SCSU Student Opinion on Social, Political, and Health

SCSU Student Opinion on Social, Political, and Health

SCSU Student Opinion on Social, Political, and Health Issues : 37th Annual Spring Student Survey Who We Are The SCSU Survey is an ongoing survey research extension of St. Cloud State University. The Surveys faculty directors are:

Dr. Jim Cottrill Political Science Dr. Ann Finan Sociology Dr. Monica Garcia-Perez Economics Dr. Sandrine Zerbib Sociology Dr. Hemmesch-Breaker- Psychology Student Directors Lead Director:

Landry Kabore-Political Science and International Relations. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso Assistant Lead Director: Elizabeth Pawelk-Anthropology. Lester Prairie, MN Jack Spaeth-Spanish and Planning and Community Development. Montevideo, MN Student Directors: Josefina Abdullah- Sociology. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Ansai Fatou Bio-Sawe-Sociology and Statistics. Cotonou, Benin. Cedric Filiyaro- Political Science and International Relations. Saint Cloud, MN

Emily Herne- Applied Sociology. McHenry, IL. Statement of Methodology Student Callers and Ethics The callers came from the classes of Drs. Zerbib and Cottrill. Everyone underwent a general training session.

Student callers signed a statement of ethics. Student directors also signed a statement of ethics. As part of ethics practices, students of the sample were notified via email one week before calling that they may be contacted by the Survey Center.

SCSU Survey Lab The SCSU Survey operates a Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI) Lab on the St. Cloud State University campus. The CATI Lab is equipped with 19 interviewer stations. The SCSU Survey is licensed to use Sawtooth Softwares Ci3 Questionnaire Authoring Version 6.0, a state-of-the-art windowsbased computer-assisted interviewing package. The Calling

The sample was obtained from David Kosel, Center for Information Systems. Findings are based on telephone interviews with a representative sample of currently enrolled SCSU students. Before calling began, the original sample was comprised of 2200 students, including 600 dorm residents and 1,600 off-campus residents. A second sample of 400 international students was drawn in March to correct an error in the original sample. The sample was almost exclusively cell phones, with a small number of dorm phones. Interviews were conducted from February 21st to February 27th, 2017, and on March 18th.

Calls were made at various times during the week (Monday through Thursday, 4:30pm to 9:30pm, on Saturday 11am to 4pm and on Sunday 4pm to 8pm) to maximize contacts and ensure equal opportunities to respond. Demographics Sex Percent

Ethnicity Percent Age Percent

Female 52 American Indian or Alaska Native 0.3

Under 18 3 Male 47

18-19 22 Asian 6

20-21 27 22-24 23

25-29 12 30-34 5

9 Standing Percent Black or African American

6 Freshman 15 Latino/a or Chicano/a

3 Sophomor e 18 0.0

35+ Junior 19 Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific

Islander Senior 27 International

12 Percent Graduate 15

White 67 Resident Status Resident

79 Special 6 Two or More Races

3 NonResident 21 Sample Error 653 respondents completed the survey.

The margin of sampling error for the complete set of weighted data is 2 percent at the 95 percent confidence level. Then analysis is made of sub-samples such as respondent gender, dorm residence, etc., the sample error may be larger. Cooperation and Response Rate The cooperation rate for the survey was 79%. The cooperation rate is determined by dividing the number of completed

interviews (653), by the total of completed interviews, partial interviews, and refusals. The overall response rate for the survey was 29%. The response rate is determined by dividing the number of completed interviews (653), by the total of completed interviews, partial interviews, refusals, non-contacts, plus 90% of the cases with Topics covered in the Survey

Government funded healthcare Perception of media and media preference Perception of Trump administration and job performance Refugees and Immigration Electoral college Energy policy and type of town Safety and belongingness on campus

Students Attitudes Toward Syrian and Somali Refugees Questions related to attitudes toward Syrian and Somali refugees 1. Do you support Minnesota welcoming Syrian refugees? 2. Do you support Minnesota welcoming Somali refugees?

