The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500)

The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500)

The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Lesson 2 A Muslim Empire The Muslim World and Africa (730 B.C.-A.D. 1500) Lesson 2 A Muslim Empire Learning Objectives Describe the spread of Islam. Identify the divisions that emerged within Islam.

Describe the rise of Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. Explain why the Abbasid empire declined. Islam Faces Challenges Arabs Join Together Under Islam After Muhammeds death the Muslims agree that Abu Bakr should lead them. He is named Caliph

Some Arab tribes refuse to follow Abu so he has to go and fight them to come back. After doing so he is going to reunite all of the Arab tribes under Islam Arab Muslims Win Victories The first 4 Caliphs are going to fight Byzantium and Persia They are going to take large parts of the Byzantine Empire and take out Persia completely. They will take Jerusalem Islam Faces Challenges This illustration from the 1100s shows Muslim soldiers setting up their tents by a river. Arab Muslim armies had a remarkable series of military victories under Abu Bakr and his successors.

Divisions Split Islam Differing Ideas About Leaders Some Muslims believed that Muhammeds son in law, Ali, should lead them. They were called Shiat Ali, or the Shiites The Shiites believe that the descendants of Ali and Fatima, called Imams, are empowered to interpret the Quran and Muhammeds actions The majority of the Muslims believed that a successor should

come from Muhammeds tribe. He should be a political leader called a caliph These people are going to be called Sunnis as they follow the example of the community or sunna. Divisions Split Islam

Sunni and Shiite Beliefs Both groups believe in the same God, look at the Quran for guidance, and follows the Pillars of Islam They differ on religious practice, law, and daily life. Today 90% of Muslims are Sunni The Shiites have split into sub groups When one group has been in power, it has abused the other group leading to tension in present day Sufis Emerge Sufis are Islam Mystics who seek communion with God via fasting, meditation, and other rituals. They come from both branches of Muslims They spread Islam by traveling, preaching, and being good

examples Divisions Split Islam Analyze Charts This diagram shows the common beliefs held by Sunnis and Shiites, as well as their differences. What is a belief they share? Divisions Split Islam Medina is the second holiest site in Islam. Like Mecca, it is an important part of the hijra and Muhammads journey. Both sites attract many pilgrims. Umayyad Caliphs Create an Arab Empire

The Muslim Empire Expands After taking Egypt, Muslims move across North Africa, taking it from the Byzantines. In 711 they cross into Spain and conquer it In 732 they fight in the Battle of Tours but lose there and stop

Why the Muslim Empire Succeeded The Persians and Byz. were exhausted from fighting each other Use of camel and horse cavalry defeated traditional armies Faith in Islam united all these tribes into a unified country Conquered People Under Islamic Rule They allowed Christians, Jews, and others to practice their faith but taxed them and gave them certain restrictions They prohibited of looting conquered lands but they also made Arabs not mingle with others creating an upper class Umayyad Caliphs Create an Arab Empire

Impact on North Africa The presence of the Islam led to many changes Carthage is destroyed and Kairouan is built Many mosques are built in North Africa The Development of Slavery The growth of the empire started the slave trade.

At first captives were pressed into the army Later on slaves will be purchased in West Africa and sold in North Africa The Umayyad Caliphate Declines Arabs had to learn how to rule vast areas instead of tribes Non Arabs who converted to Islam had less rights than Arabs While the caliphs grew more decadent more people complained Shiites did not believe the Umayyad should be ruling Umayyad Caliphs Create an Arab Empire Analyze Maps Islam spread across northern Africa and into the Mediterranean. Near what important city was the further spread of Islam into Europe stopped?

