AP Human Geography Key Concept Review Geography as

AP Human Geography Key Concept Review Geography as Field of Study Geography geo - the earth graphein - to write Cartography - art & science of map-making Developed early by Greeks, Romans, Chinese, Arabs

Names in Geography Eratosthenes - Greek scholar Used geometry; accurately calculated circumference of earth Ptolemy - Greek scholar Developed global grid system forerunner to latitude & longitude

Idrisi - Arab geographer Gathered maps, consulted mariners & travelers, went on scientific expeditions Names in Geography Immanuel Kant - defined geography as study of interrelated spatial patterns Description & explanation of similarities & differences between regions

George Perkins Marsh Focused on impact of human actions on natural environment Carl Sauer - cultural landscapes C.L.=product of interactions between humans & their environments Types of Geography Physical

Political Human - Where are people? How are they alike and different? How do they interact? How do they change the natural landscapes, and how do they use them? Urban Environmental Key Geographical Skills Spatial Perspective - the way places and things

are arranged and organized on earths surface Absolute Location Meridians, parallels, latitude, longitude Greenwich, England Relative Location Use of Maps Reference Material - tool for storing information

Communications/education - often thematic can explain spatial perspective to others - ex. Soil types Contour Map - topography Map Projections Globe - only accurate representation of earth All maps lie flat and all flat maps lie. distortion Mercator - created for navigating ships across

Atlantic Ocean; direction is true; distortion towards poles Robinson - good projection for general use; distortion greatest at poles Peters - keeps land masses equal in area; shapes distorted Scale Size of unit studied - local, regional, global? Ex. drought

Map Scale Mathematical relationship between size of area on map & actual size on surface of earth Large scale maps = more details 1/24 Small scale maps = less details 1/24,000 Time Zones

Use longitude to determine 180 degrees east and west of prime meridian, runs through Greenwich, England (set by international agreement) 15 degrees apart - 24 sections - 1 hour each Encouraged by creation of railroads Place

=unique location of a geographic feature Place name - toponyms Site Situation Absolute location Pattern = linear vs. centralized vs. random vs. grid/rectilinear

Ordinance of 1785 Regions Formal/Uniform - similarities in physical or cultural features Functional/Nodal - organized around nodes or cores Core vs. periphery Perceptual/Vernacular - places people believe to exist a part of their cultural identity

Space-Time Compression Describes changes that rapid connections among places and regions have brought First transportation and communication Now television and computers Impact of globalization Geographic Technologies GIS - Geographic Information System

computer system that can layer captured data GPS - Global Positioning System Uses series of satellites, tracking stations, and receivers to determine precise absolute locations on earth Population Unit Two

Demography Study of population Population geography = number, composition, & distribution of human beings on earths surface Follow growth and movement of population Distribution, Density & Scale Distribution - arrangement of locations on earth where people live

Dot maps Population density - # of people in a given area of land 90% of people live north of equator More than 1/2 of all people live on 5% of land and 9/10 on less than 20% Most people live close to sea level 2/3 of world lives within 300 miles of ocean

Density Arithmetic (crude) Total number of people divided by total land area Physiological population Total number of people divided by arable land Carrying Capacity Number of people an area can support on a sustained basis

Farmers using irrigation & fertilizers support more people Industrial societies import raw materials & export manufactured goods Population Pyramids Represents a populations age & sex composition Factors affecting shape:

Health care War Availability of birth control Cultural values Level of economic development

Population Concentrations 2/3 of world pop in 4 regions: East Asia - 1/5 of world South Asia - 1/5 of world

Southeast Asia - 500 million Europe - primarily urban Race and Ethnicity Race - category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important Ethnicity - less based on physical characteristics & emphasizes a shared cultural heritage, such as language, religion, and customs

Important because people tend to live in areas with people of same race or ethnicity Population Growth & Decline Little pop growth until mid-18th century Agricultural or Neolithic Revolution Until then, doubling rate was very long Birth rates and death rates were high 1750 Industrial Revolution - England

