Chemistry 2: Bonding, Structure and the Properties of

Chemistry 2: Bonding, Structure and the Properties of Matter 1: Bonding Key Terms Section An atom that is charged because of gain or loss of electrons. The bond between two oppositely charged ions (metal and non2 Ionic bond metal). Occurs because of electrostatic attraction. 3 Electrostatic The force that holds two oppositely charged ions together. A attraction strong force. In ionic bonding, metals lose electrons to become positively4 Metals charged ions. In ionic bonding, non-metals gain electrons to become negatively5 Non-metals charged ions. 6 Giant lattice A large 3D structure that contains a lot of bonds. 7 Covalent bond A bond formed when non-metals share electrons. A strong bond. A small group of atoms held together with covalent bonds. Not 8 Molecule charged. 9 Polymer Very large covalent compounds with many repeating units. The electrons in the outer shell of metal atoms are delocalised and 10 Metallic bonding so are free to move through the whole structure. The sharing of delocalised electrons gives rise to strong metallic bonds. A mixture of two or more elements, at least one of which is a 11 Alloy metal. E.g. steel Section 2: Ionic Bonding Section 3: Simple Covalent Molecules 16 Covalent bonding in carbon dioxide 1 Ion In ionic bonding, metals lose electrons to become positivelycharged ions. Non-metals gain electrons to become negativelycharged ions. Property Reason 12 Two representations of a giant ionic lattice. The lines represent ionic bonds. There is a strong electrostatic force between the positive and 13 High melting point negative ions in the giant lattice. A large amount of energy is needed to overcome this force. 14 Conduct electricity Ions are able to move so there is a flow of charged ions (current). when liquid/ molten 15 Do not conduct Ions are in fixed positions so cannot flow. electricity when solid O C Covalent bond O Weak intermolecular force O C O C O O Property Reason 17 Low melting and There are only weak intermolecular forces between the boiling points (usually molecules. Not much energy is needed to overcome these forces. gases or liquids) 18 Do not conduct Covalent molecules are not charged. electricity Section 4: Giant Covalent Structures Made of Carbon 19 Graphite 20 Diamond Each carbon forms 3 Each carbon forms 4 bonds to other bonds to other carbon atoms. carbon atoms. Arranged in layers with weak intermolecular forces between Section 4a: Properties of layers. Graphite Property Reason Each carbon only forms 3 bonds so one electron is delocalised. 21 Conducts These electrons are free to move and carry charge through the electricity structure. Only weak intermolecular forces exist between layers, so layers 22 Soft and slippery canof easily be rubbed off. Section 4b: Properties Diamond Property Reason 23 Doesnt conduct Diamond doesnt contain delocalised electrons or ions. electricity Each carbon bonds to 4 other carbon atoms with strong covalent

24 Very hard bonds to form a lattice. Each carbon bonds to 4 other carbon atoms with strong covalent bonds 25 High melting point to form a lattice. A large amount of energy is needed to overcome all these bonds. Section 5: Small Carbon-Based Structures Section 7: Metallic Bonding Positive metal ion Delocalised electron 26 Fullerene 27 Graphene Section 1: Properties of Metals Structure Hollow-shaped. Usually hexagonal rings of carbon 29 Fullerene atoms. E.g. Buckminsterfullerene (C60) Properties Uses Very strong. Hollow so can contain other chemicals within it. Drug delivery, lubricants. Very strong. Has delocalised electrons so it is able to conduct electricity. Cylindrical tubes of Very strong, light and 31 Carbon carbon atoms that are flexible. Has delocalised nanotube very long compared electrons so it is able to Section 6: Polymers to their diameter. conduct electricity. 30 Graphene A single layer of graphite. 28 Carbon nanotube Electronics, composites. Nanotechnology, electronics, reinforcing (e.g. tennis rackets). 36 An alloy. The layers have been 35 A pure metal. It consists of metal distorted by the presence of other ions in elements layers with delocalised electrons. 7a Properties of Pure Metals Property Reason Strong electrostatic forces between the positive ions and 37 High melting delocalised electrons. Requires a large amount of energy to points overcome. Metals have delocalised electrons. These electrons are able to 38 Conduct electricity move through the structure and carry charge. The delocalised electrons are able to move and transfer thermal 39 Conduct heat energy through the structure. The layers are able to slide over each other so the metal can be 40 Malleable bent and shaped. The attraction between the positive ions and delocalised electrons prevents the metal from shattering. 7b Properties of Alloys Property Reason 41 Harder than The layers are distorted by the presence of other elements. This metals prevents the layers from being able to slide over each other. Section 8: States of Matter 32 A polymer. The lines show covalent bonds. n is a large number. Property 34 Solid 33 Polymer molecules are held together by intermolecular forces (dashed lines) Reason Usually solid because the intermolecular forces between polymer molecules are relatively strong. 42 Solid 43 Liquid 44 Gas State symbol State symbol State symbol

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • The Article - The Simple Nominal Sentence

    The Article - The Simple Nominal Sentence

    The Article - The Simple Nominal Sentence. ... The adjective resembles the noun it modifies with regards to definiteness and indefiniteness among other things, such as number and gender. ... Words that are feminine by virtue of their meaning: امرأة،...
  • Werner & the Study of Synaesthesia - University of Dallas

    Werner & the Study of Synaesthesia - University of Dallas

    Werner & the Study of Synaesthesia By Jessica Mollner & John Petruccelli Heinz Werner Born in Vienna, Austria February 11, 1890 1908 Entered the Technische Hochsechule to study Engineering Transferred to the University of Vienna to study Musicology At University...
  • Lets Talk About Side Effects: Benefits and Risks

    Lets Talk About Side Effects: Benefits and Risks

    TD is a condition characterized by involuntary movements developing in association with the use of a dopamine receptor blocking agent (DRBA) for at least a few months . Regions affected: generally the tongue, lower face and jaw, and extremities
  • BMES WELCOME MEETING - University of Texas at Austin

    BMES WELCOME MEETING - University of Texas at Austin

    Track 1: Skills. Image and signal processing. Analog/digital network analysis. Software/hardware programming. Circuit Design. Data acquisition. Computational analysis of data in regard to living systems
  • CMPT 225 Lecture 8  Queue 1 Last Lecture

    CMPT 225 Lecture 8 Queue 1 Last Lecture

    Describe Stack . Define public interface of Stack ADT. Design and implement Stack ADT using various data structures . Compare and contrast these various implementations using Big O notation. Give examples of real-life applications (problems) where we could use Stack...
  • BARIUM SWALLOW - Radioloksabha

    BARIUM SWALLOW - Radioloksabha

    Inhibition of air entry into the stomach. Three phases - oral, pharyngeal, esophageal. Esophageal phase - primary, secondary, tertiary waves. ... Ba swallow - thin, 2- 4 mm in height, luminal opening of less than 13 mm diameter. DIVERTICULUM.
  • Cover Page Lorem Ipsum

    Cover Page Lorem Ipsum

    Slide with Text. Lorem ipsum dolor sit ametconsecteturadipiscingsed do les eiusmodtempor. Nam esdollaudicoribussusdaninulparibusiumharunt. Ibusaperum omni ...
  • Today's Warm Up

    Today's Warm Up

    Encounters with the West. Today's LEQs: . Which cultures did Europeans encounter, and how were they received? How did the Columbian Exchange affect Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans?