Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/4) Biology

Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/4) Biology

Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/4) Biology Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and chromatids Warm Up Question: 1. Meiosis is a type of cell division that produces: a. zygotes b. chromosomes c. DNA d. gamete 2. A cell with diploid number of 24 undergoes meiosis,

how many are in each daughter cell a. 6 b. 12 c. 24 d. 48 To Do Today: Complete meiosis handout Review for cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis unit test Homework: unit 4 cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis test Tuesday

Fact of the Day As an adult, you have more than 6 square meters (20 sq ft) of skin on your body about the same are as a blanket for a queensized bed. Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/5) Biology

Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and chromatids Warm Up Question: Homework: unit 4 cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis test Tuesday 46 Fact of the The Barbados

Day female Threadsnake is A person with 2 X chromosomes is a Humans have ______chromosomes? ___ male A person with XY chromosomes Prophaseis1 a ___ Crossing over occurs during To Do Today :

____________ phase. Cell cycle, mitosis and meiosis unit test the smallest snake in the world. Sciensational.co m Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/6&7) Biology Biology Learning Goal:

Warm Up Question: What is DNA? Explain. To Do Today: DNA extraction Lab Activity Begin coloring DNA model Homework:N one Fact of the Day Your blood vessels, if laid end to end, would encircle the globe twice over.

Today in Week #4 Quarter 2 (11/8) Biology Homework: Have a great 3 day weekend Biology Learning Goal:Overview of chapter 6 progress rpt next Genes, DNA, Chromosomes and week chromatids Warm Up Question: reflection and Fact of the

turn in! Day Turtles and sea What is something you learned or found interesting cucumbers can breathe through while doing the DNA their butts extraction lab activity. To Do Today: Lab report directions finish coloring DNA After Quiz Create title page for

next unit pg 14 Begin coloring DNA pieces Title Page HISTORY OF GENETICS AND DNA DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID DNA Structure handout (s) 6

To Do Today Fri Nov 9 Scales pg. 1-complete to week 4 Complete DNA structure pg. 15 Introduction to DNA pg. 16 Genetics and DNA video Warm Up: complete reflection turn in How did you do on test? How are you doing so far? Home work: None 5

DNA structure 8 Page 16 Introduction to DNA 1. What is genetics? 2. 1/3 of the recipe for a human being is the same as a ______. 3. 2/3 of our recipe is shared with ______. 4. Basic building block of life is the _____. 5. _____ carries the recipe for life. 6. What are genes? 7. What is genotype? 8. What is phenotype? 9. How long is all our DNA if we could stretch it out?

10. If we were to print a paper with As, Ts, Gs and Cs making our genetic code how many pages would it be? How many letters? Analysis of genetics and structure of DNA http://www.dnatube.com/video/2341/Genetics--The-structure-of-DNA--PART-1 Genes Genetics and DNA video A DNA HISTORY

An experiment in 1928 by Frederick Griffith: He removed DNA from one type of bacteria & put it into a 2nd type of bacteria. The 2nd bacteria took on the characteristics of the 1st bacteria. Page 31 QUESTION # 1 WHAT DID GRIFFITHS EXPERIMENT INDICATE ABOUT DNA? Page 31

AND THE ANSWER IS. DNA CARRIES THE GENETIC INFORMATION THAT DICTATES AN ORGANISMS CHARACTERISTICS. Page 31 THE STRUCTURE OF DNA In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick were accredited to discovering the structure of DNA. Watson, Crick, and Maurice Wilkins were awarded the Nobel Prize for Physiology

But should they have and Medicine in received the credit??? 1962. Rosalind Franklin Franklin refined the technique of X-ray crystallography to study DNA and produced the famous photo 51. From photo 51 she determined that DNA had to be a double helix. Her partner, Maurice

Wilkins, shared photo 51 with Watson & Crick, who published the results before Franklin. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rjW-dZBPCsQ&feature=related chromosomes which are located in the nucleus Its shape is a twisted double helix DNA is genetic material that carries information about an organism and is passed from parent to offspring.

