Native American Children and the Courts 2018 Celebrate
Native American Children and the Courts 2018 Celebrate Kids! Beverly V. Theil B. V. Theil Consulting Services P. O. Box 352 Wooster, Ohio 44691 330-465-7444 Native Americans and American Indians American Indian is the name given to the indigenous peoples of the New World by a lost Italian working for a Spanish Queen. Native American is the term given by a politically correct anthropology researcher. Both are incorrect. Most of the indigenous
peoples that were here before Columbus simply call themselves The people. There are 566 tribes within the 50 United States and its territories that are recognized by the United States government. Some are individual tribes, others are tribal groupings. The population is about 1.7 % of all US citizens There was a 39% increase in those indicating they were Native Americans from the 2000 to 2010 census Groupings American Indian tribal groupings refer to the combining of individual American Indian tribes, such as Fort Sill Apache, Mescalero Apache,
and San Carlos Apache, into the general Apache tribal grouping. For Alaska Natives, tribal groupings refer to the combining of individual Alaska Native tribes, such as King Salmon Tribe, Native Village of Kanatak, and Sunaq Tribe of Kodiak, into the general Aleut tribal grouping. Sovereignty Cherokee Nation v. State of Georgia 30 US (5 Pet.) 1 (1831) Native American/American Indian Education Handled through the Bureau of Indian Education (BIE) include an education system consisting of 183 schools educating approximately 42,000 elementary and secondary students and 28 tribal colleges,
universities, and post-secondary schools. Bureau of Indian Affairs Programs administered through the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) include social services, natural resources management on trust lands representing 55 million surface acres and 57 million acres of subsurface minerals estates. The tribes and BIA operate economic development programs, law enforcement and detention services, administration of tribal courts, implementation of land and water claim settlements, housing improvement, disaster relief, replacement and repair of schools, repair and maintenance of roads and bridges, and the repair of structural deficiencies on high hazard dams, the BIA operates a series
irrigation systems and provides electricity to rural parts of Arizona. Breeds and Half-Breeds Breed a person belonging to two different tribes (i.e. Cherokee mother and Apache father) Half-breed one Native American/American Indian parent and one white parent What is a Native American/Indian? A member of a Federally recognized tribe through having some Indian blood (can be an enrolled or unenrolled person) Different tribes require different percentages of Indian blood (ancestry)
Enrolled and Unenrolled Enrolled persons are usually registered with their tribe at birth and usually live on reservation land Unenrolled persons are of Indian/Native American ancestry but usually live off reservation land What is an Indian? (simplified) Must have some Native American/Indian ancestry That ancestry must be in a Federally recognized tribe Note: In some cases presenting themselves as a Indian in the community has been taken into consideration
Fighting Terrorism Since 1492 Indian Child Welfare Act The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), passed by Congress in 1978, intended to limit the historical practice of removing Native American children from their tribe and family and placing them in a non-Indian family or institution (25 U.S.C.A. 19011963). The stated purpose of the act is to "[p]rotect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes." The act seeks to achieve these goals through three principal methods: by establishing minimum federal standards for when Indian children can be removed from their family; by placing children who are removed in a foster or adoptive home that reflects the unique values of Indian culture; and by providing assistance to family services programs operated by Indian tribes.
