Everyday Tyranny Professor Steven Reiss 11/4/2014 1 Everyday

Everyday Tyranny Professor Steven Reiss 11/4/2014 1 Everyday

Everyday Tyranny Professor Steven Reiss 11/4/2014 1 Everyday Tyranny: Why You Need to Understand Yourself Before You Can Help Others 02/25/2020

2 Professor Steven Reiss Educated at Dartmouth, Yale, and Harvard Taught at Illinois-Chicago, Ohio State Universities Discovered anxiety sensitivity (2000+ studies)

5 national research, clinical, leadership awards Discovered 16 basic desires (16 universal goals) Author of 3 widely-used psychological assessments: Anxiety Sensitivity Index, Reiss Screen for Maladaptive Behavior, Reiss Motivation Profile 11/4/2014 3 Relevance of Everyday Tyranny

Self-Determination Quality of life / happiness Increase in stress Reduction of conflict 02/25/2020 4 Everyday Tyranny

People trying to improve you whether you like it or not Partner, friend, caregiver, or teacher trying to help you change who you are even if you dont want to change It is for your own good 02/25/2020 5 Never on Sunday Homer is an unhappy scholar. Reads literature to find happiness

Ilya is a happy prostitute. Pays no attention to culture/ literature Unhappy Homer teaches happy Ilya how to be truly happy by immersing herself in culture. 02/25/2020 6 Tools of Everyday Tyranny Pressure Argument Expanded/ tightened control of schedule/ activities

Criticism Punishment 02/25/2020 7 Our Thesis Assumption 1: We are individuals to a much greater degree than we typically realize. Example: Homer is an intellectual. Ilya is a sensualist. Homer mistakenly thinks Ilya can become an intellectual like he is. Ilya mistaken

thinks Homer can become more of a sensualist. 02/25/2020 8 Our Thesis Assumption 2: We are naturally motivated to assert our values in our relationships. Homer values ideas, understanding, knowledge. Ilya values fun and romance. Example: Homer pressures Ilya to embrace intellectual values. Ilya pressures Homer to

lessen valuation of intellectual pursuits. 02/25/2020 9 Our Thesis Assumption 3: Value differences motivate repeated conflicts. The pair has the same argument over and over. Examples: Ambitious and laid-back partners quarrel over work schedules. Independent and interdependent partners quarrel over closeness, such as not sharing feelings.

02/25/2020 10 Our Thesis Assumption 4: Self-awareness and tolerance of different natures and values are essential to lessen and get along with other people. Examples: To achieve the public policy goal of self-determination, caregivers need to understand and tolerate the diverse values of the people they serve. 02/25/2020

11 Relationships Everyday tyranny occurs in all kinds of relationships including: Caregivers & consumers Work supervisors & employers

Team members Partners 02/25/2020 12 Self-Hugging People confuse their individual nature for human nature George Ramsay, 19th-century Oxford University philosophy of happiness

02/25/2020 13 Deep Down, What Makes Us Tick? Every person is constituted to seek, to strive, and to desire certain goals that are common to the species. William McDougall, Harvard University 11/4/2014 14

4 Generations of Harvard Professors 1890 - 1970 William James instincts William McDougall instincts Henry Murray psychological needs Robert W. White intrinsic motives David McClelland psychological needs

11/4/2014 15 Methods Used to Create Lists of Needs, Intrinsic Motives Instinct theorists studied animals, primitive tribes Personality theorists studied the unconscious mind using projective techniques (TAT) Humanists (Maslow) studied self-actualized people and children Social psychologists (Lepper, White) studied

choices made without extrinsic incentives Steven Reiss and colleagues directly asked people 11/4/2014 16 Scientific Identification of Needs

Asked diverse groups of people (N= 7,000) Now > 90,000 on 4 continents Exploratory Factor Analysis Confirmatory Factor Analysis Concurrent Validity (e.g., Big 5) Predictive Validity (sports, media viewing habits) 11/4/2014 17

16 Basic Desires The results of Reiss surveys show 16 basic desires common to everyone and deeply rooted in human nature. The list of basic desires overlaps about 50% with previous lists of needs. Each need is defined carefully based on research results for example, adult play is about fun, not competence. 11/4/2014 18

16 Basic Desires Acceptance, the desire to avoid criticism and rejection Curiosity, the desire for understanding Eating, the desire for food Family, the desire to spend time with family 11/4/2014 19 16 Basic Desires Honor, the desire for character (moral code) Idealism, the desire for social justice

Independence, the desire for self-reliance Order, the desire for structure 11/4/2014 20 16 Basic Desires Physical Activity, the desire to move ones muscles Power, the desire for influence of will Romance, the desire for sex Saving, the desire to collect 11/4/2014

21 16 Basic Desires Social Contact, the desire for friendship Status, the desire for prestige Tranquility, the desire for inner peace Vengeance, the desire to get even 11/4/2014 22 Individuality