(Blueprint of life) Found in the nucleus of cells. Tightly coiled DNA makes chromatin & chromatin makes chromosomes. Every organisms DNA is different except clones & identical twins. DNA contains the genetic code of the organism - the instructions that tell the cell and the whole living thing what proteins to produce. The proteins that

a cell makes control what that cell does - the cell's function. This code is based on the code from that organism's parents. DNA is made of chemical building blocks called nucleotides. These building blocks are made of three parts: a phosphate group, a sugar group and one of four types of nitrogen bases. To form a strand of DNA,

nucleotides are linked into chains, with the phosphate and sugar groups alternating. The structure of DNA is a twisted double helix (twisted ladder). page 36 There are two kinds of nitrogen-containing bases purines and pyrimidines.

Purines: Adenine and Guanine Purines are the larger of the two types of bases found in DNA Pyrimidines:

Cytosine and Thymine Adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and RNA Nitrogen Bases Adenine always pairs with Thymine A-T

or T-A Cytosine always pairs with Guanine G-C or C-G To Do Today Mon Nov 19

Complete video questions- photo 51 Complete DNA extraction lab and handout ----* turn in*--Complete pg 18- ID Genetic material Complete pg 19- Structure of DNA Complete pg 20- Concept map Warm Up- pick up concept map copy slide on onto back of concept map handout Page 21-back of There are two kinds of nitrogencontaining bases - purines and concept map pyrimidines. Nitrogen Purines: Bases Adenine and Guanine Purines are the larger of

the two types of bases found in DNA Pyrimidines: Cytosine and Thymine Adenine and guanine are found in both DNA and Agenda Organize notebook Check work Tue Nov 20 Warm Up 1. Describe the 3 parts of a DNA nucleotide

phosphate group, a sugar and a nitrogen base A, T, G, C 2. Suppose a strand of DNA has the nucleotide sequence C C A G A T T G. What is G G T C TAA C complementary strand? Wed Nov 21 To Do Today Complete checking assignments Notebook organized Review Practice Quiz Adenine always pairs with

Thymine A-T or T-A Cytosine always pairs with Guanine G-C or C-G

WATSON & CRICK AMOUNT OF BASE PAIRS PURINE FRANKLIN & WILKINS DOUBLE HELIX REPLICATION PYRAMIDINE

DNA PLOYMERASE NITROGEN BASE handout PHOSPHATE 5 CARBON SUGAR 5 Agenda Tue Nov 29

Review puzzle due at end of period Finish notes on DNA replication Handout activity Warm Up - page 38 What is the complementary strand of the following RNA strand: 5' GCACGUUUACCGA 3' ? a) 3' AUGCGUUUACCGA 3' b) 3' CGUGCAAUGGCU 5' c) 3' AGCCAUUUGCGUA 5' d) 3' TACGCAAATGGCT 5' e) none of the above. Homework: Puzzle and handout due Wednesday

7 How DNA decides our traits A gene, is a section of the DNA strand that gives the code for one protein. The proteins coded for in each gene dictate how an organism will develop: regulate cell processes, construct muscle & bone, fight diseases Protein Synthesis The production (synthesis) of polypeptide chains (proteins)

Two phases: Transcription & Translation mRNA must be processed before it leaves the nucleus of eukaryotic cells 2 DNA RNA Protein DNA Transcription mRNA

Ribosome Translation Protein Prokaryotic Cell 3 DNA RNA Protein Nuclear membrane

DNA Transcription Eukaryotic Cell Pre-mRNA RNA Processing mRNA Ribosome Translation Protein 4

AntiParallel Strands of DNA 14 First We Need RNA Ribose Nucleic Acid Similar to DNA but: smaller and single stranded The sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose Contains all the same bases

except thymine is replaced with uracil (so RNA has G, C, A, U) Tue Dec 6 Agenda Make sure DNA fingerprinting Act. Is complete and turned in Notes on Transcription and Translation (RNA) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=983lhh20rGY Warm Up page42 Why do you think protein synthesis research has been focused to prokaryotes rather than eukaryotes? HomeworkDec 16

Any missing work next Fri There are 3 kinds of RNA used in protein synthesis: mRNA (messenger RNA) rRNA (ribosomal RNA) tRNA (transfer RNA) Now that we know about DNA and RNA we can learn Protein Synthesis. Protein Synthesis is the process of making a protein from DNA. It has 2 parts: Transcription and Translation.

