: better diagnosis, continuing care
and guideline based care in children with asthma Evans et al, Pediatrics 1997;99:157 Share evidence-based guidelines and information with patients to encourage their participation. What is shared decisionmaking?
Patient and clinician share information with each other (clinician shares medical information, patient shares personal knowledge of illness and values) Participate in a decision-making process Agree on a course of action Sheridan et al Am Jrnl Prev Med 2004 Guidelines for patients Expectations for care
Wallet cards Web sites Workbooks Stoplight tools Example of a successful strategy: Adults with asthma Developed a skill-oriented self-help workbook Health educator session for 1 hour Support group
Telephone calls RCT: better inhaler skills and use, decreased symptoms, less ER use. Bailey et al Arch Inter Med 1990;150:1664 Stoplight tools: patient guidelines Important Web Addresses PubMed http://www4.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/PubMed/
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