Negative Attitudes toward Muslim Immigrants Hypothesis: I predict that those who approve of the immigration ban will have a lower support toward Minnesota welcoming Syrian refugees. There has been much negative focus on Islam and Muslims in public debates in the West in recent decades. Muslims often receive negative attention in the mass media and public discourse and are simultaneously seen as the ethnic other (Strabac, Aalberg, and Valenta 2014).

Integrated threat theory - conflict in worldviews (Ceballos, and Yakushko 2014). Personal Contact with Immigrants Hypothesis: I predict that International students will have a stronger support toward Minnesota welcoming Syrian refugees. Contact theory suggests that personal interaction between members of different groups result in lower levels of prejudice and negative attitudes toward immigrants (Francois, and MagniBerton 2013). A meta-analysis based on over 200 studies of contact hypothesis in friendship, work and

neighborhood arenas found that contact had beneficial effects in reducing prejudice (Ward, Students Attitudes on Government Funded Healthcare Should the Government provide Healthcare for everyone? Hypothesis: I predict students who support the immigration ban will be less likely to support

government funded health care. Through longitudinal data from the Associated Press, Henderson and Hillygus show that there is a strong relationship between racial resentment and opposition to universal health care (2011). Previous literature explains attitudes about social groups are important determinants of Americans opinions about public policy matters (Gollust and Lynch 2011: 1062). Partisanship and Government Funded Healthcare

I hypothesize students that rate Trumps performance as excellent will not support government funded healthcare Supported by the Social Identity Theory. The us versus them mentality has great implications on public opinion and policy (Willen 2012). Students Attitudes On Trumps Overall Performance

National view on Trump performance A national survey by Pew Research Center on Trumps overall performance: 39% approve 56% disapprove Question related to Trumps overall performance

1. How would you rate the overall performance of Donald Trump as President? Would you rate his performance as excellent , pretty good, only fair, or poor? Hypothesis Trumps performance by Sex. I predict that male are more likely to view Trumps performance as Excellent or Good, while female are more likely to view his performance as Poor.

According to BBC, 53% of men versus 42% of women voted for Trump. Trump often targets minority groups such as Women, LGBT, Immigrants... N = 575 Hypothesis Trumps performance by Race.

I predict that White students are more likely to view Trumps performance as Excellent or Good, while students of Color are more likely to view his performance as Poor. According to BBC, Trump gets 58% of White voters versus 8% of Blacks and 29% of Hispanics and Asians. Students Views on the Trump Presidency and the Political Role of Place

Questions Related to the Political Role of Place Was the city or town you lived in while attending high school in an urban, suburban, or rural area? How would you rate the overall performance of Donald Trump as President? Would you rate his performance as excellent, pretty good, only fair, or poor?

The Political Role of Place Hypothesis: The further communities are from urban centers the more conservative the citizens of those communities will be Current literature is not developed for suburban and rural politics, though urban politics is a well developed field employed by politicians and social scientists Current literature supports hypothesis that urban communities will have more liberal citizens (do not support Trump) and suburban and rural having more conservative citizens

(support Trump) N=639 N=546 N=671

N=611 Conclusions Hypothesis is supported by findings Students from urban areas are much more likely to believe Trump is doing a worse job than those from suburban and rural areas St. Cloud State students largely do not believe Trump is doing a good

job Students of color are much more likely to think Trump is doing a worse Students views on the Presidential Election Process Question related to electing the U.S. President

For electing the president, should the U.S. keep the Electoral College system or elect the national popular vote winner? Presidential election process A pattern has emerged over the past presidential elections in which younger age groups are more prone to vote Democratic and older age groups especially seniors age 65 and older are more prone to vote Republican Many studies of legitimacy in democratic societies assess attitudes towards current

institutions by examining levels of satisfaction with democracy or trust in governments Findings show that people will support reform of presidential elections based on the interest of their state (long-term factors) and will change their opinions about reform based on electoral outcomes (short-term factors) Scholars have found that those who lose under the existing rules will favor change, while the winners will favor the status quo (Anderson and LoTempio 2002; Banducci and Karp 2003; Bowler and Donovan 2007; Karp 2007; Tolbert, Smith, and Green 2009)