Transcription- (scribe) The synthesis of mRNA from a DNA blueprint. This occurs in the nucleus, then the mRNA travels out of the nucleus. Translation The information in the o mRNA is translated by a ribosome (made of rRNA), who reads it.

o Transfer RNA (tRNA) enters the ribosome to drop off an amino acid. oA chain of amino acids then exits the ribosome and folds into a protein. How does the tRNA match up to the mRNA: Codon & Anticodon CODON: three consecutive nucleotides in mRNA. Each codon codes for a single amino acid.

ANTICODON: three consecutive nucleotides in tRNA that pair to a codon. copy DNA Replication DNA Transcription Protein Synthesis

RNA Translation Protein How DNA determines everything in our body. Transcription Translation 28 The mRNA is read by sections of 3

letters called Codons. Start & Stop Codons START CODON= tells the ribosome to start translating the mRNA. STOP CODON= tells the ribosome to stop translating the mRNA. Protein Synthesis

Messenger RNA (mRNA) o Carries the information for a specific protein o Made up of 500 to 1000 nucleotides long o Sequence of 3 bases called codon o AUG methionine or start codon o UAA, UAG, or UGA stop codons 40 Messenger RNA (mRNA) start codon A U G G G C U C C A U C G G C G C A U A A

mRNA codon 1 protein methionine codon 2 glycine codon 3 serine codon 4 isoleucine codon 5

codon 6 glycine alanine codon 7 stop codon Primary structure of a protein aa1 aa2 aa3

peptide bonds aa4 aa5 aa6 41 Transfer RNA (tRNA) o Made up of 75 to 80 nucleotides long o Picks up the appropriate amino acid floating in the cytoplasm o Transports amino acids to the mRNA o Have anticodons that are complementary to mRNA codons

o Recognizes the appropriate codons on the mRNA and bonds to them with Hbonds 42 Transfer RNA (tRNA) amino acid attachment site methionine amino acid U A C anticodon 43

Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) o Made up of rRNA is 100 to 3000 nucleotides long o Made inside the nucleus of a cell o Associates with proteins to form ribosomes 44 Ribosomes o Made of a large and small subunit o Composed of rRNA (40%) and proteins (60%) o Have two sites for tRNA

attachment --- P and A 45 Ribosomes Large subunit P Site A Site mRNA Small subunit

A U G C U A C U U C G 46 Translation Synthesis of proteins in the cytoplasm Involves the following: 1. mRNA (codons) 2. tRNA (anticodons) 3. ribosomes

4. amino acids 47 Translation Three steps: 1. initiation: start codon (AUG) 2. elongation: amino acids linked 3. termination: stop codon (UAG, UAA, or UGA). Lets Make a Protein ! 48 mRNA Codons Join the Ribosome

Large subunit P Site A Site mRNA A U G Small subunit C U

A C U U C G 49 Initiation aa2 aa1 2-tRNA 1-tRNA anticodon hydrogen bonds

U A C A U G codon G A U C U A C U U C G A mRNA 50 Elongation peptide bond

aa1 aa3 aa2 3-tRNA 1-tRNA anticodon hydrogen bonds U A C A U G codon

2-tRNA G A A G A U C U A C U U C G A mRNA 51 aa1 peptide bond aa3 aa2

1-tRNA 3-tRNA U A C (leaves) 2-tRNA A U G G A A G A U C U A C U U C G A mRNA

Ribosomes move over one codon 52 aa1 peptide bonds aa2 aa4 aa3 4-tRNA 2-tRNA

A U G G A U C U A 3-tRNA G C U G A A C U U C G A A C U mRNA 53 peptide bonds aa1

aa4 aa2 aa3 2-tRNA 4-tRNA G A U (leaves) 3-tRNA A U G

C U A G C U G A A C U U C G A A C U mRNA Ribosomes move over one codon 54 peptide bonds

aa1 aa5 aa2 aa3 aa4 5-tRNA U G A 3-tRNA G C

U 4-tRNA G A A G C U A C U U C G A A C U mRNA 55 peptide bonds aa1 aa5

aa2 aa3 aa4 5-tRNA U G A 3-tRNA G A G C A U

4-tRNA A C U G C U U C G A A C U mRNA Ribosomes move over one codon 56 aa4

aa5 Termination aa199 aa3 primary structure of a protein aa2 aa200 aa1 200-tRNA

A C U C A U G U U terminator or stop codon U A G mRNA

57 End Product The Protein! n The end products of protein synthesis is a primary structure of a protein n A sequence of amino acid bonded together by peptide bonds aa2 aa1 aa3 aa4 aa5 aa199

aa200 58 SUMMARY OF PROTEIN SYNTHESIS A section of DNA opens Free floating nucleotides connect up to one side of the DNA making mRNA (Transcription). The mRNA travels out of the nucleus & into the cytoplasm.

