Chapter 21.1 Plant evolution and Adaptations Plant Characteristics

Chapter 21.1 Plant evolution and Adaptations Plant Characteristics

Chapter 21.1 Plant evolution and Adaptations Plant Characteristics Multicellular Autotrophic Eukaryotes Tissues and organs

Green Algae to Plants Scientists think modern plants may have evolved from Green Algae because of similar characteristics I Spy What are the differences between these two Autotrophs? Green Algae

Giant Redwood Similarities of Plants and Algae Cell walls w/ Cellulose Same type of Chlorophyll Food stored as starch Enzymes in vesicles Similar genes in rRNA Cell division w/ cell plate

Similar but not the same What do you think plants needed to adapt to life on land? A: Bones of course B: Reproduce by air and land not water C: Fed Ex sends weekly care packages of water D: Wet suit the air dries me out!

4 Plant Adaptations to Land Cuticle Prevents drying out Barrier to microbes 4 Plant Adaptations to Land

Stomata Allows for gas exchange 4 Plant Adaptations to Land Vascular tissue Allows for

movement of nutrients & water Provides support 4 Plant Adaptations to Land Seeds Survive harsh

conditions Food for developing embryo Alteration of Generations Gametophyte produces haploid (n) gametes Sporophyte produces diploid

(2n) spores Kingdom Plantae Nonvascular 1. 2. 3. Bryophytes- Moss Antherocerophytes- Hornworts Hepaticophytes- Liverworts

Vascular without seeds 4. 5. 6. Lycophytes- Club mosses Spenophytes - Horsetails Pterophytes- Ferns Vascular with seeds 7.

8. 9. 10. 11. Cycadophytes- Cycads of sago plants Gnetophytes- Joint firs Ginkophytes- Ginkgoes Coniferophytes- Pines Anthophytes- Flowering plants Chapter 21.2

Nonvascular Plants Nonvascular Plants Small Requires water Found in damp, shady areas

3 Divisions of Nonvascular plants Bryophyta- Moss Anthocerophyta- Hornworts Hepaticophyta- Liverworts Gametophyte is dominant Division Bryophyta One cell thick leaf-like

structures Rhizoids for anchorage Peat used for fuel, retain moisture for gardeners Moss Division Anthocerophyta One large chloroplast in each cell

May have symbiotic relationship with cyanobacteria Hornwort Division Hepaticophyta Unicellular rhizoids Thallose fleshy, lobed structures Leafy stems with

thin leaf-like structures in rows liverwort Thallose vs Leafy Two kinds of Liverwort Thallose Leafy

Chapter 21.3 Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Have Vascular Tissue Larger than Non-vascular Better adapted to drier environments Strobilus spore bearing structure Sporophyte is dominant Division Lycophyta and Pterophyta (Sphenophyta)

Division Lycophyta Sporophyte is dominant Have roots, stems,

and small, scaly leaf-like structures Some are epiphytes lives anchored to another plant or object Club mosses Division

Pterophyta/Sphenophyta Horsetails or scouring rushes Cell walls of silica Only one genus = Equisetum Horsetails - Equisetum

Division Pterophyta Thick underground stem rhizome (food storage) Fronds with sporangia underneath (sorus)

ferns Chapter 21.4 Vascular Seed Plants Vascular Seed plants Vascular tissue Cotyledons food storage for embryo

Seed dispersal Wind, water, animal Sporophyte- dominant life cycle Male gametophyte: Pollen Female gameophyte: Egg Produce Seeds

Gymnosperms: Naked Seed without fruit. Ex: Pines, fir trees Angiosperms: Seeds are part of the fruit Ex: Apples, peaches, blackberries 5 Divisions of Seed Plants Division Cycadophyta Division Gnetophyta Division Ginkgophyta Division Coniferophyta Division Anthophyta

Division Cycadophyta Separate male and female plants Found in tropical and subtropical environments

Cycad Division Gnetophyta Live 1500 2000 years

3 genera Ephedra bush Ephedrine medicine Found in US Gnetum - trees & climbing vines Welwitschia two large leaves

Division Ginkophyta One living species: Ginkgo biloba

Fan shaped leaves Separate male and female trees Tolerate pollution Division Coniferophyta Shrubs and trees Economically useful Lumber, paper,

turpentine Male and female cones on same tree Scalelike leaves with cutin

Evergreen lose leaves throughout the year Leaves Evergreen- Keep some green leaves all year

Deciduous- Lose leaves once a year Division Anthophyta Flowering plants Angiosperms

2 kinds of angiosperms Monocots One seed leaf Parallel veins in leaves Flowers in multiples of 3s Monocot examples: grasses, orchids, lilies, and palms

Dicots/Eudicots Two seed leaves Netted veins in leaves Flowers in multiples of 4s or 5s Dicot examples: maples, oaks, sycamores Eudicot examples: trees, shrubs, flowering plants Life span of plants

Annual - live for one year Most are herbaceous (green stems) Have drought resistant seeds Examples: corn, wheat, peas, and squash Biennial - live for two years Have large storage roots Produce flowers in the second year Examples: carrots, beets, and turnips

Perennial live for many years Usually flower once a year Examples: maples and oaks

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