# Chapter 6 Electrical Measurements Meters Objectives After completing Chapter 6 Electrical Measurements Meters Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: Identify the two types of meter movements available

Describe how a voltmeter is used in a circuit Describe how an ammeter is used in a circuit Describe how an ohmmeter is used for measuring resistance Objectives (contd.) Identify the functions of a multimeter Identify the advantages/disadvantages of

DMMs and VOMs Describe how to use a multimeter to measure voltage, current, and resistance Describe how to measure current using an ammeter Describe how to connect an ammeter into a circuit

Objectives (contd.) List safety precautions for using an ammeter Describe how to connect a voltmeter to an electrical circuit List safety precautions for connecting a voltmeter to a circuit Describe how resistance values are measured using an ohmmeter

Define continuity check Objectives (contd.) Describe how an ohmmeter is used to check open, short, or closed circuits Introduction to Meters Analog meter

Uses a graduated scale with a pointer Digital meter Provides a reading in numbers More accurate than analog meters Types of Meters

Figure 6-5. The placement of an ammeter in a circuit. Types of Meters (contd.) Figure 6-6. (A) Schematic symbol for a voltmeter. (B) A voltmeter is connected in parallel in a circuit. Types of Meters (contd.)

Figure 6-7. (A) Schematic symbol for an ohmmeter. (B) An ohmmeter applies a voltage across the component being measured and monitors the current flowing through it. Multimeters Multimeter Combines a voltmeter, ammeter, and

ohmmeter into one package VOM (volt-ohm-milliammeter) An analog multimeter that measures volts, ohms, and milliamperes DMM A digital multimeter

Figure 6-8. An analog multimeter. Multimeters (contd.) Advantages of DMMs over VOMs: Easier readability, resulting in a higher accuracy with smaller voltage Autoranging capabilities

Autozeroing for resistance reading Autolock of a displayed value Multimeters (contd.) Disadvantages of a DMM: Requirement for source of electricity Voltage limitation Inability to measure an instantaneous change

in a signal faster than the sampling time Measuring Current Figure 6-9. An ammeter is connected in series to a circuit. Figure 6-10. An ammeter is one part of this VOM. A black negative lead plugs into the common or negative hack. A red positive lead plugs into the jack with the plus symbol.

Measuring Current (contd.) Caution: Always turn off power before connecting an ammeter to a circuit An analog ammeter must never be connected in parallel Never connect an ammeter directly to a

voltage source Measuring Voltage Figure 6-13. When connecting a voltmeter into a circuit, be sure to observe polarity. Measuring Voltage (contd.) Caution:

If an analog voltmeter is connected in series with a circuit, a large current can flow through the meter and might damage it Measuring Resistance Figure 6-14. When using an ohmmeter to measure resistance, the component being measured must be removed from the circuit.

Measuring Resistance (contd.) Continuity test (or check) Determines if current path is continuous Open circuit Indicates high resistance Short circuit

Zero ohms of resistance Closed circuit Indicates low resistance Reading Meter Scales Full scale value Maximum value indicated by a meter

Ammeters and voltmeters Read from left to right Linear scales Ohmmeters Read from right to left Nonlinear scales

Summary Analog meters use a graduated scale with a pointer Digital meters provide a direct readout A multimeter combines a voltmeter, ammeter, and ohmmeter into one package A VOM is an analog multimeter

A DMM is a digital multimeter Summary On a multimeter, the range selector switch selects the function to be used An ammeter must be connected in series with a circuit A voltmeter is connected in parallel with a

circuit An ohmmeter measures resistance by applying a known voltage