A ribosome reads the mRNA and pairs the codon of mRNA with the anticodon of tRNA, which drops off amino acids to make a chain. (Translation) The chain of amino acids exits the ribosome and folds up = protein! Agenda Wed Dec 7 1. Protein Synthesis activity 2. Protein Synthesis Worksheet 3. What is your DNA analysis? Activity Warm Up page42 Which RNA are codons and anticodons attached to?

Homework- Quiz Friday Any missing work next Fri Dec 16 Fri Dec 9 2. Unlike DNA, RNA contains a. the sugar deoxyribose b. the nitrogen base uracil c. a phosphate group d. nucleotides Home work: None Amino Acid Shape &

Color Amino Acid Shape & Color Lysine Orange Square Valine Blue Triangle Asparagine

White Diamond Alanine Red Star Arginine Blue Circle STOP Red Octagon Serine Red Triangle

Tryosine Yellow Triangle Isolucine Green rectangle Trytophan White triangle Methionine Yellow square

Cysteine Brown Oval Threonine Green star Leucine Pink square Glutamic Acid Purple Circle Phenylanine

Pink circle Aspartic Acid Black diamond Glutamine Purple rectangle Glycine White oval Histidine

Red circle Proline Brown Triangle Proteins Proteins are made of 20 different amino acids. The sequence of amino acids varies between each protein, and tells it how to fold, giving the protein its shape. What if something goes wrong in coding?

MUTATIONS (an error in DNA) CAN OCCUR WITH JUST A SINGLE BASE PAIR CHANGE. SUBSTITUTION- when a TA pair is replaced by a GC pair in DNA. -If it occurs in a specific location, for instance, in the CFTR gene, it will cause cystic fibrosis. BASE DELETIONS & INSERTIONS- when base pairs are added or removed from the gene. BASE

MUTATIONS OCCUR DURING DNA REPLICATION. MUTATIONS (an error in DNA) USUALLY THE ERROR IS EDITED OUT BY THE DNA POLYMERASE (proof-reader), AND FIXED BY THE REPAIR ENZYMES. MUTAGENS- An environmental factor that damages DNA and are most likely to blame for

mutations. EX: ultra violet rays & chemicals in cigarette smoke nuclear radiation Mutation is the alteration of DNA sequence, whether it be in a small way by the alteration of a single base pair, or whether it be a gross event such as the gain or loss of an entire chromosome. It may be caused through the action of damaging chemicals, or radiation, or through the errors inherent in the DNA replication and repair reactions. One consequence may be genetic disease. However, although in the short term mutation may seem to be a BAD THING, in the long term it is essential to our existence. Without mutation there could be no change and without change life cannot evolve. If it had not been for mutation the world would still be covered in primeval slime!

WHAT IS DNA MADE UP OF? NUCLEOTIDES STRUNG TOGETHER IN A PARTICULAR ORDER. Each nucleotide contains : Deoxyribose (5- carbon sugar) Phosphate Nitrogen base -Adenine -Guanine -Thymine -Cytosine

HOW IS THE STRUCTURE OF DNA ORGANIZED The sides of the DNA ladder are alternating sugar (deoxyribose) and phosphate. The steps (rungs) of the DNA ladder are the pairs of nitrogen bases. adenine always pairs with thymine (A-T) cytosine always pairs with guanine (G-C) GIVEN THE FOLLOWING: ADENINE CYTOSINE THYMINE ADENINE GUANINE GUANINE CYTOSINE THYMINE -

STATE WHAT NITROGEN BASE WOULD PAIR WITH THESE NITROGEN BASES. AND THE ANSWER IS ADENINE CYTOSINE THYMINE ADENINE GUANINE GUANINE CYTOSINE THYMINE - THYMINE GUANINE ADENINE THYMINE CYTOSINE CYTOSINE GUANINE ADENINE

