Chapter 5.3 Lipids: Fats & Oils AP Biology

Chapter 5.3 Lipids: Fats & Oils AP Biology Lipids long term energy storage concentrated energy AP Biology 2006-2007 Objectives:

Describe the general structure and function of fats, phospholipids, and steroids. Compare and contrast a saturated vs. unsaturated fatty acid. Describe why a phospholipid is both hydrophilic and hydrophobic. Describe the physiological role of steroids (cholesterol and sex hormones) AP Biology

Lipids Lipids are composed of C, H, O long hydrocarbon chains (H-C) Family groups fats phospholipids steroids Do not form polymers big molecules made of smaller subunits

not a continuing chain AP Biology Fats Structure: glycerol (3C alcohol) + fatty acid fatty acid = long HC tail with carboxyl (COOH) group head enzyme

H2O dehydration synthesis AP Biology Building Fats Triacylglycerol (AKA triglyceride) 3 fatty acids linked to glycerol ester linkage = between OH & COOH hydroxyl AP Biology

carboxyl Dehydration synthesis H2O dehydration synthesis enzyme H2O enzyme H2O AP Biology

enzyme HO Fats store energy Long HC chain Why do humans like eating fatty foods? polar or non-polar? hydrophilic or hydrophobic? Function:

energy storage concentrated all H-C! 2x carbohydrates cushion organs insulates body AP Biology think whale blubber!

Saturated fats All C bonded to H No C=C double bonds long, straight chain most animal fats solid at room temp. contributes to cardiovascular disease (atherosclerosis) = plaque deposits AP Biology

Unsaturated fats C=C double bonds in the fatty acids plant & fish fats vegetable oils liquid at room temperature the kinks made by double bonded C prevent the molecules from packing tightly together

AP Biology mono-unsaturated? poly-unsaturated? Saturated vs. unsaturated saturated unsaturated AP Biology Explain why this statement is FALSE:

Unsaturated fats have more hydrogens than saturated fats. AP Biology Phospholipids Structure: glycerol + 2 fatty acids + PO4 PO4 = negatively charged Its just like a penguin A head at one end

& a tail at the other! AP Biology Phospholipids Hydrophobic or hydrophilic? fatty acid tails = hydrophobic PO head = hydrophillic 4 split personality

Come No, go Come No, go AP Biology attracted to water here, away! here, away!

interaction with H2O is complex & very important! repelled by water Phospholipids in water Hydrophilic heads attracted to H2O Hydrophobic tails hide from H2O can self-assemble into bubbles bubble = micelle can also form a phospholipid bilayer early evolutionary stage of cell?

water bilayer AP Biology water Why is this important? Phospholipids create a barrier in water define outside vs. inside they make cell membranes!

Tell them about soap! AP Biology Steroids Structure: 4 fused C rings + ?? different steroids created by attaching different functional groups to rings different structure creates different function

examples: cholesterol, sex hormones cholesterol AP Biology Cholesterol Important cell component animal cell membranes precursor of all other steroids including vertebrate sex hormones AP Biology

high levels in blood may contribute to cardiovascular disease Cholesterol Important component of cell membrane helps keep cell membranes AP Biology fluid & flexible From Cholesterol Sex Hormones What a big difference a few atoms can make!

AP Biology Lets build some Lipids! AP Biology 2006-2007 Ghosts of Lectures Past (storage) AP Biology

2007-2008 Phospholipids & cells Phospholipids of cell membrane double layer = bilayer hydrophilic heads on outside in contact with aqueous solution outside of cell and inside of cell

hydrophobic tails on inside form core forms barrier between cell & external environment Tell them about soap! AP Biology

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