The 16 basic desires make us individuals. Everybody seeks all 16 goals, but individuals prioritize them differently. We are individuals to a much greater extent than many have realized. 11/4/2014 23 Reiss Profile Everybody embraces all 16 basic desires, but people prioritize, value, and combine them

differently. How a person prioritizes the 16 basic desires, called a Reiss Profile, predicts his/her grades, proneness to violence, and relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. 11/4/2014 24 16 Desires in Relationships Everyday tyranny occurs when two people priorize/ value very differently the same basic desire [universal goal, need, intrinsic motive]

02/25/2020 25 Everyday Tyranny: Ego Restriction Caregivers/ teachers with a high need for acceptance are sensitive to failure and insecure. They might minimize consumer failures by restricting participation to easy tasks, lowering expectations, and discouraging effort. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD!

02/25/2020 26 Everyday Tyranny: Practical Relevance Caregivers/ teachers with a low need for curiosity value practicality. They might teach relevant skills but not answer questions, explain things, or help consumers understand and discover the wonder of life. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020

27 Everyday Tyranny: Tasteless Food Caregivers/ teachers/ administrators with a low need for eating derive little enjoyment from meals. Underestimating how much pleasure some people derive from eating, they might provide bland, tasteless meals aimed at nourishment, not enjoyment. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020

28 Everyday Tyranny: Discipline! Caregivers/ professionals with a high need for honor tend to misinterpret impulsive actions as a lack of morality. They might think that what consumers need most is training in moral discipline. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020

29 Everyday Tyranny: Segregation High need for status motivates people to value reputation. To protect consumers from stereotypic reputation, hide them away in institutions or in special education classes. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 30

Everyday Tyranny: Paternalism Caregivers/ planners with a low need for independence underestimate how much some people value self-determination. They tend towards paternalism when planning a consumers futures, thinking parents and caregivers know best. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 31

Everyday Tyranny: Minding Own Business Caregivers/ planners with a low need for idealism underestimate how much some consumers value helping others. Instead, they teach them to mind their own business and not help peers in need. ITS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 32

EVERYDAY TYRANNY: Always Neat Rooms Caregivers with a high need for order value neatness (everything in its place). They might badger consumers to keep their rooms much neater and cleaner than the consumers themselves are comfortable with. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 33 Everyday Tyranny:

Endless Television Caregivers/ teachers with a low need for physical activity value sedentary lifestyles. They might see nothing wrong with putting a group of consumers in a day room and having them watch television all day long. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 34 Everyday Tyranny: Get Serious!

Caregivers/ teachers with a low need for social contact may frown on rowdy behavior, or when consumers have fun. They may encourage consumers to be serious more often than necessary. IT IS FOR THEIR OWN GOOD! 02/25/2020 35 Antidote: SELF AWARENESS Learn who you are (needs, values)

Learn who your consumers are (needs, values) 02/25/2020 36 REISS MOTIVATION PROFILE Reiss Motivation Profile Self-discovery tool for caregivers Reiss School Motivation Profile Self-report, ages 12 & up Reiss Motivation Profile Children Ratings scale, ages 4-11

Reiss Profile Human Needs Rating scale assessing needs IDD 02/25/2020 37 Antidote: Tolerance People tend to have the same arguments over and over. They do not resolve because they are conflicts of values. Generally, you cant change another persons values, and they cant change yours. But people keep trying anyway. When it comes to relationships, the choice is

everyday tyranny or tolerance. Endless fighting or let it go. 02/25/2020 38 Tolerance Tolerance is essential for successful human relationships, including relationships between caregivers and people with disabilities, teachers and students, and work supervisors and their employees.

02/25/2020 39 RMP Certification Training 2-day training seminar: January 10-11, 2015 in West Palm Beach, Florida Aimed at a small number of international business consultants Heavily discounted fee for a limited number of school professionals Multiple offerings based in Palo Alto, Singapore, Berlin, Vienna, Helsinki, Zurich

11/4/2014 40 Further Reading Who am I (www.amazon.com) is for educated public Human Needs and Intellectual Disabilities ( www.thenadd.org) is for counselors and coaches Reiss Motivation Profile and Myths of Intrinsic Motivation (www.idspublishing.com) are for researchers

02/25/2020 41 CONTACT INFORMATION Website: www.motivatelearning.com Email: [email protected]

Telephone: 614-885-2323 11/4/2014 42 Copyright IDS Publishing 2014 These Slides are from an IDS Webinar presented on November 4, 2014 by Professor Steven Reiss. The use of these slides is strictly limited to nonprofit educational purposes. The slides may not be reproduced, in whole or in part, for any commercial activity. The slides may

not be sold nor rented nor included in any package that is exchanged for anything of value by any person or entity without prior written permission from the copyright holder. 02/25/2020 43

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