Umayyad Caliphs Create an Arab Empire A Jewish apothecary, or pharmacist, dispenses medicine in a Spanish market. What does this tell you about life in Muslim regions? New Rule Under the Abbasid Dynasty

The Abbasids Make Changes They are going to halt large military conquests They are going to encourage conversion to Islam and treat all Muslims fairly They are going to move the capital from Damascus to Baghdad, inside of Persian territory. The Amazing City of Baghdad Built by the 2nd Caliph al-Mansur City of Peace, Gift of God, Paradise on Earth Exceeded Constantinople on size and wealth Markets sold goods from Africa, Asia, and Europe New Rule Under the Abbasid Dynasty

A Muslim State in Spain The surviving member of the Umayyad family established an independent Muslim country in Spain Tolerant of other religions, such as in Cordoba where they had Jewish officials and asked Christians scholars to study there Muslims ruled parts of Spain until 1492 Causes and Effects of the Development of Islamic Caliphates

One cause was the emergence of Islam which helped unify the Arab tribes Another cause was the weakness of the Persian and Byz. Empires One effect was the spreading of Arabic and Islam along North Africa and Asia. In those locations today those are the leading language and religion New Rule Under the Abbasid Dynasty The Abbasid dynasty had a lasting impact on the Muslim world with its significant cultural and political accomplishments. In addition, the Abbasid capital of Baghdad remains an important city and is the capital of modern-day Iraq.

Decline of the Arab Empire Seljuk Turks Gain Control They come from Central Asia, adopt Islam, and form an empire across the Fertile Cresent. By 1055 a Seljuk sultan controls Baghdad but keeps the Caliph as

a figurehead. They fight the Byz prompting the start of the 1st Crusade Mongols Advance Through Central Asia 1216 Genghis Khan is going to lead armies out of Asia to conquer In 1258 Hulagu, his grandson, is going to loot and burn Baghdad Mongols are going to adopt Islam When the caliph dies in 1258 Islam influence will weaken until Mongol rulers convert to Islam Decline of the Arab Empire

A Divided Muslim World By the late 1200s the Arab empire is fragmented Independent Muslim states and caliphates are scattered around North Africa and Spain Just as politically divided as the Christian world Islam will continue to link diverse people around a large area Other Muslim empires will emerge to rule the Middle East and India Decline of the Arab Empire

Analyze Maps Repeated invasions from the Mongols, first led by Genghis Khan, weakened the Abbasid caliphates. Where did the invaders come from? Decline of the Arab Empire This illustration from a Persian manuscript shows the siege of Baghdad by the Mongol armies of Hulagu in 1258. Quiz: Islam Faces Challenges The Byzantines and Persians had not expected to lose land or battles to Arab Muslims because A. the newly united Arab Muslims had not posed a threat before.

B. many different groups of Arab Muslims attacked at once. C. the Arab Muslims had already lost many battles. D. Sharia prohibited the use of military force. Quiz: Divisions Split Islam Which of the following is a belief held only by the Sunni? A. B. C. D.

Any good Muslim could lead. Any pious male from Muhammads tribe could lead. Only descendants of Ali and Fatima could lead. Only Sufis could serve as leaders. Quiz: Umayyad Caliphs Create an Arab Empire The Ummayad caliphates successfully conquered and then ruled a vast empire by A. aligning with European and African forces. B. attacking weakened empires and using advanced weaponry. C. promising fewer laws and no taxes for non-Muslims. D. getting the Byzantines and Persians to submit

peacefully. Quiz: New Rule Under the Abbasid Dynasty The Abbasids made changes to the Arab Muslim empire to A. create an empire based on equality for Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. B. concentrate on further conquests and enlarge the empire to include much of western Europe. C. appeal to all classes of Muslims, people of different religions, and conquered Persians. D. give more authority to wealthy Muslims and create distinct social classes.

Quiz: Decline of the Arab Empire What events caused the decline of the Abbasid dynasty? A. The Umayyads and the Abbasids waged a civil war that destroyed the empire. B. The invaders from Spain created small kingdoms throughout the former empire. C. The Abbasid empire fragmented, and other peoples gained control. D. The Abbasids willingly gave up their lands to the Seljuk Turks and the Mongols.

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