CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop AGRICULTURE

CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop AGRICULTURE

CGE Greenhouse Gas Inventory Hands-on Training Workshop AGRICULTURE SECTOR 3A.1 AGRICULTURE SECTOR GLOSSARY AD: AI (Party): AWMWS: CRF: CS: EF: EFDB: GE: GHG: IE: IPCC: MCF: NAI (Party):

NE: NO: QA/QC: VS: Activity Data Annex I (Party) Animal Waste Management System Common Reporting Format Country Specific Emission Factor Emission Factor DataBase Gross Energy GreenHouse Gas(es) Included Elsewhere Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Methane Conversion Factor non-Annex I (Party) Not Estimated Not Occurring Quality Assurance and Quality Control Volatile Solids 3A.2

CONTENT PART 1. GUIDELINES OVERVIEW PART 2. INVENTORY ELABORATION SIMULATION 3A.3 PART 1 GUIDELINES OVERVIEW CONTENT Principles and definitions Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2000)

Emission factor database (EFDB) IPCC software 3A.4 Principles and Definitions Inventory Training Workshop, Agriculture Sector 3A.5 PRINCIPLES National GHG Inventories should be precise and reliable For this purpose, national GHG inventories should meet the need for:

Transparency Accuracy Completeness Consistency Comparability 3A.6 PRINCIPLES Transparency: assumptions and methodologies, clearly explained to facilitate replication and assessment by users of the reported information Consistency: inventory internally consistent in all its elements with inventories of other years (same methodologies for the base year and all subsequent years; consistent data sets to estimate

emissions/removals from sources/sinks) 3A.7 PRINCIPLES Comparability: emissions/removals estimates reported by AI Parties, comparable among them (methodologies and formats agreed by the Conference of the Parties (COP); allocation of source/sink categories, following the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines) Completeness: all sources/sinks and all gases included in the IPCC Guidelines, other existing relevant source/sink categories specific to an AI Party and full geographic coverage of sources/sinks of an AI Party 3A.8 PRINCIPLES

Accuracy: relative measure of the exactness of emission/removal estimate. Estimates are systematically neither over nor under true emissions/removals, as far as can be judged, and uncertainties reduced as far as practicable. Appropriate methodologies used, in accordance with the IPCC Good Practice Guidance 3A.9 SOURCE CATEGORIES Only Source Categories:

Related to animal production: Enteric Fermentation (4A): CH4 emissions from ruminants and nonruminants Manure Management (4B1): CH4 emissions from manure managed under anaerobic conditions Manure Management (4B2): N2O emissions from manure when treated under different treatment systems Related to cropping systems: Rice cultivation (4C): CH4 emissions from the surface of soils kept under anaerobic conditions to cultivate rice Related to croplands: Agricultural Soils (4D): N2O emissions from the surface of cropped soils due to anthropogenic N inputs; direct (primary) and indirect (secondary) emissions are considered Use of fire: Prescribed burning of savannas (4E): non-CO2 gas emissions due to savanna biomass burning Crop residue burning (4F): non-CO2 gas emissions due to dead biomass burning

3A.10 SUMMARY TABLE: METHODS Enteric fermentation Manure management CH4 T1 T1 Manure management N2O T1 Rice cultivation Agricultural soils Savanna burning Crop residue burning

T1 T1a T1 T1 T2 T2 T1b 3A.11 SUMMARY TABLE: GASES SECTOR/Source category CO2

CH4 N2O ENTERIC FERMENTATION X MANURE MANAGEMENT X X X1 X X AGRICULTURAL SOILS AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE BURNING

X2 X PRESCRIBED BURNING OF SAVANNAS X2 X RICE CULTIVATION X CO NOX COVNM SO2

X X X X3 X X X X3 X No method available Reported but not accounted 3 Not considered though present

1 2 3A.12 BASE DOCUMENTS Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (IPCC) Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories < www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gp/spanish/gpgaum_e s.htm > Database on GHG Emission Factors (web application through ) GHG Inventory Software for the Workbook

3A.13 Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Inventory Training Workshop, Agriculture Sector 3A.14 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES NAI Parties should use Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for estimating and reporting their GHG inventories Structure:

Volume 1: GHG Inventory Reporting Instructions Volume 2: GHG Inventory Workbook Volume 3: GHG Inventory Reference Manual Complementary Resources: IPCC Software EFDB Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines were complemented with the 2000 IPCC Good Practice Guidance

