3.00 Acquire knowledge of business ownership to establish
3.00 Acquire knowledge of business ownership to establish & continue business operations 3.06B Select form of business ownership Objectives Summarize the advantages and disadvantages of the most common types of business ownership.
Three basic forms of business ownership Your choice depends on your needs & goals Sole proprietorship Partnership Corporation Sole proprietorship
A business owned and operated by one person. Advantages of sole proprietorships Easy and inexpensive to create. Unless you need certification or local permits, government intervention is minimal Owner makes all business decisions & has control over all aspects of the business.
Flexibility in scheduling to meet owners needs Advantages of sole proprietorships cont. Owner receives all profits. Privacy owner is the only one who knows details of the business Secret ideas, formulas, or recipes Ability to act quickly in making decisions no checking with others
Advantages of sole proprietorships cont. Tax advantages Business itself pays no taxes Taxes are paid as personal income of owner which is usually lower than corporate taxes Many business expenses are deductible Easy to close/dissolve Pay employees and creditors Sell your equipment
Notify customers if possible Disadvantages of sole proprietorships Owner has unlimited liability for all debts and actions of the business. Unlimited liability: The debts of the business may be paid from the personal assets of the owner. If you cannot pay business debt with business income, bill collectors can take your personal assets (home, car) Difficult to raise capital.
Banks/lenders consider sole proprietorships to be a highrisk investment Disadvantages of sole proprietorships Sole proprietorship is limited by his/her skills and abilities. Uncertain life You are it illness or injury that prevents you from working may cause you to close Bankruptcy or incarceration will dissolve your business The death of the owner automatically dissolves
the business. Partnership A form of business ownership in which two or more people share the assets, liabilities, and profits. Advantages of partnerships Fairly easy & inexpensive to start May pay attorney if you develop a partnership agreement
Combined resources Team with partners with different skills, experience, contacts, & capital Sharing responsibilities makes business run more efficiently & smoothly Increase the amount of capital to run the business. Lenders may be more willing to lend or extend credit Decreased Competition Combining like businesses will decrease or eliminate competition
Advantages of partnerships cont. Reduced expenses When two or more businesses combine expenses are no longer being duplicated Ex. promotion, office space, supplies, utilities Business losses are shared by all partners. The partnership does not pay income tax on profits. Each partner pays income tax on her/his individual share of the profit
Disadvantages of partnerships Unlimited liability Each owner in a general partnership has unlimited liability. Each partner can lose personal assets to pay business debt In a limited partnership, the liability is limited to the amount invested in the business Limited Capital Although partners may bring more capital to the business than sole proprietors, it is still limited to what each can contribute Some lenders may still be reluctant to lend large amounts
Difficulty in ending Withdrawing can be complicated if there is no written partnership agreement By law profits must be divided equally if no agreement Disadvantages of partnerships cont. Partnerships may lead to disagreements. May disagree on business goals, finances, responsibilities, & division of profits Can affect the efficiency of the business, morale of employees, & success or failure of the venture
Developing a detailed partnership agreement often helps resolve the conflict because it addresses many issues that cause potential disagreements In 1916, the U.S. government developed the Uniform Partnership Act (updated in 1997) which serves as a guide for legally formulating a general partnership agreement A limited partnership is more formal & specific in nature & is governed by the Uniform Limited Partnership Act (ULPA) Disadvantages of partnerships cont. Uncertain life/Transferability Unless specified in a detailed
partnership agreement, bankruptcy, death & the withdrawal or admittance of a new partner dissolves the partnership Remaining partners may start a new partnership if they have the money to buy the former partners share Corporation A business that is chartered by a state and legally operates apart
from its owners. Owned by stockholders who have purchased units or shares of the company Types of corporations C-corporation: The most common form of corporation. It protects the entrepreneur from being personally sued for the actions and debts of the corporation Subchapter S corporation: A corporation that is taxed like a sole proprietorship or partnership.
Nonprofit corporation: Legal entities that make money for reasons other than the owners profit. Advantages of corporations Financial Power Can raise money quickly by issuing shares of stock. Because it is closely regulated by the government, financial institutions are more willing to lend larger amounts of capital Limited Liability Owners are liable only up to the amount of their
investments. Personal assets cannot be used to pay business debt Unlimited life May exist indefinitely The death or withdrawal of an owner/stockholder does not Advantages of corporations cont. Easy-to-transfer ownership Ownership simply transferred by selling stock to someone else New stock certificate is issued in the name of new
stockholder. No permission is required by others The business can hire experts to professionally manage each aspect of the Disadvantages of corporations Difficulty in forming & operating Legal assistance is needed to start a corporation Lawyer fees can be very expensive Must request approval from the State & register the Articles of
Incorporation Decisions about value & class of stock & shareholder voting rights Corporations are subject to more government regulations than partnerships or sole proprietorships. Reporting & taxation requirements vary from state to state Disadvantages of corporations Dual taxation Corporation is taxed on profits from the company Shareholders are taxed on
the dividends they earn on their investments Separate owners & managers Stockholders are not generally involved in the day-to-day operation of the corporation Stockholders form a board of directors to make decisions about the business & managers carry out these decisions Separation of ownership & management provides more opportunity for irregularities or misunderstandings Hybrid forms of Business Ownership
Limited Liability Company (LLC) Limited Liability Partnership (LLP) Both combine various elements of sole proprietorships, partnerships, & corporations into one package Advantages of Hybrid Businesses Cost to start & operate Generally less expensive than corporations No dual taxation - requires less paperwork & regulation LLPs are designed for business professionals such as lawyers & doctors
Partners might need to carry a required amount of liability insurance Limited Liability Personal assets cannot be used to pay business debt Owners (members) lose only what they have invested in the business if it fails Advantages of Hybrid Businesses cont. Taxation LLCs & LLPs pay taxes on personal income-tax returns Since they are not considered separate entities (like corporations) they are not subject to dual taxation
Combined resources Often have more owners & tend to have a wider pool of financial resources, skills, talents, & contacts Life span Hybrids are required to dissolve after a specific time period Depending on the state registered in, usually between 30 & 40 years Owners can decide if they want to reorganize or let it dissolve
Advantages of Hybrid Businesses cont. Flexibility Number of members permitted in LLCs are unlimited Sub S corporations must have 100 or fewer shareholders Most states require only one member to establish a business as a hybrid Members are permitted to run the company or to allow others to manage it Membership changes do not automatically
dissolve the company Disadvantages of hybrids Requirements & laws to establish & operate hybrids vary from state to state Problematic for businesses that operate in more than one state No universal guidelines from state to state Verification of each states statutes can be costly
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