N = 636 N = 612 N = 637 N = 636

Students Feeling of Safety on Campus Questions Related to Safety on Campus On a scale from 1 to 5, how safe do you feel on campus at night, with 1 being very unsafe and 5 being very safe? In which of the following areas on or around campus do you feel

most concerned regarding your personal safety? Coborn Plaza= 2% Residential district between 5th Avenue and 9th Avenue= 17% No area of concern= 24%

Never been to campus= 3% 5% 5% 7% 23%

N=623 16% Comparison to Previous Years N=616 Stress & Independent Living in College Students

College stress. Belongingness/social support & stress management. Safety: If someone feels unsafe, stress.

Work and school and stress. Independent living skills (a potential stressor) of students. N = 651

Females significantly more stressed than males, p < .001. N = 566 Non-minorities significantly

more stressed, p < .001. N = 644 p < .003. Stress Management and Belongingness/Social Support

Coping resources at least 1 close friend at SCSU .133** feel accepted at SCSU .176**

feel that I belong at SCSU .153** N = 603 ** denotes

sig at p < .001. N = 617 r = -.185, p < .001.

N = 647 *p < .05. Research Conclusion SCSU students have opinions about many important domestic topics, reflecting that they are an engaged student body SCSU students opinions provide us with valuable insight into students

experience on campus Collecting and analyzing data on SCSU students opinions can provide a wealth of information useful for decisions making on issues that affect them There are opportunities for students to get involved on campus if they are interested in immigration, safety, or other topics findings for research and Benefits The SCSU Student Survey has been and continues to be an academic and social

tool. Student Directors are able to actively write and learn from the questions within the survey. Students are able to directly learn from applied research methods and techniques. SCSU students who take the survey are provided the opportunity to voice their opinions about topics concerning the University. The data gathered may be used by departments, organizations and students on

campus for academic and policy concerns. We would like to thank you for your time and cooperation you have been very helpful. The results of this survey will be available on the SCSU Survey homepage in about a month. Would you like the website address? www.stcloudstate.edu/scsusurvey Questions?

References Gollust, Sarah, & Lynch, Julia. 2011. Who Deserves Health Care? The Effects of Causal Attributions and Group Cues on Public Attitudes about Responsibility for Health Care Costs. Journal Of Health Politics, Policy & Law 36(6):1061-1095. Willen, Sarah. 2012. Migration, 'Illegality,' and Health: Mapping Embodied Vulnerability and Debating Health-Related Deservingness. Social Science & Medicine 74(6):805-811. Bowler, Shaun, and Todd Donovan. 2007. "Reasoning about Institutional Change: Winners, Losers and Support for Electoral Reforms." British Journal of Political Science 37 (July): 455-76. Blais, Andre, ed. 2008. To Keep or to Change First Past the Post? The Politics of Electoral Reform. New York: Oxford University

Press. Banducci, Susan A., and Jeffrey A. Karp. 2003. "How Elections Change the Way Citizens View the Political System: Campaigns, Media Effects, and Electoral Outcomes in Comparative Perspective." British Journal of Political Science 33 (July): 443-67. Anderson, Christopher J., and Andrew J. LoTempio. 2002. "Winning, Losing, and Political Trust in America." British Journal of Political Science 32 (April): 335-51. Strabac, Zan, Toril Aalberg, and Marko Valenta. 2014. Attitudes towards Muslim Immigrants: Evidence from Survey Experiments across Four Countries. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 40(1):100-118.

References Ceballos, Miguel, and Oksana Yakushko. 2014. Attitudes toward Immigrants in Nebraska. Great Plains Research 24(2):181-195. Francois, Abel, and Raul Magni-Berton. 2013. Individual Gendered Attitudes toward Immigrants. The Social Science Journal 50(3):321-330. Ward, Colleen, and Anne-Marie Masgoret. 2006. An Integrative Model of Attitudes toward Immigrants. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 30(6):671-682. Mckeen. Rural Voters and the Polarization of American Politics. University of South Florida St. Petersburg. Retrieved from https://www.cambridge.org/core/services/aop-cambridge-core/content/view/S1049096508080165

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