3A.15 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES General Notes on Guidelines (Agriculture) Scope: anthropogenic emissions from agricultural sources, within national territories Data Quality and Time Frame: data of relatively poor quality compared to other sectors; thus, annual figures of 3-year averages are preferred Default Method: IPCC-GL provides default methodologies, assumptions and data, but national assumptions and data are always preferred. Uncertainties reported as point estimates rather than

as ranges of values 3A.16 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Basic Principles Underlying the Guidelines (1) Documentation Standards: Besides reporting tables, report all worksheets used (with assumptions, AD, EF), and any country specific methods used, definitions, etc. Important for transparency and completeness 3A.17 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Basic Principles Underlying the Guidelines (2)

Verification and Uncertainty Assessment: Reporting instructions recommend inventory verification by a set of simple checks (to be performed by the Party) and to conduct an uncertainty assessment Important for completeness and accuracy 3A.18 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Methodologies and Reporting (1) Methods: based on various tiers: Tier 1 is the default method

For some sink/source categories, IPCC-GL provides higher tier methods National methodologies, if consistent with IPCC, are recommended over the default method Activity Data and Emission Factors: most methods are based on multiplication of AD by one or more EFs. Tier 1 methods include default EF and even default AD NAI Parties, encouraged to use agroecological unit/ national/regional EFs 3A.19 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Methodologies and Reporting (2)

Worksheets: provided in Vol. 2. With aid of IPCC software, data from worksheets is automatically converted into sectoral and summary tables. Notation Key: NAI countries are encouraged to use a notation key (i.e. NO, NE, NA, IE, C). Overview Table (8A): should be used to summarize assessment of completeness (e.g. partial, full estimate, not estimated) and quality (high, med., low) Data Completeness: in all tables, footnotes should be added to indicate the completeness of the estimates. 3A.20 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Methodologies and Reporting (3)

Uncertainties: possible causes and how to manage them are explained in Vol. 1, Annex 1. Documentation: Reports should include: Information to enable reconstruction of inventory All worksheets used in preparing the inventory Explanation and documentation of any national methods/ data used instead of IPCC default A written summary of verification procedures used, and an assessment of quality/completeness of estimates. 3A.21 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (1)

Enteric Fermentation (4A): CH4 emissions by ruminants and non-ruminants Information organized by animal species Tier 1 method based on multiplication of number of animals in each category by an EF Tier 2 method (cattle only) uses enhanced characterization of livestock, which results in estimation of annual feed intake (parameter used to estimate specific EFs) 3A.22 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (2)

Manure Management (4B): CH4 (4Ba) and N2O (4Bb) emissions from decomposition of manure during storage Information organized by animal groups and manure management systems (MMS) Tier 1 method requires livestock population data by climate region and animal waste management system and uses default EFs. Tier 2 method estimates EF from manure characteristics (VS, Bo, MCF) (for CH4 emissions from cattle, swine and sheep) 3A.23 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES

Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (3) Rice Cultivation (4C): CH4 emissions from anaerobic decomposition of organic materials in flooded fields. Any N2O emissions reported under 4D. Only one method provided AD: harvested area by rice ecosystem and water management type, use of organic amendments Basic EF estimated for permanent flooding and no organic amendments Scaling of basic EF to account for crop practices, multiple cropping, ecosystem type, water regime, addition of organic amendments, soil type 3A.24 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES

Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (4) Agricultural Soils (4D): covers N2O emissions only (no methods are provided for CH4 emissions and removals, or for N2O removals). Tier 1 method for both direct/indirect emissions Direct N2O emissions: requires AD (use of fertilizers and manure, amount of N fixed by crops, amount of crop residues returned to soil, N-fixing crops, area of cultivated histosols) and 2 EFs (one for N inputs into soil and one for cultivation of organic soils) Indirect N2O emissions: 3 sources: (a) volatilization and deposition of N in fertilizers/manure; (b) leaching and run-off of applied fertilizers/manure; (c) discharge of human sewage into rivers or estuaries 3A.25 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES

Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (4) Prescribed burning of savannas (4E): Covers N2O, CH4, CO and NOx emissions from the burning of savannas Tier 1 methods, based on estimation of AD and EF for every gas, are provided 3A.26 REVISED 1996 IPCC GUIDELINES Agriculture Sector Sink/Source Categories (4) Field burning of agricultural residues (4F): covers N O and 2 CH4 emissions for on-site burning of crop residues Tier 1 method similar to prescribed burning of savannas is provided

Other uses of crop residues (burning off-site, application to soils or as animal forage) are excluded Submodules: Cereals (wheat, barley, oats, rye, rice, maize) Pulse (peas, lentils, beans, fabas) Tuber and Root (potatoes, beets) Sugar Cane Others (fruit trees, forest trees) 3A.27 Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (2000) Inventory Training Workshop, Agriculture Sector

