Key Terms: Atonement: the action of making amends

Key Terms: Atonement: the action of making amends

Key Terms: Atonement: the action of making amends for wrong doing. The idea of being at one with God. Baptism: a ceremony to welcome a person into the Christian religion. Believers baptism: a ceremony to welcome a young person or adult into the Christian religion using full immersion. Cafod: a charity: Catholic Agency for Overseas Development. Christian Aid: a charity working in the developing world, providing emergency and long-term aid. Church Army: an evangelistic organisation founded within the Church of England. Confirmation: an initiation ceremony carried out by a bishop bestowing the gift of the Holy Spirit. Corrymeela: a Christian community based in Northern Ireland promoting peace and tolerance. Denomination: the name for the different branches of the Christian Church. Eucharist: the Christian service/ceremony to recall the Last Supper, in which bread and wine are consecrated and consumed. (also known as holy communion, mass, the Lords supper and divine liturgy) Evangelism: preaching of the faith in order to convert people to that religion. Food banks: charity groups collecting donated food to distribute to the poor in Britain. Infant baptism: ceremony to welcome a child into the Christian religion. Iona: an island in Scotland with a fourth-century monastery used by Christians today as a religious retreat as it is a place of tranquillity and peace. Liturgical worship: a church service with a set structure of worship. Lords prayer: the prayer Jesus taught his disciples to show them how to pray. Lourdes: a town in France where the Virgin Mary appeared; now a place of pilgrimage. Mission: an organised effort to spread the Christian message. Non-liturgical worship: informal structure found in some church services. Ordination: the process by which someone becomes a priest. Reconciliation: the process of making people in conflict friendly again. Why is worship important? Brings a sense of togetherness as a community. Praise God as the eternal Being and source of everything. An external expression of their faith. Peaceful- allowing for prayer and meditation. Makes them feel closer to God. Christian Practices Liturgical worship Follow a set pattern. Preist leads the congregation in formal prayers that have set responses. Bible passages read out, may be a sermon based on these. People receive forgiveness from God through the action of the priest. The people receive the living presence of Jesus in Holy Communion. Bible readings follow the Christian calendar and teach Christian history and faith across the Old and New Testament and Pauls letters. There is a worldwide set order of service that is familiar to all, even visitors. The ritual has been passed down through generations, giving a sense of tradition. Private worship: Lords prayer Our Father in heaven, hollowed be your name, Your kingdom come, your will be done, On earth as it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. Forgive us our sins as we forgive those who sin against us. Lead us not into temptation, but deliver us from evil. For the kingdom, the power, and the glory are yours Now and forever. Amen. Non-liturgical and informal worship No set order or ritual. Emphasis on the word of God in the Bible. The style of worship follows that of some early Christians who met to hear about Jesus in the Joy of the Spirit after Pentecost. Faith is expressed in a variety of ways. Can share personal interpretations of the Bible. Can take an active part in church by praying aloud or speaking without formal training. Service may have an emotional impact, with a feeling of personal revelation from God. Informal prayers : may depend on peoples spontaneous prayers or sharing of thoughts. Can be more charismatic and may involve dancing, clapping, calling out, and speaking in tongues. Allows individuals to spend time with God, either alone or with close friends or family. Can involve prayer, meditation, studying a Bible passage, or using aids to worship such as a rosary. Prayer Why pray? Pray for self. Pray for others. Thank God. Confession saying sorry. Praise God. Set Prayer: Prayers that have been written down and said more than once, by more than one person. For example, the Lords Prayer. Forms a key part of liturgical worship. Can be used in private worship. Informal prayer: Prayer that is made up by an individual using his or her own words. Many prefer this as it often comes directly from the

Importance of sacraments for Catholic Christians heart. Gods gifts of grace. Forms a part of private worship. Rites of passage Grow closer in love to God. As essential to their spiritual lives as oxygen is to physical life. Sacraments are not important Quakers and Salvation Army reject all sacraments. No reference to most of seven in the Bible. Jesus did not intend for baptism or his words and actions over the Last Supper to become rituals. God speaks directly to a believers heart and there is no need for them. Rituals are a distraction from true Baptism religion. Important because: rite of initiation into Christian community. Cleansed from original sin Person dies from their old way of life and is reborn into eternal life. United with Christ as a child of God. Receives the gifts of the Holy Spirit. Seven Sacraments Outward and visible sign Inward and spiritual grace Baptism Water and Trinitarian formula (in the name of the father, Son and Holy Spirit) Receiving the Holy Spirit. The removal of original sin. Entry into the kingdom of God/the Church. Confirmation The laying on of hands by the bishop. Strengthening/ sealing the gifts of the Holy Spirit in the person. Becoming an adult member of the