The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation

The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation

The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation the need for new infrastructure rnulf Jan Rdseth MSc Research Director, MARINTEK [email protected] Norsk Marinteknisk Forskningsinstitutt The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation the need for new infrastructure Existing communication systems Basic overview of current requirements Emerging requirements from e-Navigation and e-Maritime Summary and conclusions

Four main communication "channel types" Inmarsat/VSAT GNSS/SARSAT etc. AIS/VHF (HF,MF) Land commercial Dedicated (narrow band) shore/ship and ship/ship data links (AIS, DSC, VHF, HF, MF ) Dedicated (narrow band) satellite (GNSS, EPIRB, LRIT, SSAS, SafetyNET , AISSat ) Commercial shore to ship (GSM, WiMax, WiFi ) Commercial satellite services (Inmarsat, Iridium, VSAT ) M2M message based (also Orbcomm) Internet type data link

Existing shore based systems Cell phone systems Work well in ports Less good along coast (# subscribers) Problem with roaming-agreements WiFi Deployed in some ports Simple access and low cost equipment Limited range Operates in non licensed band CDMA 450 Deployed in Norway and some other countries

Long range, good bandwidth Licensed frequencies Large cells 4 WiMAX Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access 10 20 km range 256k to 5 Mbps Standard end user equipment (Intel) May use specialized base stations

2.3 to 5 GHz Last mile system at west coast of Norway orkidenett.co m Commercial service in Singapore: WISEPORT www.qmax.com.sg 5

AIS or DSC ? AIS has an effective bandwidth of about 6 kbps / 25 kHz channel DSC supports 1.2 kbps on VHF AIS and DSC have dedicated purposes and should not be used for other purposes without proper consideration to potential problems. However, both could be used given that additional frequencies are assigned. Digital VHF Existing VHF Channels

Up to 70 km range 9 Channels 22 kbps/channel (4 * AIS) High reliability Message type Very interesting for e-Navigation Same properties as VHF, AIS and other GMDSS components Can use same land infrastructure Low cost system and equipment Telenor Maritim Radio

7 Different modulation schemes proposed ITU Recommendation M.1842 22 kbps / 25 kHz Channel (0.84 bit/Hz) Use one single VHF channel per digital channel Operate on low Signal / Noise : Long range and high reliability Document 5B/19, ITU Working Party 5B 153 kbps / 50 kHz Channel (3.1 bit/Hz) Require two adjacent VHF channels Require much better S/N: Probably shorter range and lower reliability

New developments look at e-Navigation applications (VDE) Six channels proposed (25, 85, 26, and 86, 24 and 82 for operations) Merged channels for higher bandwidth Split channels for more diversity 8 VDE can also be used in ship ship coordination Port approach Emergencies etc

BW Gas Kystverket New MF-NAVDAT service proposal ITU-R M.2010 495 to 505 kHz (MF) Expected effective bit rate 12-18 kbps Additional to NAVTEX Same time slot scheme? NAVTEX has 100 bps at 518 kHz Satellite systems: GEO: Geostationary Earth Orbit PO R 178o E

Benefits (Inmarsat and other VSAT) Close to global coverage Satellite is stationary relative to earth Drawbacks Weak signal Latency Shadows 35 786 km

IO R 6 4 o E o A O R -W 5 4 W A O R -E 1 5 o3 0 ' W Polar regions Fjords Ship movement Rain fading (Ku) NTNU/Odd Gutteberg www.marcom.no

11 Satellite systems LEO: Low Earth Orbit www.iridium.com Iridium Orbit hight 780 km, 66 satellites Also some other less relevant systems Globalstar (1400 km / 48 satellites) Orbcomm (775 km / 29 satellites)

Benefits Signal strength Low latency Global coverage Drawbacks Complexity Commercial viability ? Doppler shift effects Relatively low bandwidth www.marcom.no 12

Communication technology in Arctic High Elliptic Orbit (Molnyia) Low Earth Orbit (Iridium) Various other concepts NTNU/Odd Gutteberg The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation the need for new infrastructure Existing communication systems Basic overview of current requirements Emerging requirements from e-Navigation and e-Maritime Summary and conclusions

Main classes of "mandatory" ship communication Low bandwidth data exchanges: GNSS, EPIRB, DGPS, EGNOS, DSC, SSAS, LRIT ... Basic position and safety services Ship movement, AtoN via AIS, VTS advice Navigational advice Other safety or security related information via AIS,

Maritime information NAVTEX, SafetyNet , ice warnings Ship reporting, port reports, waste reports Updates to critical documents and data on board, e.g., notice to mariners, ECS, certificates ... Mandatory ship reporting Documentation updates Main classes of "commercial" ship communication