3A.28 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT Good Practice Guidance and Uncertainty Management in National Greenhouse Gas Inventories (referred to here as GPG2000): Chapter 1, Introduction Chapter 2, Energy Chapter 3, Industrial Processes Chapter 4, Agriculture Chapter 5, Waste Chapter 6, Uncertainty Chapter 7, Methodology Chapter 8, QA/QC Plus annexes and other general information 3A.29 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT

GHG2000 complements the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines GHG2000 includes cross-cutting issues to ensure the fulfilment of the quality requisites Quality requisites are compulsory for AI Parties and recommendable for NAI Parties 3A.30 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT Improvement due to GPG2000 mainly related to:

For completeness: consideration of all sources/sinks, gases, years, geographical coverage For accuracy: methodological focusing (method, emission factors, activity data) through source-specific decision trees uncertainty measurements at source level QA/QC procedures, which may be general or located at sectoral level For consistency: time-series development For transparency: reporting and documentation 3A.31

GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT Document mainly relates to methodological guidance for an accurate Agriculture inventory elaboration Text and presentation focused on the application of the decision trees at source level To ensure the incidence of all the cross-cutting issues (dealing with completeness, transparency, uncertainty, QA/ QC, time series), the inventory team must apply the next checklist at the source level:

is the source well covered (sub-sources, gases, years, space)? are the emission/capture estimates transparent? is uncertainty measured/estimated? are QA/QC procedures defined? 3A.32 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT Main methodological issues (linked to the decision trees): Tier (method, procedure of calculation) Emission factors Activity data:

Regularly collected statistics (AD1) Parameters (partitioning coefficients), measurable but usually not collected (AD2) Estimates = EF * AD1 * AD2 3A.33 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT It is good practice to: use country-specific tiers along with countryspecific emission factors, to better reflect national conditions have emission factor per each environmental unit of the Party use systematically and regularly published

activity data (AD1) and experimentally measured parameters (AD2) 3A.34 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT EMISSION FACTORS: Development highly costly and not easy Very few NAI Parties investing in developing some emission factors Majority of NAI Parties to use default emission factors Preference should be given to regionally obtained emission factors

3A.35 GPG AND UNCERTAINTY MEASUREMENT ACTIVITY DATA Main barrier for many NAI Parties: lack of proper activity data (updated, detailed, checked, published) Key time for NAI Parties to improve collection systems provided they are important for national planning Option for collectable data (AD1): database of international organizations (FAO, IRRI) Option for non-collectable data (AD2): IPCC defaults,

values from other countries of the region, national experts opinion 3A.36 PREVIOUS STEPS: KEY SOURCE DEFINITION (1) First step in producing national GHG inventory: Key source definition (level, trend) produced at national level For key sources, it is good practice to estimate emissions/captures applying CS or tier 2 methods and CS emission factors It allows better focusing of the financial and human resources invested in the inventory 3A.37

PREVIOUS STEPS: KEY SOURCE DEFINITION (2) NAI Parties are encouraged to fulfil this condition only if they have the AD needed for the use of a detailed methodological approach or can collect them without jeopardizing the financial resources for the whole inventory process If not, the level of detail must be reduced until a balance with the available AD is reached 3A.38 PREVIOUS STEPS: KEY SOURCE DEFINITION (3) From 2001 and 2002 AI Parties submissions,

Agriculture key sources were: Enteric fermentation (CH4) Agricultural soils (direct N2O) 94% Agricultural soils (indirect N2O) 60% Manure management (CH4) 40%

Manure management (N2O) 38% Rice cultivation, Crop residues and Savanna Burning 10 - 0% 100% 3A.39 PREVIOUS STEPS: KEY SOURCE DEFINITION (4)

If no previous information, NAI Party inventory team should assume that: CH4 emissions from Enteric Fermentation and direct N2O emissions from Agricultural Soils are most likely to be key sources, and indirect N2O emissions from Agricultural Soils will likely be a key source, devoting the best efforts to them However, some source categories may be relevant for some groups of NAI Parties: savanna burning for tropical countries with dry season crop residues burning for countries with Mediterranean climate rice production for Asian countries Inventory team should know the characteristics of the Agriculture Sector to better target the always scarce financial resources Opinion of national experts highly desirable and appreciated

3A.40 PREVIOUS STEPS: Mass balances for shared items (1) Some source categories are linked: Enteric Fermentation, Manure Management and Agricultural Soils (for animal population and manure final uses) Agricultural Soils and Burning of Agricultural Residues (crop residue final uses) Some activity data are shared (single livestock characterization, as the best way to ensure consistency)

Some activity data must be properly disaggregated to avoid double counting of emissions (manure and crop residues produced) 3A.41 PREVIOUS STEPS: Mass balances for shared items (2) Consequently: Mass balance for crop residues (fractioning according to different end uses) Mass balance for animal manure produced (direct grazing and confinement, confined manure disaggregated by AWMS) 3A.42