church. Eucharist Bread and wine Spiritual feeding with the body and blood of Christ. Reconciliation Words of forgiveness The forgiveness of sins Healing Anointing and the laying on of hands Spiritual and sometimes physical healing. Preparation for death (accept peacefully and trustingly what will come) Marriage Ring(s) The endless love between the couple. Ordination Infant baptism baptism The laying on of hands by the The specialBelievers gifts of the Holy Spirit needed by a For teenagers Baptising of a baby. andor adults. bishop deacon priest. Involves total immersion. Roman Catholic and Anglican use font and pour Many churches (mainly Baptist and Pentecostal) have a water over babies head 3 times (symbolising the Trinity). baptistery built in the church large tank filled with water. Can take place in a river, lake or a swimming pool. Orthodox naked baby immersed totally in font. Water symbolises washing away of original sin. Additional practices: Wear white as a sign of the new life that is about to begin. Additional practices: Testimony statement by the believer explaining how they Bible readings and prayers. Anointing with oils for strength to fight evil and of came to believe and their reasons for baptism. Declaration of being truly sorry for sin, of faith in Christ as their salvation. Sign of cross on forehead to show childs fight saviour and of showing lifelong dedication to the service of against all that is wrong and to remain faithful to Christ. Goes into water. At least one person tips them back under the Christ. Promises by parents and godparents on behalf of water and says I baptise you in the name of the Father, and of child to reject evil, repent of sins and submit to the Son and of the Holy Spirit. This baptism is a symbol of death (of their old life separate Christ. Wear white symbol of purity. from God) and resurrection (their new life - with God). Light candle as a sign the child has received the light of Christ. Why some support believers baptism: Only those old enough to know what they are doing can be fully Reminder to parents and godparents they have a duty to bring child up in faith. committed to the decision should be baptised. Jesus himself was baptised as an adult, as were most people in Why some support infant baptism: the Early Church. When they are older, children may resent promises made on In line with baptism of whole households in early church. their behalf when they were babies. The idea of cleansing sin does not make sense for a baby. Natural for Christian parents to want to bring their Infant baptism is just a meaningless practice that just names a child up as a practising Christian right from the The Eucharist The Last Supper: Jesus last meal with his disciples the night before he died.

Jesus took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it and said, This is my body, which is given for you; do this in remembrance of me. In the same way, after supper he took the cup, saying, This cup is the new covenant in my blood; do this, whenever you drink it, in remembrance of me. The covenant is the new relationship between God and all believers established by his death. Pilgrimage Christian Practices Orthodox Divine Liturgy: Protestant Lords Supper: Recreates heaven on earth. Much of the Often additional and service takes place on the altar behind a outside a Sunday service. screen, this represents the divide Those wishing to between heaven and earth. participate gather at the Hymns, prayers and a reading from the front of the church. Bible. Minister will read the Priest comes through the screen using gospel story of the Last Royal doors to chant gospel. Supper. May be a sermon. The bread and wine Priest comes through the Royal Doors to (often non-alcoholic) is receive bread and wine baked by the shared with those who congregation. Selects one loaf to be want it. Others are simply consecrated. blessed. The wine is Behind closed Royal Doors the priest given in individual says the words Jesus said at the Last glasses, not a single Supper. chalice. Bread divided into 4: 3 parts Depending on the church, consecrated as body and blood of Christ hymns may be sung. A and distributed to congregation on a prayer will be said in spoon. addition to the Lords Prayers of thanksgiving are said after Prayer which is said by Pilgrimage to Iona, Scotland communion. all. 6th Century AD St Columba Pilgrimage to Lourdes, France As people leave the priest gives pieces brought Christianity to Place of pilgrimage dedicated of unconsecrated bread to take home. Scotland. to Mary, mother of Jesus. Established a small monastic 1858 young girl named community there. Bernadette had visions of Mary Now the home of the in a cave near the river. ecumenical (includes all Spoke of praying the rosary denominations) Iona with Mary. Community and a place of Mary told Bernadette to dig for Christian pilgrimage a spring of water, which was dedicated to the Virgin Mary. discovered to have healing Some say Iona is a thin properties. place, where the veil Thousands go to pray, recite between the spiritual world rosary together and bathe in and physical world is thin. the water. Place where nature reveals Claimed that 67 miracles and Gods infinite power and over 6000 other cures have presence. taken place. Many pilgrims are sick or The Catholic Mass: Begins with greeting from the priest and prayers of penance and praise. On Sunday there are 3 readings from the Bible. People say prayers for the Church, local community, world, sick and dead. Offerings of bread ad wine brought to alter. Priest says Eucharist prayer using the words of Jesus at the Last Supper. People say the Lords Prayer. Priest and congregation give a sign of peace to one another.

