IAO June 2013 Representations = ideas, documents, oil

IAO June 2013  Representations = ideas, documents, oil

IAO June 2013 Representations = ideas, documents, oil paintings; always about something Representational units = the smallest representations (atoms of representation) here we have both reference and meaning Information units = the coding units which allow representations (e.g. letters of the alphabet) here we have copyability

Generically Dependent Continuant Independent Continuant Information Bearing Entity (IBE)

Information Content Entity (ICE) Information Structure Entity (ICE) Specifically Dependent

Continuant Information Quality Entity (Pattern) (IQE) ICE generically-depends-on IBE ISE generically-depends-on IBE IQE specifically-depends-on IBE ICE concretized-by IQE ISE concretized-by IQE

types of information entities FictionalWork = ICE that is about types through descriptions of fake instances Prescriptive: Scores Descriptive: ICEs whose primary intention is to describe not necessarily true Deceptive: ICEs whose primary intention is to deceive

Information Content Entity ICE =def. a GDC that is intended to be about something Information Quality Entity IQE = def. a quality which concretizes an ICE A pattern of qualities is also a quality it is a complex quality An IQE is a pattern of qualities E.g. the pattern

aaaaaaaaaa Information Bearing Entity IBE = def. an independent continuant (a material entity) in which an IQE inheres In brief: an IBE is a physical bearer of an IQE an IQE is the pattern on a bearer in virtue of which it is a bearer of some information entity. Example

An information artifact is found: a text message on a piece of paper in which certain portions have been intentionally blacked out IBE: the piece of paper, the ink on the paper IQE: the pattern inhering in the collection of small piles of ink (with readable and non-readable subpatterns) ICE: the information content entity = of what is now accessible to the user What about the blacked out portions? ICE = a GDC that is intended to be about something

What is it to be about something? Causal theory of reference Primacy of the mental Meaning vs. aboutness vs. force vs. phonetics Author vs. user

The something must exist, but not necessarily in the present. Julius Caesar is about Julius Caesar When planning a family, we use expressions which are intended to be about entities existing in the future Aboutness can be inherited from expressions used when an object is present to expressions used (perhaps 1000s of years later) when the object is absent Cases

Obituries on file Protocol for creating a molecule Journalist who phones it in Werner: Eisenhower letter about the failure of the D-Day invasion was not about the failure of the D-Day invasion

Primacy of the Mental Presupposition: Some mental acts are about targets A text T is about target a means: there is a reliable procedure whereby a cognitive agent can read the text in such a way as to have mental acts about a ICE = GDC that is intended to be about something Simplest case: The something exists, and author intention and user intention coincide.

Julius Caesar case (the something did exist) cases in which the something does not exist, but in which the definition is still satisfied A database in which most entries correspond to what actually exists, but 1 entry involves an error (you enter data for the same terrorist twice, and your system automatically generates a 2nd entry) ICEs in fictional works are about types of human personality, experience, life event, ... A proper name is used by the author of a fictional work to designate (roughly) a character (typical, generic instance) of a certain type. A proper name created by a terrorist organization and used by this organization in ways which are intended to bring about beliefs (for example

on the part of intelligence analysts) that a corresponding terrorist exists. (Author intention vs. user intention) Author vs. user A proper name created by a terrorist organization and used by this organization in ways which are intended to bring about beliefs (for example on the part of intelligence analysts) that a corresponding terrorist exists. (Author intention vs. user intention) Author intention vs. user intention

John is an American and authors 01/01/01 to be about the 1st of January 2001. Mary is an Englishwoman who reads what John has written and understands it to be about the same day. But for Mary, the first 01 refers to a day, where for John it refers to a month. ICEs are GDCs, thus by definition copyable Because ICEs are built through use of repeatable symbols in a code, as in:

aaaaaa Characteristic of such symbols is that they resolve down to atoms (smallest symbols letters of the alphabet, punctuation marks, spaces between words; pixels; ) Information Unit (IU) IU =def. A GDC which 1. is not an ICE (thus is not about anything and is not intended to be about anything) 2. is taken from a finite code set

3. is combined with other items from this code set according to rules to create an ICE 4. has no proper part which satisfies 1. 3. [How deal with a hieroglyphic alphabet?] Some IUs are purely structural Structural Information Unit =def. An IU which 1. is (or can be) combined with one or more ICE to create another ICE, and 2. contains no proper part satisfying 1. E.g. punctuation marks, cell borders in a

spreadsheet, a single letter of blacked-out text Information Structure Entity (ISE) ISE =def. a connected totality of one or more Structural Information Units Examples: a blacked out area of text an entire empty spreadsheet (organized totality of cells) a blank pixel array (organized totality of pixels)

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