PREVIOUS STEPS: Estimation of significance of sub-sources (1) Consequently: Quick assessment (under tier 1) of significance of: animal species for CH4-Enteric Fermentation animal species for CH4-Manure Management anthropogenic N inputs for Agricultural Soils Single livestock characterization, applying the detail level (basic, enhanced) suggested by the species significance for the source categories 3A.43

CROP RESIDUES MASS BALANCE Crop residues Left on the field (on-site) Eaten by grazing animals Applied to soils Burned on-site Decomposed on the field Removed from the field (off-site) Used as fuel as energy Used sourceRaw (biogas)

material for building materials Feed suplemental for animals Used as house firewood Other uses Accounted under 4D. Agricultural Soils Accounted under 4F. Burning of crop residues Accounted under 1. Energy 3A.44 ANIMAL MANURE MASS BALANCE Livestock Under confinement

Open field Derived to AWMMs Used as animal feed suplement Manure for other Manure used uses (building as energy source materials) Manure applied to soils From grazing animals Accounted under 4B. Manure Management Accounted under 1. Energy

Accounted under 4.D. Agricultural Soils 3A.45 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION Livestock data, needed for several source categories: CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation CH4/N2O emissions from manure management, and N2O emissions from agricultural soils Parties with important livestock activity should produce a single characterization (enhanced/basic) of the animal species

It is also good practice to include all the animal species existing in the Party assess the contribution of each animal species to the total emission of the individual source category (enteric fermentation and/or manure management) 3A.46 DECISION TREES: Livestock characterization Cattle, buffalo, swine, (sheep), species without tier/EF Goats, horses,

mules/asses, poultry, (sheep) Recommended for species with enhanced charactererisation, when key source Required for species with high individual contribution, when key source 3A.47 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION For animal species with a significant contribution to the source emissions (25% or more), it is good practice to apply: enhanced (detailed) characterization country-specific

method/tier 2 nationally disaggregated emission factors provided there is no restriction of activity data The non-significant animal species: basic (not detailed) characterization tier 1 default emission factors Recommendation: always enhanced characterization for cattle and swine; buffalo and sheep may be included here depending on national circumstances 3A.48 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION

Basic Characterization list of livestock species and categories annual population data, by species and category average annual milk production of dairy cows percentage of animals per climate region existing in the Party 3A.49 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION Enhanced Characterization: in addition,

disaggregation of species population into homogeneous groups of animals (country-specific variations in age structure and animal performance) livestock population by species, category and subcategory feed intake estimates for a typical animal in each subcategory (used in the tier 2 enteric fermentation emissions for cattle, buffalo, and sheep) estimates should be used to harmonize the estimated manure and N excretion rates for CH4 and N2O emissions from manure management and direct/indirect N2O agricultural soil emissions 3A.50 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION Enhanced Characterization

Animal performance, used to estimate gross energy (GE) intake: amount of energy (MJ/day) an animal needs to perform activities such as growth, lactation and pregnancy It is good practice to estimate GE intake based on animal performance data If no activity data available, a survey should be conducted to determine regional livestock production patterns and regional animal distributions If not enough resources, assumptions may be based upon the opinions of experts 3A.51 SINGLE LIVESTOCK CHARACTERIZATION

Characterization of animal species without emission estimation method Some countries may have domesticated animals for which IPCC has not reported methods (llamas, alpacas, wapiti, emus, ostriches, deer, others) The IPCC good practice guidance recommends that emission estimates should be based on country-specific emission factors when they are likely to be significant emission sources 3A.52 ENTERIC FERMENTATION CH4 emissions

The decision tree for estimating CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation (Figure 4.2 in IPCC Good Practice Guidance) defines the route the individual Party should follow to produce accurate emission estimates 3A.53 Event impossible DECISION TREE: CH4 emissions from Enteric Fermentation Accuracy of estimates: Box 2 > Box 1 For significant species when not enough AD

Cattle, species with significant individual contribution to a key source Species with no significant contribution to a key source Buffalo, Sheep, Goats, Horses, Mules/Asses, Poultry 3A.54 ENTERIC FERMENTATION

if there is no domestic animal production, not occurring (NO) if enteric fermentation occurs but not key source, the recommended approach for all the species is: basic characterization tier 1 default EF however, it is recommended to use enhanced characterization and tier 2 for cattle, provided the Party has the necessary data if enteric fermentation occurs and key source, the recommended approach for the significant animal species (cattle and others) is: enhanced characterization tier 2 CS EF if enteric fermentation occurs and key source, the nonsignificant animal species can receive the basic approach: basic characterization tier 1 default EF 3A.55 ENTERIC FERMENTATION