Members of congregation come forward to receive communion. Priest blesses the people. A journey made for religious reasons to a sacred place. Role and Importance of pilgrimage Christians go on pilgrimage to: Grow closer to God and strengthen their faith. Express sorrow for sin and be forgiven. Reflect on their lives, particularly when facing a crisis or a big decision. Pray for something special or thank God for a blessing. Seek a cure for an illness. Help other pilgrims who are disabled or ill. Experience a holy place. Meet others who share their faith. Reflect on the value of the Gospel. Why some say it doesnt have value: costly so shows poor stewardship money could be put to better use. Not necessary as spiritual development can be gained through attending church, reading the Bible and prayer. Reading about Jesus and Christians in the past gives the same insights as pilgrimage. An spiritual high is temporary and will wear off. Easter How it is celebrated: Easter vigil held on Easter Eve or early hours of Easter Day. Converts baptised and admitted to the Eucharist. A day to attend church. Service focusses on Jesus resurrection. Hymns, prayers and Bible readings follow this theme. For Roman Catholics the Pope celebrates Mass in St Peters Square. Many send Easter cards that have religious meaning. Easter eggs symbolising new life. Importance of Easter: His resurrection from the dead proves Jesus to be the Son of God. Jesus predictions of his death and resurrection came true, so it means the rest of his teaching can be trusted. There is no need to fear death ass Jesus victory over death has opened up the Christian Practices Holy week: Palm Sunday Jesus rides in to Jerusalem on a donkey for Passover. Jews put palm branches on the floor for Jesus to ride over like a red carpet. Christians are given palm crosses at church. Monday Jesus turns the traders tables over in the Temple. He was angry they had turned his Fathers house into a den of thieves. Tuesday Jesus gave further teaching in the Temple. Jesus was challenged by the Jewish leaders about his authority and where it came from. Wednesday Judas agreed to betray Jesus. Maundy Thursday Last Supper, arrest and trials begin. Christians go to church on this evening to celebrate the Last Supper. The Queen (Head of the Church of England) gives out Maundy money (silver coins) to selected older people this reminds people of the money Judas received to betray Jesus. Good Friday Jesus is whipped, nailed to the cross and left to die. Jesus had to die as an atonement for the sins of humans. The temple veil separating the Holy of Holies from the rest of the Temple was ripped apart showing all had access to God. Churches today often remove all colour from the church and vicars wear black. Christians believe that to go through this suffering shows how much God loves mankind. For some no red meat is to be consumed as this would reflect the blood Jesus shed. It is called good Friday because Christians believe Jesus died for the good of all mankind. Saturday Sabbath day, no work could be done so Jesus body was laid in a tomb. The disciples hid, fearing they would be arrested. Jesus death challenged their faith. Easter Sunday In the morning, the women went to the tomb to anoint the body but it was gone. A young man (angel) told them Christ was risen. Christians see this as victory over death. Christmas Most Christians celebrate it on 25th December. Eastern Orthodox celebrate it 6th January. Not believed Jesus was born on this date, simply remembering and celebrating his birth and the incarnation of God. 25th December chosen to replace a pagan festival. Advent the time leading up to Christmas. Begins 4 Sundays before. Epiphany The day the wise men (Magi) went to see Jesus in Bethlehem. How its celebrated: Exchange gifts because Jesus is seen as a gift to the world and because of the gifts the wise men gave to him. Tradition of family Christmas dinner. Some invite people they know will be alone. Some serve meals to the homeless or visit people without family. Carol singing. Christmas decorations put up e.g. lights and trees. Sometimes there is a Christingle service (the orange) Importance of Christmas: Christians thank God for, and celebrate with joy, the incarnation (God coming to earth in human form). Time for both giving and receiving from loved ones symbol of love shared. Time to remember those who live in difficult circumstances. Christian Practices Quotations: Christians should give generously to charities that support I believe; help my those unbelief in need. Highlights Christmas and its meaning to them non-Christians. Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptising in the name of the Father and

