Sustainable Household Cooking in the Philippines The Development

Sustainable Household Cooking in the Philippines The Development

Sustainable Household Cooking in the Philippines The Development of the Mayon Turbo Stove Roger Samson and Claudia Ho Lem REAP-CANADA Box 125, Maison Glenaladale Ste. Anne de Bellevue, QC, H9X 3V9 Tl: (514) 398-7743; Fax: (514) 398-7972 E: [email protected]; W: www.reap-canada.com Why is Sustainable Household Cooking Important Financial : Purchasing LPG typically costs $100/yr, importing fossil fuels is a major drain on developing economies Womens labour: women can spend 60-120 days per year gathering fuelwood Household air quality: women and children are the most vulnerable to respiratory and eye infections from inefficient combustion Landscape ecology: reducing fuelwood use protects watersheds and biodiversity

How are rural people cooking and eating in the Philippines? Traditional diet is centered around rice, fish and vegetables Typically boiling foods in aluminum pots over a biomass stove and grilling fish over charcoal Tend to have multiple cooking devices for convenience and for the various foods they like preparing LPG is preferred as a quick cooking method especially early in the morning LPG (Liquid Petroleum Gas) Most convenient but prohibitively expensive for poor households increases fossil energy imports What Fuels are Rural Households Using? <5,000 5000 - 9,999

10,000 - 14,999 15,000 - 24,999 25,000+ Percentage of households 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% LPG Kerosene

Biomass Residue Type of fuel Fuelwood Charcoal Household Fuel Use Trends in the Philippines (1989-1995) 3.5% in woodfuel use/yr 8.5% in charcoal use/yr 9.5% in LPG use/yr 9.4% in kerosene use/yr 7.1% in biomass residues/yr Annual production and estimated recoverability of selected agricultural residues 7000 Yield ('ooo tonnes) 6000

5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Coconut Coconut Coconut Rice Hull Husk* Shell* frond* Maize Cobs Sugar Cane Bagasse

Sugar Cane Trash Annual biomass production Annual recoverable biomass An Improved Biomass Residue Stove needs to: Decrease cooking time Reduce smoke and suspended particulates Be designed with traditional cooking methods in mind Cost effective Minimize fuel consumption Aesthetically pleasing Typical Problems with Conical Rice Hull Stoves Excessive smoke Excessive maintenance (tapping to allow fuel to drop) Excess air causes uncontrolled combustion Fuelbed fires

Too expensive for poor REAP-Canada chose the Lo-Trau stove from Vietnam for further pilot introduction as it was simple and inexpensive. In 1999 we developed the LT-2000 as an improved model of the Lo-Trau. 5000 RHS stoves have been manufactured in the Philippines Poverty Reduction through household energy self-reliance Consumer Assessment of the LT-2000 Rice Hull Stove Time Required to heat up

Fuel Cost Smokiness Design/Aesthetics Cleanliness Ease of Use Stove Purchase Price Overall Economy Very Unsatisfied Median Ranking 0 0 Excellent-Good 1 0

0 Excellent 6 9 2 0 Satisfied 2 11 6 1

0 Good 3 10 5 2 0 Good 4 10 5 1

0 Good 2 8 9 1 0 Good-Satisfied 5 9 6

0 0 Good Excellent Good Satisfied Unsatisfied 8 7 5 11 8 3

The Mayon Turbo Stove (MTS) A biomass residue stove optimized to burn rice hull (a loose, bulk fuel) with a high quality of combustion A stove that enables the use of a wide variety of secondary fuels including: peanut shells, coffee shells, corn cobs, crushed coconut shells, and sawdust (mix at a level of 1/3-1/2 rice hull) Major Design Change Improvements of the Mayon Turbo Optimization of the air flow through the use of twin air injectors, & air holes on inner cone for secondary combustion Use of heat shield to prevent fuelbed fires Increase in length of inner cone Decrease in stove size (MTS 6500) and use of materials

Impact of the introduction of the LT-2000 on conventional fuel use Fuel Fuelwood Before (kg) After (kg) Fuel Use Reduction (kg) % Reduction 2398.8 664.8 1734

72.20% Charcoal 70.8 16.8 54 76.30% LPG 15.6 8.4 7.2 46.20%

Kerosene (firestarter) 10.3 3.5 6.8 66.30% Average Projected Savings from the Introduction of a LT-2000 RHS (2002). Fuelwood Charcoal LPG Kerosene (firestarter) Total Negros Conventional

Fuel Expenditures 993 252 386 184 Panay Conventional Fuel Expenditures 887 368 1081 255 Average Conventional Fuel Expenditures 940 310 734

220 *Average Projected Fuel Savings after introduction of a rice hull stove 677 237 339 145 1814 2591 2204 1398 * Based on the LT-2000 stoves displacing an average of 76% of charcoal use, 72% of firewood use, 46% of LPG use and 66% of kerosene firestarter use in households adopting the stove.

Impact of Introducing the LT2000 RHS on GHG Emissions Fuel Fuelwood Charcoal LPG Kerosene Fuel Use Reductio n (kg) 1734 54 7.2 6.84 Greenhouse Gas Emission Reductions (kg CO2 equiv) CO2 0 0 22.21 16.69 Direct

CH4 N2O 243.75 150.17 43.36 10.54 0.01 0.73 0.04 0.30 GHG = 487.8 CO TNMOC 216.39 152.78 53.48 68.65 0.22 1.35 0.19 0.82

Indirect GHG = 493.9 Total GHG Emissions = 981.7 kg CO2 Equiv per year GWC* 0.44 3.26 3.41 2.64 REAP-Canada Summary of Activities Developing Sustainable Cooking Systems In the Philippines Biomass Resource and Economic Assessment:1999-2000 Technology Assessment of Conical Rice Hull Stoves (75 stoves) : 2000-2001 Pilot GHG mitigation project in the Visayas (5000 stoves) 2001-2002 Development of Mayon Turbo (Advanced Conical Rice Hull Stove) 2002-2003 Scale up of National Mayon Turbo Stove Project for GHG Mitigation (100,000 stoves) 2004-2010 Energy values:

LPG Units Energy content (MJ/unit) Thermal Efficiency (%) Energy delivered (MJ/unit) Kerosene Fuelwood Charcoal Rice Hull kg lt kg kg

kg 45.5 35 16 28 14.7 0.6 0.5 0.1025 0.15 0.15 27.3

17.5 1.64 4.2 2.205 Thank you! Salamat Gid!

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