68.1 Describe the patterns of thinking, perceiving, and
68.1 Describe the patterns of thinking, perceiving, and feeling that characterize schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a severe and often debilitation disorder that involves patters of disturbed thinking, perceptions, emotions, and behavior. It occurs in about one to two percent of the population, and affects minority groups and men and women in equal numbers. Women tend to develop schizophrenia later in life, resulting in less severe symptoms but more effective treatment. Disadvantaged communities report more incidences of schizophrenia than do better-off areas. People with a history of substance abuse problems have a higher risk of developing schizophrenia. For example, cocaine abuse affects the
level of dopamine receptors, increasing the chances of schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia literally means split mind, but the term should not indicate a split personality, as characterized by dissociative identity disorder. Split mind refers to a splitting of normal mental processes through thought processes, perceptions, and feelings. For example, some schizophrenics might laugh at a funeral. Symptoms of schizophrenia tend to first occur in adolescence and early adulthood. The majority of schizophrenics experience a gradual increase in symptoms, with some occurrences first appearing in childhood. For others, the onset is much more rapid. Roughly 40 percent of all schizophrenics improve with treatment and are able to function well with
consistent daily routines; still others may never be able to function properly, requiring hospitalization. Treatment is more effective in those who had high functioning skills, referred to as premorbid functioning, before the first symptoms of schizophrenia appeared. 68.1 Describe the patterns of thinking, perceiving, and feeling that characterize schizophrenia. Symptoms of Schizophrenia 1. Neologisms using words that only have meaning to the person saying them. 2. Clang Associations words based on double meanings or on the way the word sounds.
3. Loose Associations one thought doesnt seem to be connected with another. 4. Word Salad repetition of nonmeaningful statements. 5. Delusions false and distorted beliefs. 6. Hallucinations false reports of perceptions. 7. Inappropriate Emotions displayed emotions that dont coincide with the situation. 68.2 Contrast chronic and acute schizophrenia. Categorizing Schizophrenia Schizophrenics are categorized according to the symptoms they display. Positive symptoms include disorganized thoughts,
hallucinations, and delusions. Negative symptoms include a schizophrenics lack of pleasure and motivation, speech skills, and expression of emotion, or flat effect. Researchers believe that the causes of schizophrenia can be linked to the symptoms shown; this will also affect the choice of treatment. Each subtype of schizophrenia is defined based on the symptoms present. 68.2 Contrast chronic and acute schizophrenia. Categorizing Schizophrenia Chronic and Acute Schizophrenia 1. chronic schizophrenia is slow to develop, and recovery is doubtful
(such schizophrenics usually display negative symptoms). 2. acute schizophrenia develops rapidly, and the chance of recovery is better (such schizophrenics usually show positive symptoms). 68.2 Contrast chronic and acute schizophrenia. Schizophrenic Subtypes 1) Paranoid Schizophrenia first appears around ages 25-35 delusions of grandeur or persecution onset often very sudden 2) Disorganized Schizophrenia
many homeless people affected delusions hallucinations disorganized thinking and speech neglected hygiene 68.2 Contrast chronic and acute schizophrenia. Schizophrenic Subtypes 3) Catatonic Schizophrenia odd movements: immobility (stupor)/unexpected bodily movements waxy flexibility: body becomes rigid and doesnt change position for long
periods. 4) Undifferentiated Schizophrenia doesnt fall into any category of schizophrenia because of disordered display of behavior, emotions, and thoughts. 5) Residual Schizophrenia people who once had schizophrenic symptoms but are not presently experiencing or displaying symptoms 68.3 Discuss how brain abnormalities and viral infections help explain schizophrenia. Brain abnormalities have been linked to the development of schizophrenia, including undersized area of the thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and other cortical
areas. There may also be increased size in the ventricles, the fluid-filled spaces in the brain. Abnormalities have been linked with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. The brains of schizophrenics displaying positive symptoms appear normal, and researchers have concluded that excessive dopamine is connected with the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. Excessive receptor sites for the neurotransmitter dopamine have also been found in schizophrenics. By blocking dopamine via the administration of antipsychotic drugs, researchers have successfully reduced hallucinations and delusions in schizophrenics. This is commonly referred to as the dopamine hypothesis and is considered the most credible explanation for the onset of schizophrenia. 68.3 Discuss how brain abnormalities and
viral infections help explain schizophrenia. Researchers have also looked at the effects of prenatal viruses during the time of fetal development. A pregnant mother who experiences physical trauma or influence may be putting the fetus at later risk of schizophrenia, especially if she herself has schizophrenia. Parental age may also be a factor for increased chances of a fetuss later developing schizophrenia. There seems to be an increased risk of schizophrenia when the father is older than 45 at the time of conception. 68.4 Discuss the evidence for genetic influences on schizophrenia, and describe some factors that may
be early warning signs of schizophrenia in children. Research has shown that schizophrenia runs in families. If one identical twin develops schizophrenia, the other twin has a 40 percent chance of doing so as well. Researchers believe that several genes, rather than just one, are linked to schizophrenia. 68.4 Discuss the evidence for genetic influences on schizophrenia, and describe some factors that may be early warning signs of schizophrenia in children. Similar to the diathesis-stress model, the vulnerability theory of
schizophrenia suggests that schizophrenia is the result of a biological predisposition and the amount of stress one encounters. The vulnerability to develop schizophrenia is based on the strength of the biological predisposition for example, a person with an identical twin with schizophrenia is more vulnerable to developing it himself. On the other hand, a person who has a moderate biological predisposition, such as a relative who has schizophrenia, but who experiences enormous amounts of stress could have the same chance of developing schizophrenia.
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