Two methods for estimating emissions from enteric fermentation: Tier 1, simplified approach, relies on default EFs drawn from previous studies Tier 2, complex approach, requires detailed CS data on nutrient requirements, feed intake and CH4 conversion rates for specific feed types, to develop CS EFs for country-defined livestock categories CS EFs, derived from enhanced characterization. The IPCC good practice guidance provides information to develop EF for cattle and sheep (for buffalo, approach described for cattle can be applied) 3A.56 MANURE MANAGEMENT

CH4 emissions single livestock characterization provides the data to support the estimates default or CS EFs (based on manure characteristics, Bo, VS, MCF, and manure management systems), depends on the species significance decision tree defines the route the Party should follow to produce accurate estimates (Figure 4.3 in the IPCC good practice guidance) 3A.57 Event impossible DECISION TREE: CH4 emission

from Manure Management Accuracy of estimates: If key source and high individual contribution Cattle, buffalo, swine, (sheep), species without tier/EF Box 3 > Box 4 > Box 2 >

Box 1 Goats, horses, mules/asses, poultry, sheep 3A.58 MANURE MANAGEMENT From the decision tree: if no domestic animal production, then not occurring (NO) if the source occurs but not key source, emission estimates from all the species may be computed from the next approach: basic characterization tier 1 default EF if the source occurs and key source: for the significant species (normally cattle, sheep, swine): enhanced characterization tier 2 CS EFs for the non-significant species (normally, goats, camels, horses, asses, mules, poultry):

basic characterization tier 1 default EF 3A.59 MANURE MANAGEMENT Tier 1 method requires livestock population data by animal species, category, and climate region (i.e. cool, temperate, warm) Tier 2 method requires detailed information on animal characteristics and the manner the manure is managed; activity data are: volatile solid (VS) excretion rates; Country-specific VS values are based on estimated daily average feed intake, digestible energy of

the feed, and ash content of the manure maximum CH4 producing capacity of the manure (Bo), and CH4 conversion factor (MCF) Level depending on data availability and natural circumstances. Parties should make their best for tier 2 3A.60 SOME TIPS For CH4 Enteric Fermentation: Enhanced characterization and tier 2 for cattle (nondairy and/or cattle) Single characterization and tier 1 for the rest of the animal species For CH4 Manure Management:

Enhanced characterization and tier 2 for swine and cattle (non-dairy and/or cattle); exceptionally, sheep and poultry Single characterization and tier 1 for the rest of the animal species 3A.61 MANURE MANAGEMENT Main features from the decision tree: if no domestic animal production, then not occurring if the source occurs buy not key source, emission estimates for all species may come from: basic characterization default emission factors

if the source occurs and key source: for those significant species (normally cattle, sheep, swine): enhanced characterization CS emission factors for the non-significant species (normally goats, horses, camels, mules, asses, poultry): basic characterization default emission factors 3A.62 SOME TIPS: summary table ANIMAL SPECIES CHARACTERIZATION LEVEL

ENTERIC FERMENTATION MANURE MANAGEMENT methane methane SINGLE (ENHANCED) T1 (T2) T1 (T2) ENHANCED T2 T2 SHEEPS

BASIC (ENHANCED) T1 T1 (T2) GOATS BASIC T1 T1 HORSES BASIC T1 T1

MULES & ASSES BASIC T1 T1 ENHANCED T1 T2 POULTRY BASIC T1 T1 (T2) OTHERS

BASIC T1 T1 DAIRY CATTLE NON-dairy CATTLE SWINE 3A.63 MANURE MANAGEMENT N2O emissions To estimate emissions, the livestock data must come from the single livestock characterization, to determine:

annual average nitrogen excretion rate per head (Nex) for each animal species/category (T) fraction of the total annual excretion for each livestock species/category that is managed with each manure management system type (MS) N2O emission factors for each manure management system type 3A.64 Event impossible DECISION TREE: N2O emission from Manure Management

If KS Accuracy of estimates: Box 3 > Box 4 > Box 2 > Box 1 3A.65 MANURE MANAGEMENT Activity data required in addition to those necessary for the livestock characterization are:

annual average N excretion per head/category/species fraction of total annual excretion for each livestock species/category that is managed in a manure management system If no available data on the distribution of manure management systems, the Party should conduct a survey If not possible, values can be derived from expert opinions Parties are also encouraged to disaggregate the activity data for each major climatic zone 3A.66 PRESCRIBED BURNING of SAVANNAS Prescribed Burning of Savannas