Population explosion Doubling time has dropped fast Theories of Population Growth Zero population growth movement - goal to level off worlds pop growth to ensure earth can sustain its inhabitants Thomas Malthus Food growing arithmetically vs. pop growing exponentially Neo-Malthusians, The Population Bomb, Paul Ehrlich,

drove international efforts using birth control and family planning The Vocabulary of Population Theory

CBR TFR Demographic momentum CDR IMR NIR Life expectancy

Demographic Transition Theory Stage 1 - pre-industrial, agrarian societies High CBR and CDR Stage 2 - industrialization High CBR, lower CDR By mid19th century - epidemiological revolution aka mortality revolution Stage 3 - mature industrial economy CBR drops, CDR low

Stage 4 - post-industrial economy CBR continues to fall and CDR low More women in workforce Children expensive

Extensive education needed to fill post-industrial jobs Population and Natural Hazards Climate, drought, hurricanes, typhoons, tsunamis Malthus negative checks - famine and disease Globalization has increased spread of communicable diseases

AIDS Asian bird flu Pandemic = widespread epidemic Swine flu Population Policies Expansive policies - like Mao Zedongs Restrictive policies

China - Deng Xiaoping One child policy Female infanticide India - democracys problems Family planning Rural families Indira Gandhi International Policy Efforts

1994 International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, Egypt - agreed that improving the status of women is essential to population control 1995 UN Fourth World Conference in Beijing, China agreed that women needed to control fertility allowing them to take advantage of educational and employment opportunities Population Movement Circulation = our short-term repetitive movements in

our days Migration = involves a permanent move to a new location, within a country or to another country Demographic equation = summarizes population change over time in an area by combining natural change (death rate subtracted from birth rate) and the net migration Emigration - migration FROM a location Immigration - migration TO a location

Ravensteins Laws of Migration British demographer Wrote 11 migration laws Most immigrants move short distance Distance decay - decline of activity or function with increasing distance from point of origin Step migration - long-distance migration done in stages Intervening opportunities - those planning to go long distances find other opportunities before

reaching final destination Ravensteins Laws of Migration Migrants moving longer distances tend to choose cities as destinations Each migration flow produces a counter-flow; ex. When one group moves in to neighborhood, another group moves in Families less likely to make international moves; single males more likely

Gravity Model Inverse relationship between the volume of migration and the distance between source and destination A large city has a greater gravitational pull than a small one, but it still tends to pull people that live closer rather than farther away

Reasons for Migration Push factor = encourages people to move Pull factor = attracts people to a region Major Migrations at Different Scales Asia, Latin America and Africa have net out-migration North America. Europe, and Oceania jave net inmigration Largest flows are: Asia to Europe Asia to North America

South America to North America U.S. Immigration Patterns Three Main Eras: Initial settlement of colonies Emigration from Europe Immigration since 1945 Initial Settlement of Colonies

About 1 million Europeans came before 1776 Another 1 million by 1840 Majority from Britain Others from Netherlands, Sweden, France, Germany, Iberian Peninsula 18th century - 400,000 African slaves brought over

Emigration from Europe 19th-20th century migration one of most significant in history 75 million departed for Americas between 1835-1935 Largest number to USA Three waves: 1840s-1850s - 2 largest groups Irish & Germans Late 1800s - 1870s-1890s - 75% NW Europe; Germans & Irish continued & Scandinavians; pull factor Industrial

Revolution Early 1900s- peak levels 1910; many from Southern and Eastern Europe, esp. Italy, Russia, Austria-Hungary Immigration since 1945 Restrictions against Asians lifted in 1960s: China, Philippines, India, Vietnam Many came as refugees Many went to Canada Another major source is Latin America with Mexico

topping 8 million 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act government issued visas to several hundred thousand people who had previously entered illegally Intraregional Migrations Within USA, African-Americans began migrating from South to North during WWI and in the 1940s; 1970s countertrend of African Americans moving back South Dislocation due to ethnic strife, war, or natural

disasters South Asia - Afghanistan - Pakistan Southeast Asia - Vietnam - Cambodia Balkans - collapse of Yugoslavia Sub-Saharan Africa - Rwanda, Sudan

