Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 23, part

Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 23, part

Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Chapter 23, part 4 The Respiratory System PowerPoint Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Frederic H. Martini Fundamentals of SECTION 23-9 Gas Pickup and Delivery Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Blood in peripheral capillaries delivers O 2 and absorbs CO2 Reactions are completely reversible Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.20 An Overview of Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration

PLAY Animation: Respiratory Processes and Partial Pressures in Respiration Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.20a, b Oxygen transport

Carried mainly by RBCs, bound to hemoglobin The amount of oxygen hemoglobin can carried is dependent upon: PO2 pH temperature BPG Fetal hemoglobin has a higher O2 affinity than adult hemoglobin

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.21 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin Saturation Curve Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.21 Figure 23.21 The Oxygen-Hemoglobin

Saturation Curve Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.21 Figure 23.22 The Effect of pH and Temperature on Hemoglobin Saturation Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23.22a, b Figure 23.23 A Functional Comparison of Fetal and Adult Hemoglobin Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.23

Carbon dioxide transport 7% dissolved in plasma 70% carried as carbonic acid buffer system 23% bound to hemoglobin carbaminohemoglobin Plasma transport Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 23.24 Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.24 Figure 23.24 Carbon Dioxide Transport in Blood

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.24 Summary of gas transport Driven by differences in partial pressure Oxygen enters blood at lungs and leaves at tissues

Carbon dioxide enters at tissues and leaves at lungs PLAY Animation: Gas Exchange and Gas Transport Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.25 A Summary of the Primary Gas

Transport Mechanisms Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.25a, b SECTION 23-10 Control of Respiration Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Gas absorption/generation balanced by capillary rates of delivery/removal Homeostatic mechanisms maintain balance Local regulation of gas transport and alveolar function include Lung perfusion Alveolar capillaries constrict in low oxygen Alveolar ventilation

Bronchioles dilate in high carbon dioxide Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Respiratory centers of the brain Medullary centers Respiratory rhythmicity centers set pace Pons Apneustic and pneumotaxic centers

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.27 Respiratory Centers and Reflex Controls Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.27

Respiratory reflexes Respiratory centers are modified by sensory information including Chemoreceptor reflexes Level of carbon dioxide Baroreceptors reflexes Hering-Breuer reflexes Prevents overinflation Protective reflexes

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.28 The Chemoreceptor Response to Changes in PCO2 Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 23.28

Voluntary control of respiration Regulation of respiratory rate is dependent upon: Conscious and unconscious thought Emotional state Anticipation PLAY

Animation: Control of Respiration Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 23-11 Changes in the Respiratory System at Birth Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neonatal Respiration

Upon taking the first breath: Inhaled air enters the respiratory passages for the first time The bronchial tree and most of the alveoli are inflated Subsequent breaths complete inflation of the alveoli Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

SECTION 23-12 Aging and the Respiratory System Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The efficiency of the respiratory system decreases with age as: Elastic tissue deteriorates causing lower

lung compliance and vital capacity Chest movements are restricted by arthritic changes Some degree of emphysema normally occurs Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings You should now be familiar with:

The primary functions of the respiratory system The organs of the respiratory system and their functions The processes of external and internal respiration The physical principles governing the movement of air into the lungs and the diffusion of gases into the blood The important structural features of the respiratory membrane How oxygen and carbon dioxide are picked up, transported and released in the blood

Copyright 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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