A contrary law is Public Law 280 (28 U.S.C.A. 1360). This law made certain tribes in Alaska, California, Minnesota, Nebraska, Oregon, and Wisconsin subject to state jurisdiction. ICWA allows these tribes to reassume jurisdiction over child custody proceedings by petitioning the Secretary of the Interior. Adoption and Custody of Native American/Indian Children Agencies and State courts must ask in every applicable proceeding whether ICWA applies. When agencies and State courts have reason to know a child is an Indian child, ICWA procedures must be applied until a conclusive determination the child is not an Indian child. *Above from ICAW Guidelines (emphasis added)
There is no exception to ICWA based on the Existing Indian Family (EIF) doctrine. A.3.(b) includes a non-exhaustive list of factors that should not be considered when determining whether ICWA applies. This subsection is intended to ensure that the question about ICWA applicability is asked early and often until a determination is made. *Above from ICAW Guidelines (emphasis added) Exception Despite the there are no exceptions statement, there is one exception: the act does not govern custody proceedings in Divorce settlements. *Above from ICAW Guidelines
Guidelines A complete copy of the 2015 revisions to the Guidelines can be found at: http://indianaffairs.nd.gov/image/cache/ Revised_BIA_ICWA_Guidelines_Overview.pdf Sample Cases In re Adoption of S. S. & R. S., 167 Ill. 2d 250, 212 Ill. Dec. 590, 657 N.E.2d 935, involved two children of an unmarried Indian mother and non-Indian father, who had been living with their father. When the father died, his sister and brother-in-law sought to adopt the children. The mother's tribe, the Fort Peck tribe in Montana, objected and claimed jurisdiction over the proceeding. The Illinois Supreme Court ruled against the tribe, holding that because the children had never been domiciled on the mother's reservation and because the mother had
"abandoned" the children, state law preceded tribal court jurisdiction. The court thus limited the scope of the ICWA in Illinois. 1989 U.S. Supreme Court decision Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians v. Holyfield, 490 U.S. 30, 109 S. Ct. 1597, 104 L. Ed. 2d 29, which declared that because Congress had clearly enacted the law to protect Native American families and tribes, tribal jurisdiction preempted both state authority and the wishes of the parents of the children at issue. The case involved twins born off the reservation to unmarried parents, who voluntarily consented to having the children adopted by a non-Indian family. The Supreme Court ruled that children born to unmarried parents are considered to share the domicile of the mother, and since the mother in this case was domiciled on the reservation, the tribal court had jurisdiction over the placement of the children, even if it opposed the parents' wishes.
Minnesota Supreme Court in August 1994 followed the reasoning in Holyfield, rejecting a white couple's petition to adopt three Ojibwa (also called Chippewa or Anishinabe) sisters (In re S. E. G., 521 N.W.2d 357). The court ruled in favor of the Leech Lake band of Chippewa, which had contested the adoption, holding that the ICWA dictated that adopted Indian children should be raised within their own culture. Although non-Indian families may adopt Indian children in very limited circumstances if they prove there is "good cause," the court held that such good cause cannot be based on the European value of family permanence. Which of these children is NA/Indian? Tribal Land and Tribal Membership Reservation land is land given by the Federal
Government to a tribe and is referred to as tribal land. HOWEVER: Tribal land is also reservation land plus land bought by the tribe and added to the reservation land. Being born in tribal/reservation land does not make you a Native American/American Indian. Only ancestry makes you NA/AI. (emphasis added) What to do if told a child is Native American/ Indian?
Ask what tribe? Is it a Federally recognized tribe? Do they have a tribal number? Who in their family is a tribal member? Does that family member have a tribal number? What about oral history? If a family claims they have been told by older family members that they are NA/IA you can do the following: 1. Get the names and birthdates of the older family members. 2. Contact the tribal office (BIA Website has a listing) 3. Request from the tribal office a statement as to
whether these persons are tribal members. Non-tribal Resources Check to see what race was listed for family members on birth certificates, military records, arrest records, marriage records, etc. Check local Court records to see if family members have invoked their tribal rights to tribal court jurisdiction in legal matters and the request was granted. Go to State marriage/birth/death records Use genealogy programs such as Ancestry.com Go to U.S. Census records Recognized Tribes as of March, 2012 (last revision date)
Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Agua Caliente Band of Cahuilla Indians of the Agua Caliente Indian Reservation, California Ak Chin Indian Community of the Maricopa (Ak Chin) Indian Reservation, Arizona Alabama-Coushatta Tribe of Texas (previously listed as the Alabama-Coushatta Tribes of Texas) Alabama-Quassarte Tribal Town Alturas Indian Rancheria, California Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Arapaho Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming Aroostook Band of Micmacs (previously listed as the Aroostook Band of Micmac Indians) Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, Montana Augustine Band of Cahuilla Indians, California (previously listed as the Augustine Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of the Augustine Reservation) Bad River Band of the Lake Superior Tribe of Chippewa Indians of the Bad River Reservation, Wisconsin Bay Mills Indian Community, Michigan
Bear River Band of the Rohnerville Rancheria, California Berry Creek Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California Big Lagoon Rancheria, California Big Pine Paiute Tribe of the Owens Valley (previously listed as the Big Pine Band of Owens Valley Paiute Shoshone Indians of the Big Pine Reservation, California)
Elem Indian Colony of Pomo Indians of the Sulphur Bank Rancheria, California Elk Valley Rancheria, California Ely Shoshone Tribe of Nevada Enterprise Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California Ewiiaapaayp Band of Kumeyaay Indians, California Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria, California Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota Forest County Potawatomi Community, Wisconsin Fort Belknap Indian Community of the Fort Belknap Reservation of Montana
Fort Bidwell Indian Community of the Fort Bidwell Reservation of California Fort Independence Indian Community of Paiute Indians of the Fort Independence Reservation, California Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribes of the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon Fort McDowell Yavapai Nation, Arizona Fort Mojave Indian Tribe of Arizona, California & Nevada Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma Gila River Indian Community of the Gila River Indian Reservation, Arizona Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, Michigan Greenville Rancheria (previously listed as the Greenville Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California) Grindstone Indian Rancheria of Wintun-Wailaki Indians of California Guidiville Rancheria of California Habematolel Pomo of Upper Lake, California Hannahville Indian Community, Michigan Havasupai Tribe of the Havasupai Reservation, Arizona Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin
Hoh Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Hoh Indian Tribe of the Hoh Indian Reservation, Washington) Hoopa Valley Tribe, California Hopi Tribe of Arizona Hopland Band of Pomo Indians, California (formerly Hopland Band of Pomo Indians of the Hopland Rancheria, California) Houlton Band of Maliseet Indians Hualapai Indian Tribe of the Hualapai Indian Reservation, Arizona Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel, California (previously listed as the Santa Ysabel Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Santa Ysabel Reservation) Inaja Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Inaja and Cosmit Reservation, California Ione Band of Miwok Indians of California Iowa Tribe of Kansas and Nebraska Iowa Tribe of Oklahoma Jackson Rancheria of Me-Wuk Indians of California
Jamestown SKlallam Tribe Jamul Indian Village of California Jena Band of Choctaw Indians Jicarilla Apache Nation, New Mexico Kaibab Band of Paiute Indians of the Kaibab Indian Reservation, Arizona Kalispel Indian Community of the Kalispel Reservation Karuk Tribe (previously listed as the Karuk Tribe of California) Kashia Band of Pomo Indians of the Stewarts Point Rancheria, California Kaw Nation, Oklahoma
Kewa Pueblo, New Mexico (previously listed as the Pueblo of Santo Domingo) Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Michigan Kialegee Tribal Town Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma
Kiowa Indian Tribe of Oklahoma Klamath Tribes Kootenai Tribe of Idaho La Jolla Band of Luiseno Indians, California (previously listed as the La Jolla Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the La Jolla Reservation) La Posta Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the La Posta Indian Reservation, California Lac Courte Oreilles Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Lac du Flambeau Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians of the Lac du Flambeau Reservation of Wisconsin Lac Vieux Desert Band of Lake Superior Chippewa Indians, Michigan Las Vegas Tribe of Paiute Indians of the Las Vegas Indian Colony, Nevada Little River Band of Ottawa Indians, Michigan Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians, Michigan Lone Pine Paiute-Shoshone Tribe (previously listed as the Paiute-Shoshone Indians of the Lone Pine Community of the Lone Pine Reservation, California) Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla and Cupeno Indians, California (previously listed as the Los Coyotes Band of Cahuilla & Cupeno Indians