OR AT CG TA AT GC GC CG T- A Replication DNA Transcription

RNA Translation Protein How DNA determines everything in our body. DNA REPLICATION DNA REPLICATION http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072507470/student_view0/chapter3/animation__dna_replication__quiz_1_.html DNA REPLICATION Before a cell can divide

(mitosis) it must make an exact copy of its DNA (interphase). If it doesnt make an exact copy you could end up with a nose coming out of your ear!!! DNA Replication is how DNA makes more of itself. Enzymes aid in this process.

What is an ENZYME?? An enzyme is a complex protein that speeds up a reaction There are 2 important enzymes used in DNA replication Polymerase Helicase HELICASE: unzips the DNA molecule POLYMERASE: Bonds the complementary nucleotides that are floating around in the

nucleus to the existing DNA strand Making a new DNA is like making a new zipper by using the old zipper as a model. A zipper is a little simpler than DNA because a zipper only has one kind of tooth, and DNA has four (A, T, C, G). The first thing the DNA does is unwind, then it un-zips to pull the two strands apart. What helps it unzip? The REPLICATION FORK is the point

at which the chains separate. HELICASE!!! There are free floating nucleotides in the nucleus. Because the nitrogen bases fit together only in specific pairs, the free nucleotides line up in the proper order all by themselves! Polymerase bonds the paired bases to make exact copies of the DNA.

And when this is done, there are two exact DNA molecules! Each with one old strand and one new strand! Do you see how the new DNA strands are exact copies of old strands? Summary of DNA Replication : 1. DNA is unzipped by helicase and the two strands are exposed. The REPLICATION FORK is the point at which the chains separate. 2. Free floating nucleotides come over and properly line up (attach) with their partner (A with T, and G with C). 3. Polymerase bonds the paired bases together. 4. The result is two exact daughter molecules of DNA, each with one old strand and one new strand.

Agenda DNA extraction Wed Nov 30 activity-due at end of period Complete and turn in handouts puzzle and replication due at end of period. Warm Up - page 38 If the sequence of bases on one side of a DNA molecule is TTAGCCT, the correct sequence of the letters on the complementary side of the DNA molecule is: A. AGGCTAA

C. AGGCTAA B. AATCCGA D. AATCGGA Homework: None How DNA determines traits A gene is a section of the DNA strand that gives the code for one protein. The proteins coded for in genes dictate how an organism will develop, regulate cell processes, construct muscle & bone, fight RNA

Ribonucleic Acid Similar to DNA but: Single stranded Sugar is ribose instead of deoxyribose Contains same bases except thymine is replaced with uracil (so RNA has G, C, A, U) There are 3 types of RNA: mRNA (messenger RNA) carries code out of the nucleus tRNA (transfer RNA) reads code and carries amino acids to mRNA rRNA (ribosomal RNA) part of

structure of a ribosomal HOW IS THE STUDY OF DNA BEING USED TODAY? PHARMACUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY Uses bacteria to produce medicines & enzymes for food production. -Chymosin (used to make cheese) -Insulin -Vaccines -Identifies new potential medicines AGRICULTURAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Introduces new traits into plants for specific benefits. -growing plants with more nutrients -plants being more resistant to pests -grow more food on less land TO HELP THE ENVIRNONMENT -fewer chemical applications -reduced killing of beneficial insects -less need to add fertilizers -reduced chemical runoff in lakes & streams. -decreased soil erosion

INDUSTRIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY -Oil-eating bacteria -Biodegradable plastic -Silk -Vitamins DNA FINGERPRINTING Technique used to identify individuals IN CLOSING

DNA contains the instructions for making an organism, including YOU!!!! Your DNA determines how you look, what blood type you have, even your tendency to get some diseases. Each chromosome contains a strand of DNA Almost every cell in your body contains the same DNA & same genes. QUESTION #3 WHAT CELLS IN YOUR BODY DO NOT CONTAIN ALL OF YOUR DNA.

AND THE ANSWER IS YOUR GAMETES (only have half) AND MATURE RED BLOOD CELLS (dont have any).

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