IPCC describes one method to estimate non-CO2 gas emissions from savanna burning. Default activity data and emission factors are available in the Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines Among AI Parties, key source only for Australia, but very likely to be key source for many NAI Parties 3A.67 Event impossible If KS If not KS DECISION TREE: GHG emission from Savannas Prescribed Burning Accuracy of

estimates: Box 4 > Box 3 > Box 2 > Box 1 3A.68 PRESCRIBED BURNING OF SAVANNAS Main features of the decision tree (Figure 4.5 in the IPCC good practice guidance) are: if savannas do not exist, then not occurring

if savanna burning occurs, but not key source, emissions can be estimated using default factor values if savanna burning occurs and key source, emissions must be estimated using CS activity data and emission factors, provided the activity data are available and/or can be collected 3A.69 PRESCRIBED BURNING of SAVANNAS IPCC method requires:

value for the living fraction of aboveground biomass value for dead fraction of aboveground biomass value for the oxidized fraction after burning carbon fraction of living and dead biomass nitrogen/carbon ratio in the biomass combustion efficiency (molar ratio of emitted CO2 concentrations to the sum of emitted CO and CO2 concentrations from savanna fires) Non-collectable activity data (parameters): field measurements, expert judgment, default values IPCC good practice guidance refers to the IPCC Guidelines for this source category Additional information, provided in Appendix 4A.1 of the IPCC good practice guidance (describes some details of a possible future revision of the methodology) 3A.70 FIELD BURNING OF CROP RESIDUES

One method available to estimate non-CO2 gas emissions from agricultural residue burning When available, preference should be given to CS activity data and emission factors Default activity data and emission factors, available in the IPCC Guidelines and FAO database Primary uncertainty in estimating emissions of CH 4 and N2O from agricultural residue burning is the fraction of residue burned in the field Avoid double counting of residue burned off-field as energy source or other uses

IPCC good practice guidance refers to the IPCC Guidelines for this source category; additional information, in GPGAppendix 4A.2, for future revision of the methodology 3A.71 Event impossible If KS If not KS DECISION TREE: GHG emission from Crop Residue Burning Accuracy of estimates: If not CS-AD If not CS-EF If not CS-EF Box 4

> Box 3 > Box 2 > Box 1 3A.72 FIELD BURNING OF CROP RESIDUES Main features derived from the decision tree: If not allowed, then not ocurrying If allowed but not key source, estimates may arise from box 1 (default values)

use of CS-EFs (box 2) desirable If allowed and key source, then estimates may arise from box 4 (CS-EFs + CS activity data) use of box 3 (CS EFs + default activity data) is accepted 3A.73 AGRICULTURAL SOILS N inputs (origin of direct N2O emissions):

application of synthetic fertilizers (FSN) application of animal manure (FAM) cultivation of nitrogen-fixing crops (FBN) incorporation of crop residues into soils (FCR) soil N mineralization due to cultivation of organic soils (FOS) other sources, such as sewage sludge The inventory team must avoid double counting of emissions from synthetic fertilizer, animal manure, and other sources 3A.74 Event impossible DECISION TREE: Direct N2O emission from Agricultural Soils Accuracy of

estimates: FAMSS NFCCR Box 5 Box 3 > > Box 4 Box 2 > > Box 1 If not KS If KS 3A.75 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Main features from the decision -tree (Figure 4.7 in the IPCC GPG):

If no N applied to soils, then not occurring If N applied but not key source, emission estimates may arise from T1a and default data (AD, EFs) for each N input (box 1) If N applied and key source, then CS activity data must be provided for the significant N inputs For FSN, FAM, others: emission estimates should come from T1a/ b and CS data (AD, EFs) (box 5) acceptable to use default parameters and/or Efs (box 4) For FCR, FBN, FOS: emission estimates should come from T1a/b and CS emission factors (box 3)

acceptable to use default EFs (box 2) 3A.76 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Only one tier for this source Two variations: 1a and 1b, depending on the expansion of the equations Use of tier 1a or tier 1b is not related to the importance of the source but to the availability of activity data Preference should be given to tier 1b equations, which

expand the number of terms in the equations For Parties with no necessary data, the simpler tier 1a equations are acceptable Estimating emissions combining tier 1a and tier 1b equations for different N inputs is also acceptable For some N inputs, no tier 1b equations available 3A.77 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Great volume of activity data. Highly unlikely that any Party would fulfill all the requirements Activity data (collectable, field measurement): nitrogen content of substrates (manure, crop residues, sewage sludges) synthetic fertilizers: amount of nitrogen applied to soils animal manure:

nitrogen fixing crops: area of cultivated histosols sewage sludge: area of residue-producing crops, residue/crop ratios and residue percentage which is applied to soils histosols:

area of nitrogen fixing crops (pulses) and nitrogen fixing forage crops residue/crop ratios crop residues: total amount produced, disaggregated by confinement and direct grazing destination: 1) treated in animal waste management system (emissions from manure management), 2) from grazing animals (emissions from animal production), 3) manure used as fuel, 4) manure used as animal food, 5) manure applied to soils amount of sewage sludge applied to soils nitrogen content in sewage sludge partition coefficients: FRACGASF, FRACGASM, FRACPRP, FRACSEWSLUDGE, FRACFUEL-AM, FRACFEED-AM, FRACCONST-AM, FRACNCRBF, FRACDM, FRACNCRO, FRACBURN, FRACFUEL-CR 3A.78