of the Los Coyotes Reservation) Lovelock Paiute Tribe of the Lovelock Indian Colony, Nevada Lower Brule Sioux Tribe of the Lower Brule Reservation, South Dakota Lower Elwha Tribal Community (previously listed as the Lower Elwha Tribal Community of the Lower Elwha Reservation, Washington) Lower Lake Rancheria, California Lower Sioux Indian Community in the State of Minnesota Lummi Tribe of the Lummi Reservation Lytton Rancheria of California Makah Indian Tribe of the Makah Indian Reservation Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester Rancheria, California (previously listed as the Manchester Band of Pomo Indians of the Manchester-Point Arena Rancheria, California) Manzanita Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Manzanita Reservation, California Mashantucket Pequot Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe of Connecticut) Mashpee Wampanoag Indian Tribal Council, Inc. (previously listed as the Mashpee Wampanoag Tribe, Massachusetts) Match-e-be-nash-she-wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians of Michigan
Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria, California Menominee Indian Tribe of Wisconsin Mesa Grande Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of the Mesa Grande Reservation, California Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Reservation, New Mexico Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Miccosukee Tribe of Indians Middletown Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, Minnesota (Six component reservations: Bois Forte Band (Nett Lake); Fond du Lac Band; Grand Portage Band; Leech Lake Band; Mille Lacs Band; White Earth Band) Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians Moapa Band of Paiute Indians of the Moapa River Indian Reservation, Nevada Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma Mohegan Indian Tribe of Connecticut
Mooretown Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California Morongo Band of Mission Indians, California (previously listed as the Morongo Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of the Morongo Reservation) Muckleshoot Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Muckleshoot Indian Tribe of the Muckleshoot Reservation, Washington)
Narragansett Indian Tribe Navajo Nation, Arizona, New Mexico & Utah Nez Perce Tribe (previously listed as Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho) Nisqually Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Nisqually Indian Tribe of the Nisqually Reservation, Washington) Nooksack Indian Tribe Northern Cheyenne Tribe of the Northern Cheyenne Indian Reservation, Montana Northfork Rancheria of Mono Indians of California Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation (previously listed as the Northwestern Band of Shoshoni Nation of Utah (Washakie) Nottawaseppi Huron Band of the Potawatomi, Michigan (previously listed as the Huron Potawatomi, Inc.)
Oglala Sioux Tribe (previously listed as the Oglala Sioux Tribe of the Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota) Ohkay Owingeh, New Mexico (previously listed as the Pueblo of San Juan) Omaha Tribe of Nebraska Oneida Nation of New York Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Onondaga Nation Otoe-Missouria Tribe of Indians, Oklahoma Ottawa Tribe of Oklahoma Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (Cedar Band of Paiutes, Kanosh Band of Paiutes, Koosharem Band of Paiutes, Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes, and Shivwits Band of Paiutes) (formerly Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah (Cedar City Band of Paiutes, Kanosh Band of Paiutes, Koosharem Band of Paiutes, Indian Peaks Band of Paiutes, and Shivwits Band of Paiutes)) Paiute-Shoshone Tribe of the Fallon Reservation and Colony, Nevada Pala Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pala Reservation, California Pascua Yaqui Tribe of Arizona
Paskenta Band of Nomlaki Indians of California Passamaquoddy Tribe Pauma Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pauma & Yuima Reservation, California Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Pechanga Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Pechanga Reservation, California Penobscot Nation (previously listed as the Penobscot Tribe of Maine) Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Picayune Rancheria of Chukchansi Indians of California Pinoleville Pomo Nation, California (previously listed as the Pinoleville Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California) Pit River Tribe, California (includes XL Ranch, Big Bend, Likely, Lookout, Montgomery Creek and Roaring Creek Rancherias) Poarch Band of Creeks (previously listed as the Poarch Band of Creek Indians of Alabama) Pokagon Band of Potawatomi Indians, Michigan and Indiana Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Ponca Tribe of Nebraska