of the Son and of the Holy Spirit. And God placed all things under his (Jesus) feet and appointed him to be head over everything for the church, which is his body. For when I was hungry you gave me something to eat, I was thirsty and you gave me something to drink, I was a stranger and you invited me in, I needed clothes and you clothed me, I was sick and you looked after me, I was in prison and you came to visit me. Faith by itself, if it is not accompanied by action, is dead For if, while we were Gods enemies, we were reconciled to him through the death of His Son, how much more, having been reconciled, shall we be saved through his life! Blessed are those who are persecuted because of righteousness, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven. Blessed are you when people insult you, persecute you and falsely say all kinds of evil against you because of me. Rejoice and be glad, because great is your reward in heaven. The role of the church in the local community Ways they can help: Food banks Hosting Bible study Visiting sick Helping homeless Helping people in debt Caring for the elderly Soup kitchens Street pastors Helping refugees etc. Why help? parable of the sheep and the goats Showing agape love (unconditional love) is part of the Christian way of life. Jesus helped others following in his footsteps. Street Pastors Volunteers who go onto streets at night. Care for the physical and spiritual needs of young people who might be clubbing, drinking heavily and getting into fights. They care for, listen to and help all. Work is carried out in partnership with the police and local council. There are over 20,000 street pastors in the UK. St Vincent De Paul Society: Repair and restore donated furniture to give those who need it. Support centres to give debt advice counselling and providing training in literacy, numeracy and ICT. Support for asylum seekers. Have community shops and food banks. Provide holidays for disadvantaged children and families. Run hostels for newly release prisoners, homeless and mentally ill people. A range of activities for disabled people. Food banks Trussell Trust: Provide emergency food, help and support to people in UK. Aim is to bring people together to work towards ending poverty and hunger in Britain. Non perishable food donated. There are around 420 Trussell Trust food banks in the UK and they proved food for nearly 1,000,000 people. The Oasis Project: Community hub with an internet cafe, creative courses, a job club, training opportunities and a base for meetings. Also runs food bank. Paid staff are supported by volunteers and session tutors. Around 200 people use it each week for spiritual and practical support. The Salvation Army: Set up soup kitchens and hostels for homeless. Toy distribution at Christmas. Advice to help people get out of debt. Employment guidance. Emergency assistance e.g. food, meals, clothes, baby supplies, showers. Provide community vegetable gardens. Practices Quotations: Christian Collect and redistribute unwanted furniture. If anyone has material possessions and sees a brother Raise awareness of human trafficking. or sister in need but has no pity on them, how can the love of God be in that person? Dear children, let us not love with words or speech but with actions and in truth. I will make you fishers of men. Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you. For where two or three gather in my name, there I am with them. No one can enter the kingdom of God unless they are born of water and the Spirit. Prayer is the raising of ones mind and heart to God Church growth Up to a third of the worlds population claim to be Christian. Growing most in South America, Africa and Asia. Need evangelism and mission to help the Church grow. The Great Commission Therefore God will make disciples of all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. Jesus instructions to his followers that they should spread his teachings to all the nations of the world. Mission and evangelism Mission: Be on call to go to other countries to become missionaries. Involves evangelism and sometimes humanitarian work among the poor

and disadvantaged. Others try to demonstrate Gods love through their actions. Evangelism: Spreading the message with the aim of converting people. They believe they can help people discover their real purpose in live and find salvation. It can be about telling people directly about God. Alpha course is evangelistic. It is an opportunity to explore the meaning of life through a series of talks and discussions that aims to convert people Christian Practices Quotations: to the religion. Christian Practices Pilgrimages evoke our earthly journey toward heaven Catholic Catechism. A saviour has been born to you; he is the Messiah, the Lord. The primary reason fro evangelizing is the love of Jesus which we have received Pope Francis Blessed are the peacemakers. If I give all I possess to the poor but do not have love, I gain nothing. And this water symbolises baptism that now saves you also. God made the world and gave the duty of stewardship to humans. Reconciliation Jesus came so that the relationship between God and people can be restored. Christians argue that sin caused this relationship to