AGRICULTURAL SOILS Indirect N2O emissions atmospheric deposition on soils of NOX and NH4+ associated with N from the different inputs (method available for synthetic fertilizers and animal manure) leaching and run-off of the N applied to soils (method available for synthetic fertilizers and animal manure) disposal of sewage N (method available for discharge of sewage N into rivers or estuaries) formation of N2O in the atmosphere from NH3 emissions originating from anthropogenic activities (no method available)

disposal of effluents from food processing and other operations (no method available) 3A.79 DECISION TREE: Indirect N2O emission from Agricultural Soils Accuracy of estimates: Event impossible If KS If not KS Box 4 > Box 3 > Box 2

> Box 1 3A.80 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Main features derived from the decision tree (Figure 4.8 in the IPCC good practice guidance): If no N application, then not occurring If yes but not key source, emission estimates can derive from the use of default ADs and EFs (box 1) Recommended to apply CS AD and EFs (box 2) If yes and key source, emission estimates must derive

from the use of CS AD, EFs and partitioning parameters (box 4) Accepted to use default emission factors (box 3) 3A.81 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Activity data (collectable, field measurement): Nitrogen content in manures and sewage synthetic fertilizers: amount of nitrogen applied as fertilizers animal manure:

total amount of animal manure produced amount of animal manure for other uses: 1) treated in animal waste management systems, accounted under manure management; 2) manure from grazing animals, accounted for under animal production; 3) manure used as fuel; and 4) manure used as animal food for sewage sludge: amount applied to soils partition coefficients: FRACGASF, FRACGASM, and FRACLEACH 3A.82 AGRICULTURAL SOILS N2O emissions from animal production (pasture, range, and paddock) Three potential sources of N2O emissions relating to animal production:

animals themselves (not accounted, assumed negligible) animal wastes during storage and treatment (accounted for under manure management) dung and urine deposited by free-range grazing animals (accounted for here) 3A.83 AGRICULTURAL SOILS Activity data can be taken from agricultural soils and manure management: the data required to estimate N2O emissions from each relevant

animal waste management system used by the Party fraction of animal populations managed as direct grazing, per animal species, and nitrogen excretion rates per animal species Methodology for N2O emissions from animal production is addressed in the IPCC good practice guidance under Manure Management It is also important that activity data come from a single livestock characterization 3A.84 RICE PRODUCTION

IPCC provides one method for estimating CH4 emissions from rice production Method uses annual harvested areas and area-based seasonally integrated emission factors. In its simplest form, the IPCC method can be implemented using national activity data (i.e. national total area harvested) and a single emission factor Method can be modified to account for the variability in growing conditions by disaggregating national total harvested area into sub-units (e.g. harvested areas under different water management regimes), provided specific emission factors are available Decision tree defines the route Parties should follow to produce accurate estimates (Figure 4.9 in the IPCC good practice guidance) 3A.85 Event impossible If KS

decision tree: CH4 emissions from Rice Cultivation If not KS Accuracy of estimates: Box 3 > Box 2 > Box 1 3A.86 RICE PRODUCTION Main features derived from the decision tree:

if no rice cultivation, then not occurring if yes but not key source, emissions can be estimated using default emission factors (box 1) recommended to use scaling factors for other factors including organic amendments if yes and key source, emissions should be estimated based on data from each cropping region, CS emission factors, and scaling factors for water management, organic amendments and soil type (box 3) accepted not to use scaling factors (box 2) 3A.87

RICE PRODUCTION Activity data on rice production and harvested area should be available in most Parties national statistics Alternate options: FAO website: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc IRRI's World Rice Statistics (e.g. IRRI, 1995) As cultivation area statistics may be biased, Parties are encouraged to verify their harvested area statistics with remote sensing data Parties are encouraged to complete a survey of cropping practices to obtain data on the type and amount of organic

amendments applied 3A.88 IPCC Software Inventory Training Workshop, Agriculture Sector 3A.89 IPCC software Intended to help in preparing GHG inventories Based on Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines Available at:

www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/public/gl/software.htm Contains the same worksheets as in IPCC Guidelines Workbook (Microsoft Excel environment) Main advantage: automation of calculations and preparation of reporting tables 3A.90 IPCC software Structure: Program is organized in several workbooks, corresponding to Overview and each of 6 sectoral modules Overview Workbook