Migration Selectivity =Tendency for certain types of people to move influenced by 1. Age - young people, 18-30 and their children 2. Education - higher levels of education more likely to migrate long distances; follow ones career in professions; danger of brain drains 3. Kinship and friendship ties - chain migration; ethnic neighborhoods such as Little Italies and

Chinatowns Short Term Circulation & Activity Space Activity Space - area in which an individual moves about as he or she pursues regular, dayto-day activities Factors affecting activity spaces: Age group - younger by foot/bicycle; older by car; retired activity space shrinks Ability to travel - suburbs vs. city; LDC vs. MDC; income level

Opportunities to travel - self-sufficient families, poverty, & physical isolation reduce awareness space Space-Time Prism All people live within a space-time prism that sets the limits for their activities They have only so much time to be mobile and their space is limited by their ability to move

Cultural Patterns and Processes Unit Three Basic Definitions: Cultural landscape - modification of the natural landscape by human activities Cultural geography - transformation of the land and ways that humans interact with the environment Cultural ecology - studies relationship

between natural environment and culture Schools of Thought in Cultural Geography Environmental determinism - physical environment actively shapes cultures so that human responses are almost completely molded by environment Possibilism - cultural heritage is at least as important as physical environment in shaping human behavior

Environmental perception - emphasizes importance of human perception of environment rather than actual character of the land; shaped by culture Cultural determinism - human culture ultimately more important than physical environment in shaping human actions Concepts of Culture Culture = mix of values, beliefs, behaviors, & material objects that together form a peoples

way of life Non-material culture = abstract concepts of values, beliefs, behaviors Values = culturally-defined standards that guide way people assess desirability, goodness and beauty & serve as guidelines for moral living Beliefs = specific statements people hold to be true, almost always based on values Material Culture = includes wide range of concrete human creations = artifacts

Cultural Hearths Areas where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world Developed in SW Asia, North Africa, South Asia, East Asia - river valleys Cultural Diffusion

Expansion diffusion Contagious diffusion Hierarchical diffusion Stimulus diffusion Relocation diffusion

Acculturation Assimilation Transculturation Ethnocentrism Cultural relativism Syncretism

Language = key to culture =systematic means of communicating ideas and feelings through the use of signs, gestures, marks, or vocal sounds Also allows for continuity of culture (cultural transmission) Writing invented 5000 years ago Most people illiterate until 20th century

Languages Currently between 5000-6000 languages 10 languages spoken by 100+ million people: Spanish, Portuguese, Russian, German, Mandarin and Wu Chinese, English, Hindi, Bengali, Arabic, and Japanese Linguistic fragmentation = many languages spoken especially by a relatively small number of people; ex. Eastern Europe

Language Families Languages usually grouped into families with a shared, fairly distant origin Indo-European family - languages spoken by half the worlds people, English most widely used; thought to be rooted in Black Sea area Other families = Afro-Asiatic, Niger-Congo, Dravidian, American Indian Standard languages - recognized by govt and

intellectual elite as norm for use in schools, govt, media, & other aspects of public life Official languages - language endorsed & recognized by govt as one that everyone should know and use Dialects - regional variants of a standard language Isoglosses - boundaries within which words are spoken Bilingualism - ability to communicate in 2 languages Multilingualism - ability to communicate in more than 2 languages

Pidgin - amalgamation of languages that borrows words from several Creole - when a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers Lingua franca - established language that comes to be spoken & understood over a large area Toponymy - study of place names town, ton, burgh, or ville = town Extinct Languages

Ex. Gothic, died out in 16th century Some organizations try to preserve endangered languages like European Unions Bureau of Lesser Used Languages; ex. Welsh in Wales, Quecha in Peru Religion Varies in its cultural influence Distinguished from other belief systems by emphasis on the sacred and divine

Explains anything that surpasses the limits of human knowledge Affected most societies in history but today has been replaced in some places by new ideas Humanism - ability of humans to guide their own lives Marxism - communism Religions Universalizing Religions = Christianity, Islam, Buddhism; 60% of worlds religions

Ethnic Religions = appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place; 24% of worlds religions 16% of world identifies with no religion Divisions within religion Branches - large, basic divisions within religion Denominations - divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body

Sects - relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denominations Christianity 2 billion followers Most widespread distribution Predominant religion in North & South America, Europe & Australia 3 major branches:

Roman Catholic - 50% Protestant - 25% Eastern Orthodox - 10% Remaining 15% cannot be categorized into the 3 main branches Religion in the United States Over 50% Protestant 25% Catholic

2% Jewish What about the Mormons? Islam 1.3 billion adherents Predominant in Middle East from North Africa to Central Asia About half of worlds Muslims live in Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh and India Growing faster than Christianity

7-10 million Muslims in USA Youngest of world religions Divisions of Islam Sunni - 83% of Muslims; Indonesia largest concentration Shiite - 16% of Muslims; concentrated in Iran, Pakistan, Iraq, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan and Yemen Split occurred over the rightful successor of

Muhammad Buddhism 365 million followers Began on Indian subcontinent Diffused through Silk Road and water routes across Indian Ocean to East and Southeast Asia 3 Main Branches of Buddhism

Mahayana - 56% - Big Wheel - East Asia Theraveda - 38% - stricter adherence to Buddhas teachings - Southeast Asia Tantrayana - 6% - Tibet and Mongolia Accurate count difficult because eastern religions dont require followers to identify with one religion Other Universalizing Religions Sikhism - 21 million in Punjab region of India;

combo Hinduism and Islam; founder Guru Nanak Bahai - founded in 1844, most in Iran, viewed by some Shiite Muslims as heretics, believe in a different prophet Ethnic Religions

Hinduism Confucianism Daoism Shintoism Judaism Shamanism

Spatial Impact Large cities - tallest, most centralized & elaborate buildings are often religious structures Churches, mosques, temples, synagogues, pagodas Bodhi trees in Buddhist areas How religions dispose of the dead

Taboo? - defined as: a restriction on behavior imposed by a social custom. COMMON TABOO ITEMS FOODS, RELATIONSHIPS, LANGUAGE, OBSCENITY, ETC.. RESEARCH- TABOOS

Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? Folk housing and the environment Housing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function, and the physical environment most common building materials = wood &brick Minor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles Hearths of House Types

Figure 4-12 U.S. House Types (19451990) Figure 4-16 House Types in Four Western Chinese Communities

Figure 4-9 Popular & Folk Culture Folk = traditionally practiced by small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas Popular = found in large heterogeneous societies that are bonded by a common culture despite the many differences among the people that share it

Folk Culture

Controlled by tradition Resistant to change Self-sufficient Example - Amish Relatively isolated Usually agricultural with limited technology Ex. Dutch wearing wooden shoes to adapt to working in wet fields below sea level Ex. Hindu taboos against eating beef Housing styles - based on environment materials

Why Is Folk Culture Clustered? Folk housing and the environment Housing = a reflection of cultural heritage, current fashion, function, and the physical environment most common building materials = wood &brick Minor differences in the environment can produce very different house styles

Hearths of House Types Figure 4-12 U.S. House Types (19451990) Figure 4-16 House Types in Four Western Chinese Communities

Figure 4-9 Folk Music North American folk music began as immigrants carried their songs to the New World but became Americanized and then new songs about American experiences Regions Northern song section

Southern and Appalachian song area Western song area Black Song Style Family Popular Culture Primarily urban based General mass of people conforming to and then abandoning ever-changing cultural trends Breeds homogeneity Pop culture takes on a national character

Globalization of pop culture has caused resentment Environmental impact of popular culture Uniform landscapes - fast food restaurants, chain hotels, gas stations, convenience stores; designed so residents and visitors immediately recognize purpose of building or name of company Increased demand for natural resources - fads demand animal skins; consumption of food not

efficient to produce (ex. 1 lb beef requires animal consuming 10 lbs grain; ratio for chicken 1 to 3) Pollution - high volume of wastes Cultural Landscape = Cultural Identity Landscapes & values = Native Americans vs. Europeans Landscapes & identity = people express culture by transforming elements into symbols like flags, slogans, religious icons, landscaping and house styles

Can clash like Muslim practice of never depicting Allah or Muhammad in drawings clashed with western freedom of press with Danish cartoon in 2005 Symbolic landscapes = all landscapes are symbolic signs and images convey messages

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