Operational reporting, e.g., voyage reports, port Operational reporting reports ... Technical and operational support, technical Operational support systems diagnostics, technical monitoring, KPI transfers, remote interventions ... Crew infotainment, CBT, e-mails, Internet access

... Data transfers related to payload, e.g., cargo (container monitoring), passengers (Internet access) or special missions (hydrographic, seismic) Crew infotainment Payload data exchange Today's mandatory communication patterns

Narrow band mandatory information Requirements are more or less driving technology, i.e., they match Some spare capacity in AIS, but basic capacity is only about 6 kbps/channel with binary messages Mandatory ship reporting Can be done over 9.6 kbps Inmarsat C system or voice Document update Over satellite or in port need fairly high bandwidth

Today's commercial communication patterns Other reporting requirements Important for efficient operation. More and more ships are on line, but one may manage without: Coastal (GSM) or satellite need fairly high bandwidth Operational support Increasing, but not common used if satellite capacity allows Crew infotainment An important force in deployment in VSAT use all available

resources The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation the need for new infrastructure Existing communication systems Basic overview of current requirements Emerging requirements from e-Navigation and e-Maritime Summary and conclusions e-Navigation and e-Maritime e-Navigation Focus on nautical aspects (IMO domain) International

e-Navigation E-Navigation prioritized applications Solution 1: Improved, harmonized and user-friendly bridge design Solution 2: Means for standardized and automated reporting Solution 3: Improved reliability, resilience and integrity of bridge equipment and navigation information Solution 4: Integration and presentation of available information in graphical displays received via communication equipment. Solution 9: Improved Communication of VTS Service Portfolio. E-Navigation prioritized applications

Solution 1: Improved, harmonized and user-friendly bridge design Solution 2: Means for standardized and automated reporting Solution 3: Improved reliability, resilience and integrity of bridge equipment and navigation information Solution 4: Integration and presentation of available information in graphical displays received via communication equipment. Solution 9: Improved Communication of VTS Service Portfolio. Estimated demands for automated reporting Normalized bandwidth of 100 000 kbps 10/100/250 ships in open sea/coastal/port approach Mean utilization of channel All messages are unicast

Rdseth .J., Kvamstad B. Digital Communication Bandwidth requirements for Future e-Navigation Services, European Journal of Navigation, Vol. 7, No. 1, April 2009. www.mits-forum.org Estimated demands for other possible e-Navigation communication Normalized bandwidth of 100 000 kbps 10/100/250 ships in open sea/coastal/port approach Mean utilization of channel All messages except yellow are unicast, these are broadcast Rdseth .J., Kvamstad B. Digital Communication Bandwidth requirements for Future e-Navigation Services, European Journal of Navigation, Vol. 7, No. 1, April 2009.

www.mits-forum.org Satellite or coastal infrastructure ? A2B: Authority to Business Requirements will have to satisfy minimum requirements Services should be "free" Satellite may be shaded in ports or fjords and in the high north. VDE (VHF Data Link) may be made as low cost equipment, e.g., integrated with AIS or VHF radio. Port state authorities may want to have control over infrastructure and frequencies may have to be standardized.

VDE + NAVDAT is most likely? e-Navigation and e-Maritime e-Navigation Focus on nautical aspects (IMO domain) International e-Navigation e-Maritime e-Maritime Wider scope: Maritime transport European

Unmanned or shore supported ships ? Estimated from 75 kbps to 4 Mbps dependent on mode May operate without link for some time, will "fail to safe" Investigated in EU-project MUNIN: www.unmanned-ship.org Satellite or coastal infrastructure ? B2B: Business to Business Requirements driven by commercial operations Services need not be "free" Not mission critical and may tolerate drop outs in some areas Will be part of systems to also cover crew infotainment and other high capacity demands.

No need for port state authorities to have control over infrastructure or to allocate specific frequencies. Satellite is most likely! The role of digital communication technology in e-Navigation the need for new infrastructure Existing communication systems Basic overview of current requirements Emerging requirements from e-Navigation and e-Maritime Summary and conclusions Summary and conclusions

e-Navigation will require some dedicated and additional bandwidth. This will mostly be near to shore or in port approaches. AIS will generally not have capacity, has its own dedicated purpose and is not very bandwidth efficient. VDE seems to be most promising alternative, given that IMO and ITU agrees. Reuse of some VHF voice frequencies will give sufficient additional bandwidth. MF/NAVDAT can be a supplement at longer distances. E-Maritime will most likely rely on satellite or high speed terrestrial systems.

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