Contains 18 sheets corresponding to basic inventory data, sectoral reports, Summary Report and Overview Table Sheets can either be filled in manually (if country does not use IPCC methodology) or automatically updated with information introduced into sectoral worksheets Overview tables (Table 8A) must be filled in manually 3A.91 IPCC software Overview Workbook Sheet containing basic inventory information Sheets with sectoral report tables Sheets with Summary Tables IPCC software

Agriculture Workbook To open workbook: click on Sector on menu bar, then click on Agriculture Contains 22 sheets corresponding to the different worksheets included in IPCC Guidelines, Vol. 2 While completing the sector worksheets, the sectoral and summary tables in Overview workbook will be filled in automatically. 3A.93 IPCC software Workbook Agriculture First sheet

Emission Factor Database (EFDB) Inventory Training Workshop, Agriculture Sector 3A.95 Emission factor database (EFDB) General issues: Quality of national GHG inventories depends on reliable EFs and activity data Although EFs reflecting national circumstances are recommended, development is expensive, timeconsuming and necessitates a wide degree of expertise

Process exceeds the capacity of the majority of the NAI Parties Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines and good practice guidance provide default EFs for almost all the sources/sinks: some are region or country specific, but not all regions or countries are covered 3A.96 Emission factor database (EFDB) General issues Sharing of research information would enable countries to use or develop EFs more applicable to specific circumstances than the IPCC defaults without bearing the associated research costs Many countries indicated that an easily accessible public database on GHG EFs with supporting scientific information would improve the quality of the inventories in a cost-effective way and support the future review/update of the IPCC

Guidelines This project was initiated in 2000 and a prototype database was constructed in January 2002 Prototype subjected to pilot testing by a number of inventory experts from different countries and improvement 3A.97 Emission factor database (EFDB) Objectives to be a recognized library of GHG emission factors and other parameters to contain background documentation or technical

references of emission factors and other parameters to serve as a communication platform for distribution and commenting on new data from research and measurement 3A.98 Emission factor database (EFDB) Researchers and the members of the scientific community may incorporate their own findings, such as emission factors and other parameters For that, contact the Task Force Bureau Technical Support Unit (TSU) at [email protected] New data will be evaluated for acceptance by the

EFDB Editorial Board In the end, the responsibility for using this information appropriately will always remain with the users themselves 3A.99 Emission factor database (EFDB) Criteria for Inclusion of new data robustness: value unlikely to change, within the accepted uncertainty, if original measurement programme or modelling activity is repeated applicability: an EF can only be applicable if the source and its mix of technology, operating and environmental conditions and abatement and control technologies are clear and allow

the user to see how it can be applied documentation: access information to the original technical reference is provided to evaluate the robustness and applicability as described above 3A.100 Emission factor database (EFDB) EFDB Editorial Board Sergio Gonzlez (Chile) 3A.101 Emission factor database (EFDB) Data contained in the EFDB

At present, EFDB contains only the IPCC default data and data from CORINAIR94 For Agriculture, data come mainly from the IPCC: Total of 1,387 inputs 1,303 inputs from IPCC 84 inputs from CORINAIR94 87.2% devoted to CH and N O 4 2 New data will be provided by the scientific and inventory community, and evaluated for acceptance by the EFDB Editorial Board 3A.102 Emission factor database

(EFDB) Data in the EFDB Energy Industrial Processes Solvent and Other Product Use Agriculture LUCF Waste TOTAL IPCC CORINAIR 3088 2249 232 220 0 61 1303 84

716 0 331 22 5670 2636 TOTAL 5337 452 61 1387 716 353 8306 3A.103 Emission factor database (EFDB)

Ways to access Web application http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp/EFDB/main.php for all users to carry out on-line searches for data providers to submit new EFs or other parameters core of this system and new data will be made available here first CD-ROM for all users (in particular those who have difficulty with Internet connection) to carry out off-line searches 3A.104

EFDB Local CD-ROM application Install the software, then this icon will appear on the desktop of your computer. 3A.105 EFDB local CD-ROM application EFDB local CD-ROM application works with Microsoft Access MDB file, which contains the copy of the on-line web database The latest MDB file will be made available Through the Internet: At the "Downloads" section of the web application

In the form of CD-ROM: Will be distributed annually or biannually, possibly on the occasion of sessions of SBSTA or COP 3A.106 EFDB web application 3A.107 EFDB web application Search Function: Find EF 3A.108 3A.109 3A.110 3A.111 3A.112

3A.113 3A.114 3A.115 3A.116

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