C2 REVISION CHAPTER 1 STRUCTURE & BONDING Fill in the gaps: When two elements react together they make a _________ substance called a_________. It is _________ to separate the elements after the reaction. Some atoms react by sharing electrons. We call this _________ bonding. Other atoms react by _________ or _________ electrons. We call this _________ bonding. When atoms react in this way they get the electronic structure of a _________ gas. Use pictures and words to describe each type of bonding: Ionic Fill in this table: Ionic Compound Ratio of ions in compound Sodium chloride Na+ : Cl1:1 Magnesium oxide Formula of compound Covalent MgO Ca2+: Cl1:2 CaCl2 Metallic Fill in this table of more complicated ions: Name of ion Formula of ion Calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2 hydroxide NO3CO32Suphate Example of compound Mg(NO3)2 Sodium carbonate CaSO4 KEY WORDS: Electronic structure Covalent bonding Ionic bonding Proton Electron Ion Giant structure (lattice) Metallic bonding ASSESSMENT: C2 REVISION CHAPTER 2 STRUCTURE & PROPERTIES IONIC COMPOUNDS What type of force holds the

ions together? SIMPLE COVALENT MOLECULES Why can metals be bent and shaped? How strong are the forces between covalent molecules? [intermolecular forces] What are delocalised electrons? Draw a giant ionic lattice: How does this affect their melting and boiling point Why do ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points? GIANT METALLIC SUBSTANCES How strong are the forces between atoms in a covalent bond? [intramolecular bonds] Why do metals conduct electricity? How are polymers classified: What is nanoscience? Thermosetting: Thermosoftening: Why can ionic compounds conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water? GIANT COVALENT SUBSTANCES Why is graphite slippery and conduct electricity? KEY WORDS: Giant ionic structures Intermolecular forces Macromolecules Fullerenes Shape memory alloys Polymers Thermosetting / Thermosoftening Nanoscience ASSESSMENT: C2 REVISION CHAPTER 3 HOW MUCH? Complete the table Relative Charge Relative Mass Write how many there are in: 23

Na11 Electrons: Proton What is Ar? What is Mr? Protons: Neutron Neutrons: What is the Mr of C2H5OH? What is an isotope? Electron What is a mole? What is percentage yield and what is the equation to calculate it? What is atom economy and what is the equation to calculate it? Calculate the percentage yield of calcium carbonate when 200tonnes of limestone is used and 98tonnes of carbon dioxide is produced: How do we identify food additives? What is gas chromatography? What is mass spectrometry? Balance the equation and say how many moles of each substance there are: H2 + O2 H2O What is the symbol for a reversible reaction? Explain what happens after we add just reactants to a reversible reaction? KEY WORDS: Atomic number Mass number Isotope Relative atomic mass Relative formula mass Empirical formula Molecular formula Yield Percentage yield Reversible reaction

ASSESSMENT: C2 REVISION CHAPTER 4 RATES & ENERGY What do we mean by rate of reaction? Explain the effect of concentration on the rate of reaction Explain the effect of temperature on the rate of reaction [think about: kinetic energy & number of collisions] Draw diagrams to represent it? Draw diagrams to represent it: What 4 factors affect the rate of a reaction? What must happen for a reaction to occur? What is the smallest amount of energy that must be overcome for a reaction to occur? Low concn High concn Low temp High temp How does surface area affect the rate of reaction? What do catalysts do? Explain exothermic reactions: Explain endothermic reactions: What happens to them during a reaction? What energy changes are involved in a reversible reaction? KEY WORDS: Collision theory Activation energy Catalyst Exothermic Endothermic Thermal decomposition ASSESSMENT: C2 REVISION CHAPTER 5 SALTS & ELECTROLYSIS What is a base? What is an alkali What is produced when an acid and a metal react? What is electrolysis?

Acid + Metal What do we call the substance that is broken down during electrolysis Give a specific example: What ions make something acidic? What is the positive electrode called? What is the negative electrode called? What is another name for an acid? What is produced when an acid and a base react? P__________ D__________ What ions make something alkali? Label a diagram showing the electrolysis of copper bromide Acid + Base Give a specific example: What is the pH scale? How is electrolysis used to extract aluminium? Why to we electrolyse brine? What is electroplating? What are the half equations? How is it work? What ions are formed? KEY WORDS: Alkalis Bases Acids Neutral State symbol Indicator pH scale Salt Neutralisatio n Precipitate Electrolysis Reduction Half equation Electroplatin ASSESSMENT:

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