Port Gamble Band of SKlallam Indians (previously listed as the Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, Washington) Potter Valley Tribe, California Prairie Band Potawatomi Nation (previously listed as the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Nation, Kansas) Prairie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota Pueblo of Acoma, New Mexico Pueblo of Cochiti, New Mexico Pueblo of Isleta, New Mexico Pueblo of Jemez, New Mexico Pueblo of Laguna, New Mexico Pueblo of Nambe, New Mexico Pueblo of Picuris, New Mexico Pueblo of Pojoaque, New Mexico
Pueblo of San Felipe, New Mexico Pueblo of San Ildefonso, New Mexico Pueblo of Sandia, New Mexico
Pueblo of Santa Ana, New Mexico Pueblo of Santa Clara, New Mexico Pueblo of Taos, New Mexico Pueblo of Tesuque, New Mexico Pueblo of Zia, New Mexico Puyallup Tribe of the Puyallup Reservation Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of the Pyramid Lake Reservation, Nevada Quapaw Tribe of Indians Quartz Valley Indian Community of the Quartz Valley Reservation of California Quechan Tribe of the Fort Yuma Indian Reservation, California & Arizona Quileute Tribe of the Quileute Reservation Quinault Indian Nation (previously listed as the Quinault Tribe of the Quinault Reservation, Washington) Ramona Band of Cahuilla, California (previously listed as the Ramona Band or Village of Cahuilla Mission Indians of California) Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior
Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Red Lake Band of Chippewa Indians, Minnesota Redding Rancheria, California Redwood Valley or Little River Band of Pomo Indians of the Redwood Valley Rancheria California (previously listed as the Redwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California) Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada Resighini Rancheria, California Rincon Band of Luiseno Mission Indians of the Rincon Reservation, California Robinson Rancheria Band of Pomo Indians, California (previously listed as the Robinson Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California) Rosebud Sioux Tribe of the Rosebud Indian Reservation, South Dakota Round Valley Indian Tribes, Round Valley Reservation, California (previously listed as the Round Valley Indian Tribes of the Round Valley Reservation, California) Sac & Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska Sac & Fox Nation, Oklahoma
Sac & Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa Saginaw Chippewa Indian Tribe of Michigan Saint Regis Mohawk Tribe (previously listed as the St. Regis Band of Mohawk Indians of New York)
Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian Community of the Salt River Reservation, Arizona Samish Indian Nation (previously listed as the Samish Indian Tribe, Washington) San Carlos Apache Tribe of the San Carlos Reservation, Arizona San Juan Southern Paiute Tribe of Arizona San Manuel Band of Mission Indians, California (previously listed as the San Manual Band of Serrano Mission Indians of the San Manual Reservation) San Pasqual Band of Diegueno Mission Indians of California Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Indians, California (previously listed as the Santa Rosa Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of the Santa Rosa Reservation) Santa Rosa Indian Community of the Santa Rosa Rancheria, California Santa Ynez Band of Chumash Mission Indians of the Santa Ynez Reservation, California Santee Sioux Nation, Nebraska Sauk-Suiattle Indian Tribe Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians of Michigan Scotts Valley Band of Pomo Indians of California
Seminole Tribe of Florida (previously listed as the Seminole Tribe of Florida (Dania, Big Cypress, Brighton, Hollywood & Tampa Reservations)) Seneca Nation of Indians (previously listed as the Seneca Nation of New York) Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma
Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community of Minnesota Shawnee Tribe Sherwood Valley Rancheria of Pomo Indians of California Shingle Springs Band of Miwok Indians, Shingle Springs Rancheria (Verona Tract), California Shinnecock Indian Nation Shoalwater Bay Indian Tribe of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation (previously listed as the Shoalwater Bay Tribe of the Shoalwater Bay Indian Reservation, Washington) Shoshone Tribe of the Wind River Reservation, Wyoming Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation Shoshone-Paiute Tribes of the Duck Valley Reservation, Nevada Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South Dakota
Skokomish Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Skokomish Indian Tribe of the Skokomish Reservation, Washington) Skull Valley Band of Goshute Indians of Utah Smith River Rancheria, California Snoqualmie Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Snoqualmie Tribe, Washington Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians, California) Sokaogon Chippewa Community, Wisconsin Southern Ute Indian Tribe of the Southern Ute Reservation, Colorado Spirit Lake Tribe, North Dakota Spokane Tribe of the Spokane Reservation