be broken and separated the world from God. Jesus came to reconcile this relationship. The church has a role to restore peoples relationship with God and one another. The Corrymeela Community: Seeks to promote harmony and reconciliation. People from various backgrounds gather for a time of peace building through the healing of social, religious and political divisions. Those who attend are given the opportunity to talk and listen to each other and explore ways of moving from violence and distrust to working together constructively. Charities who help with world poverty CAFOD: Works to bring hope and compassion to all people in poor areas in Africa, Asia, South America and the Middle East. Catholic Church believe action should be taken to remedy the injustice of people suffering while others have so much: God intended the earth and everything contained in it for the use of all human beings and peoples goods should be in abundance for all in like manner. (Gaudium et Spes). Pope Paul VI said, you are not making a gift of what is yours to the poor man, but you are giving him back what is his The earth belongs to everyone, not to the rich. Help increase clean water, education, healthcare and tries to get employers to adopt fair working practices and conditions. Sets up programmes in poor communities and gets UK and EU government to help developing countries. Encourages Catholic schools and parishes to pray, give and campaign for disadvantaged communities. Acts with local organisations to provide food, water and shelter for people who have lost everything, and helps them to rebuild their lives. Christian Aid: official relief and development agency for 41 church denominations. Aim to encourage sustainable development, stop poverty and provide emergency relief in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, South America and the Caribbean. Help the poorest whatever their religion, nationality or race. Has around 700 local partner organisations in 50 countries. Campaign wit the Fairtrade foundation, Stop Climate Chaos, an Trade Justice Movement. Biggest fundraising event is the annual door-to-door collection in May. Tearfund: Started in 1968 when there was a terrible famine is Biafra, Nigeria, and churches in UK wanted to help. An organisation called Evangelical Alliance launched Tearfund. Its staff follow the examples set by the stories of Jesus. Travel to places in need, responding to disasters and helping vulnerable communities get out of poverty. Persecution Hostility and ill treatment based on prejudice. The early Christian community was persecuted. Jesus taught them to love their enemies and pray for their persecutors, not respond with violence. It is also encouraged for churches which are not suffering persecution to support those who are. This concern extends to those of all/no faiths who suffer persecution. Brother Andrew smuggled Bibles throughout Eastern Europe to persecuted Christians. He helped other areas of the world, reaching 125 countries. Pastor Baber George He was persecuted for converting to Christianity from Islam. He got to the USA and helped others who had been persecuted. The Barnabas Fund: Send financial support to projects that help Christians who have been persecuted. Aim to strengthen Christian individuals, churches and their communities by providing material and spiritual support. Christian Solidarity Worldwide: Document and raise awareness of religious persecution. Attempt to influence governments whos policies or actions affect the oppressed. Offer training in the basics of International Human Rights Law. Help the oppressed to speak up for themselves more effectively. Open Doors: Fight for justice and religious freedom worldwide. Meet with politicians and public campaigning. Deliver Bibles to Christians who have to practice their faith in secret. Raise awareness in churches and run special campaigns of prayer. They offer trauma counselling. They have literacy and vocational training programmes. Practical support given e.g. help to find work rebuild their lives and providing food. Responses to world poverty Why help? Follow teaching and example of Jesus he helped outcasts e.g. lepers, tax collectors, sinners and mentally ill. Jesus told a rich man to sell everything and give to the poor. In the parable of the rich man, Jesus spoke of a rich man who ended up in hell for ignoring the needs of a beggar. The parable of the Good Samaritan teaches the importance of caring for all people. Prophet Amos said what God required above all from His people was justice and fairness. Old Testament laws encouraged generosity farmers told not to cut the corn from their field right to the edge so the poor could have what was left. The first Christians gave money they had to spare to the apostles who shared it out among the poor. When there was a famine in Jerusalem the Christians living in Syria sent money to Jerusalem so Christian Practices

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