Chapter 21.1 Plant evolution and Adaptations Plant Characteristics
Chapter 21.1 Plant evolution and Adaptations Plant Characteristics Multicellular Autotrophic Eukaryotes Tissues and organs
Green Algae to Plants Scientists think modern plants may have evolved from Green Algae because of similar characteristics I Spy What are the differences between these two Autotrophs? Green Algae
Giant Redwood Similarities of Plants and Algae Cell walls w/ Cellulose Same type of Chlorophyll Food stored as starch Enzymes in vesicles Similar genes in rRNA Cell division w/ cell plate
Similar but not the same What do you think plants needed to adapt to life on land? A: Bones of course B: Reproduce by air and land not water C: Fed Ex sends weekly care packages of water D: Wet suit the air dries me out!
4 Plant Adaptations to Land Cuticle Prevents drying out Barrier to microbes 4 Plant Adaptations to Land
Stomata Allows for gas exchange 4 Plant Adaptations to Land Vascular tissue Allows for
movement of nutrients & water Provides support 4 Plant Adaptations to Land Seeds Survive harsh
conditions Food for developing embryo Alteration of Generations Gametophyte produces haploid (n) gametes Sporophyte produces diploid
Seed dispersal Wind, water, animal Sporophyte- dominant life cycle Male gametophyte: Pollen Female gameophyte: Egg Produce Seeds
Gymnosperms: Naked Seed without fruit. Ex: Pines, fir trees Angiosperms: Seeds are part of the fruit Ex: Apples, peaches, blackberries 5 Divisions of Seed Plants Division Cycadophyta Division Gnetophyta Division Ginkgophyta Division Coniferophyta Division Anthophyta
Division Cycadophyta Separate male and female plants Found in tropical and subtropical environments
Cycad Division Gnetophyta Live 1500 2000 years
3 genera Ephedra bush Ephedrine medicine Found in US Gnetum - trees & climbing vines Welwitschia two large leaves
Division Ginkophyta One living species: Ginkgo biloba
Fan shaped leaves Separate male and female trees Tolerate pollution Division Coniferophyta Shrubs and trees Economically useful Lumber, paper,
turpentine Male and female cones on same tree Scalelike leaves with cutin
Evergreen lose leaves throughout the year Leaves Evergreen- Keep some green leaves all year
Deciduous- Lose leaves once a year Division Anthophyta Flowering plants Angiosperms
2 kinds of angiosperms Monocots One seed leaf Parallel veins in leaves Flowers in multiples of 3s Monocot examples: grasses, orchids, lilies, and palms
Dicots/Eudicots Two seed leaves Netted veins in leaves Flowers in multiples of 4s or 5s Dicot examples: maples, oaks, sycamores Eudicot examples: trees, shrubs, flowering plants Life span of plants
Annual - live for one year Most are herbaceous (green stems) Have drought resistant seeds Examples: corn, wheat, peas, and squash Biennial - live for two years Have large storage roots Produce flowers in the second year Examples: carrots, beets, and turnips
Perennial live for many years Usually flower once a year Examples: maples and oaks
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