2. Smiling 9. Teach, model & reinforce social-emotional skills 3. Positive greetings at the door/precorrect 10. Transitions are managed well 4. Communicating competently 11. Independent seatwork is managed and used when needed 5. Wise Feedback 12. Teacher proximity and mobility 6. Intermittent non- contingent 13. Class-wide motivation system reinforcement; individual 14. Goal setting, problem solving and & whole group performance feedback
15. Visual schedule of class activities 16. Effective cueing systems to release & regain attention 17. Numerous opportunities to respond (active engagement) PCM Relationship #1 5 to 1 Ratio Positive interactions consisting of words, gestures or physical contact that have a positive quality to them are delivered contingent on desirable behavior Helps students learn expected behaviors and teachers build stronger relationships
Reprimands or corrective statements work better in the context of a positive reinforcing environment PCM Relationship #2 Smiling and Being Nice Mirror neurons: Neurons that fire when another person acts -the neuron mirrors the behavior of the other Implication: Students learn via modeling from adults and peers Students will treat us how we treat them
PCM Relationship #3 Positive Greetings at the Door Positive verbal (or nonverbal) interactions with students as they walk in Verbal and non verbal, use smiles, physical touch as appropriate, Use students name Establishes a positive atmosphere and precorrects problem behavior Precorrect individual or all students PCM Relationship #3 Positive Greetings at the Door Remind them of when class will start the task/
proper bus behavior Reference successes that occurred the prior day Show enthusiasm that they are there Communicates this is a place you WANT to be PCM #4: Communicating Competently Delivering Effective Praise
Contingent Specific Immediate Frequent (then Intermittent) Genuine/Sincere Individualized/Student referenced Varied: process, effort, use of a strategy PCM Relationship #4 Communicating Competently with students Delivering effective reprimands or corrective
statements which are Brief Non-emotional Non-threatening, delivered in a soft voice Given in close proximity to the student (private) PCM Relationship #5 Wise Feedback Providing feedback to students by voicing high expectations to the student and the belief in the students ability to meet those expectations Example: The reason why Im giving you this feedback is because I have high expectations for my students and I know youre just
type of student who is capable of meeting them. I believe in you. Should be delivered in private Fosters a growth mindset of students ability PCM Relationship #6: Intermittent Non-contingent Reinforcement Providing a student the opportunity to get what they want before the use of problem behavior to get attention or avoid academic work Allow student(s) to get attention in the absence of problem behavior Allow student(s) to take a break at a time when the student is not engaging in problem behavior
PCM Procedures #7 Organizing a productive classroom All students can see instruction without having to strain or engage in effort (limit response effort) Limit visual and auditory distractions Students do not face traffic areas (distractibility) Problem students are not seated next to one another Flow in, out and about with minimal disruption Easy to walk without disruption Seating rows with paired desks instead of tables
Optimal setting arrangement to enable whole group, small group and individual instruction Seating rows with paired desks instead of tables Reduces disruptive behavior (Whedall et al., 1981) Increases academic productivity (Bennett & Blundell, 1983) PCM Procedures #8 Pre-correction Focus on the not yet Use interspersed practice not massed practice (alternate easy with hard, new learning with old)
Use procedural prompt cards: procedure spelled out step by step Review procedure for the task and how to signal need for help Focus on process and trying new things PCM Procedures #9 Teach, Model, Cue, Reinforce Behavioral Expectations/Social Emotional Skills Establish 3-5 behavioral expectations: Teachable, Positively Stated, Memorable Teach and Model expectations on an ongoing basis Cue students visually to prompt and activate
behavior Reinforce students when they exhibit the expectations PCM Procedures #10 Transitions are taught and managed well Establish how long the transition will take Establish the components of transition, e.g. paper goes, here, HW assignment is written here, etc.
Example: 1) Move quietly; 2) Put books away and get out what you need; 3) Move your chair quietly; 4) Keep your hands and feet to self; 5) Wait quietly for next instruction PCM Procedures #10 Transitions are taught and managed well Give signals
Prepare for the transition Take action to succeed at transition Signal completion of transition Periodic reinforcement for success; challenge improvement with a payoff that can be earned, debrief what is going well and what can be improved as a group or privately if an individual needs assistance PCM Procedure #11 Independent seatwork is managed and used when needed Independent seatwork is associated with
lower rates of engagement and student achievement than teacher-led activities Provide clear expectations for completion Have backup assignment/activity for those who finish early Use peer-assisted assignment correcting PCM Procedures #12 Adult proximity and mobility Frequent adult movement throughout the classroom increases academic engagement Prevents up to 40-50% of problem behavior Proximity to students is an effective and
simple corrective which reduces challenging behavior in students PCM Procedures #12 Adult Proximity and Mobility Feedback may be delivered while: Teacher moves throughout the classroom Scan, move about the room and interact individually with students to provide positive feedback, encouragement and correction PCM Procedures #13 Class-wide Motivation System
All students working together to obtain a common reinforcing experience Allows students to receive payoff for maintaining ontask behavior May be a positive specific praise alone or accompanied by a tangible reward Adds an additional layer of motivation All for one One for ALL To each his own Mystery PCM Procedures #14 Motivation System to Promote Desirable Behavior
System of delivering reinforcing experiences or continent access to desired activities or privileges based on performance Allows students to receive payoff for maintaining on task behavior
Helps students who are not necessarily intrinsically motivated to exhibit certain prosocial behaviors or maintain academic engagement when they dont feel like it PCM Procedure #15 Effective Goal Setting Goal setting, planning strategies to overcome barriers and performance feedback Establish reasonably ambitious behavioral goals for each student Deliver periodic feedback based on their progress toward goal attainment Reward individual students and/or entire class
for meeting preset goal PCM Procedures #16 Visual schedule of classroom activities POSTED DAILY Students know precisely what to expect (be specific) Students know when to expect which activities Students know how much time will be devoted to each activity Students can better self manage their behavior and time PCM Procedures #16
Effective cueing systems to release and regain attention Develop signals: Avoid shouting or using the light switch Utilize students to prompt one another to give attention back to the teacher If you hear me raise your hand Clap 3 times snap 3 times
When I say class, you all say class PCM #17 Procedures Providing numerous opportunities to respond Classrooms in which adults provide students opportunities to respond are associated with higher student engagement Must pass the dead mans test If a dead man can be as successful in the
environment as a live student, then there arent enough opportunities for students to respond and interact with the learning content.
Includes all-world threat vehicles contained in PAS 68 & ASTM F2656. Due for review 2017. Regulations Evaluating Impact Performance. Publicly Available Standard (PAS 68 - Latest version 2013. UK based threat vehicles. ... Impact Angle. Penetration.
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