Squaxin Island Tribe of the Squaxin Island Reservation St. Croix Chippewa Indians of Wisconsin Standing Rock Sioux Tribe of North & South Dakota Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians of Washington (previously listed as the Stillaguamish Tribe of Washington) Stockbridge Munsee Community, Wisconsin Summit Lake Paiute Tribe of Nevada Suquamish Indian Tribe of the Port Madison Reservation
Susanville Indian Rancheria, California Swinomish Indians of the Swinomish Reservation of Washington Sycuan Band of the Kumeyaay Nation Table Mountain Rancheria of California Tejon Indian Tribe Te-Moak Tribe of Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada (Four constituent bands: Battle Mountain Band; Elko Band; South Fork Band and Wells Band) The Muscogee (Creek) Nation The Osage Nation (previously listed as the Osage Tribe) The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma Thlopthlocco Tribal Town Three Affiliated Tribes of the Fort Berthold Reservation, North Dakota
Tohono Oodham Nation of Arizona Tonawanda Band of Seneca (previously listed as the Tonawanda Band of Seneca Indians of New York)
Tonkawa Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Tonto Apache Tribe of Arizona Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indians, California (previously listed as the Torres-Martinez Band of Cahuilla Mission Indians of California) Tulalip Tribes of Washington (previously listed as the Tulalip Tribes of the Tulalip Reservation, Washington) Tule River Indian Tribe of the Tule River Reservation, California Tunica-Biloxi Indian Tribe Tuolumne Band of Me-Wuk Indians of the Tuolumne Rancheria of California Turtle Mountain Band of Chippewa Indians of North Dakota Tuscarora Nation Twenty-Nine Palms Band of Mission Indians of California United Auburn Indian Community of the Auburn Rancheria of California United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians in Oklahoma Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota Upper Skagit Indian Tribe Ute Indian Tribe of the Uintah & Ouray Reservation, Utah Ute Mountain Tribe of the Ute Mountain Reservation, Colorado, New Mexico & Utah
Utu Utu Gwaitu Paiute Tribe of the Benton Paiute Reservation, California
Walker River Paiute Tribe of the Walker River Reservation, Nevada Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) Washoe Tribe of Nevada & California Wampanoag Tribe of Gay Head (Aquinnah) Washoe Tribe of Nevada & California (Carson Colony, Dresslerville Colony, Woodfords Community, Stewart Community, & Washoe Ranches) White Mountain Apache Tribe of the Fort Apache Reservation, Arizona Wichita and Affiliated Tribes (Wichita, Keechi, Waco & Tawakonie), Oklahoma Wilton Rancheria, California Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Winnemucca Indian Colony of Nevada Wiyot Tribe, California (previously listed as the Table Bluff Reservation Wiyot Tribe) Wyandotte Nation Yankton Sioux Tribe of South Dakota Yavapai-Apache Nation of the Camp
Verde Indian Reservation, Arizona Yavapai-Prescott Indian Tribe (previously listed as the Yavapai-Prescott Tribe of the Yavapai Reservation, Arizona) Helpful Contacts and Information American Indian Law by William C. Canby, Jr.; West Publishing Company; $44. To $126 for 2014 (6th) Edition. West's Encyclopedia of American Law, edition 2. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved. BIA BIA Contact information Mailing Address: Office of Indian Services Bureau of Indian Affairs
MS-4513-MIB 1849 C Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20240 Telephone: (202) 513-7642 Telefax: (202) 208-5113 BIA Website: http://www.indianaffairs.gov/WhoWeAre/BIA/O IS/HumanServices/IndianChildWelfareAct/index. htm Helpful Publication of BIA: Guidelines for State Courts and Agencies in Indian Child Custody Proceedings Further readings Bennett, Michele K. 1993. "Native American Children: Caught in the Web of the Indian Child Welfare Act." Hamline Law Review 16 (spring).
Gallagher, Brian D. 1994. "Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: The Congressional Foray into the Adoption Process." Northern Illinois University Law Review 15 (fall). Goldsmith, Donna J. 2002."In the Best Interests of an Indian Child: The Indian Child Welfare Act." Juvenile & Family Court Journal 53 (fall): 917. Graham, Lorie. 2001. "Reparations and the Indian Child Welfare Act." The Legal Studies Forum 25 (summer-fall): 61940. Hemp, Susan J. 1996. "State Court versus Tribal Court Jurisdiction in an Indian Child Custody Case." Illinois Bar Journal 84 (April). The Indian Child Welfare Act: A Cultural and Legal Education Program. 1997. Williamsburg, Va.: National Center for State Courts. Ujke, David M. 1993."Tribal Court Jurisdiction in Domestic Relations Matters Involving Indian Children: Not Just a Matter of Comity." Wisconsin Lawyer 66 (August).
Let us put our minds together and see what life we will make for our children. Chief Sitting Bull Thank You!
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