CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Understanding and Treating Adolescent Substance

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Understanding and Treating Adolescent Substance

CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS: Understanding and Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse Presented By: Janice Gabe, LCSW, LCAC New Perspectives of Indiana, Inc. 6314-A Rucker Road Indianapolis, IN 46220 (317) 465-9688 (317) 465-9689 (Facsimile) [email protected] Research Challenges with Adolescent Surveys - Dishonest: Teens know surveys are anonymous but teens fear that if numbers come back too high they will be under tight scrutiny. They are accustom to lying to adults about use - Disinterest: Complain they are too long. Not for a grade so

they dont answer questions - Distrust: Dont believe they are anonymous - Poor historians due to time distortions - Skeleton Information : - Lifetime use is a yes or no answer - Use in last year - Limited information about patterns and history; was there ever a time you used daily or multiple times a week, are the teens who use pot also the teens who are drinking, etc., etc. - Research is inconsistent from one source to another - No matter what the surveys say, what the teens tell us cannot be over looked Non-medical opiate use was associated with the

largest number of new users than any other category of illicit drug use Prescription medication was misused by adolescents more than any other drug besides marijuana and alcohol 1 in 8 high school seniors reporting using opiates Almost half (44%) of new recreational use of pain killers in 2001 was by people younger than 18 Treatment admissions for opiate addiction in 2006 was secondary only to alcohol (National Survey of Drug Use and Health) In all populations, males account for 75% of heroin addicts, females account for 25% In all populations, except adolescent males, heroin users are much more likely to inject heroin. However, adolescent

females are 3.9 times more likely to inject heroin than male adolescents Reason Teens Report Using Prescription Pain Medication Easy to get in medicine cabinets 62% Available everywhere 52% Not illegal 51% Easy to get with other peoples prescriptions 50% Can claim to have a script if you get caught 49% Safer than illegal drugs 43% Less shameful than street drugs

33% Easy to purchase on internet 32% Fewer side effects than street drugs 32% Parents dont care as much if you get caught 21% (7216 -7th to 12th grades) Teens Who Did Not Use Opiates Report: Their parents often checked their homework They received frequent praise from parents Perceive strong disapproval of marijuana use from parents (Partnership for Drug Free America. Partnership Attitude Tracking Study 2008.) Best Practice Strategies 1) Offer what works

2) Provide clients with what they need, not what we have 3) Intensive treatment which offers a menu of services designed to address a continuum of needs for client and family, vs. a lot of the same thing 4) Access to and understanding of community support, educational alternatives 5) Connection to a community of recovery TREATMENT CHALLENGES FOR MARIJUANA TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

Research indicates teens perception that Marijuana is harmful is on decline - - Marijuana treatment is being over looked due to prevalence of opiates, Benzo In treatment I. II. III. IV. V. VI. Addressing Challenges

Adolescent marijuana users need to be in groups that focus specifically in their addiction. Need to be asked difficult and personal questions about their use. Need accurate info they dont have it. Need to understand overlap between marijuana and mental health. Programming that focuses heavily on subtle and personal consequences of use. Clients need to understand what motivates their use of marijuana. VII. Encourage them to tell their story, not just their history. VIII. Can you see me now? Who are they in their use. IX. Share your professional story. X.

If you show me your research, I will show you mine. Need accurate information. XI. Trust. XII. Marijuana is a sneaky drug. XIII. Balance between enforcement and internal motivation. XIV. Challenge the myths about benefit that marijuana helps mood and anxiety. XV. Research strongly supports motivational interviewing as a best practice strategy for Marijuana and substance use disorders (SAMHSAs Treatment Improvement Protocol 35 : Enhancing motivation for change in substance abuse treatment

MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING FOR SUBSTANCE USERS - Internal talk Reflective listening Open ended questions (How What Tell me more) Affirmation of strengths Allow client to interpret information Agenda setting and asking permission Advice giving and feedback Normalize Decisional balance (Ambivalence) Discrepancies Efficacy Readiness to change rules Strategies Combating Myths Held

By Parents and Adults I. II. III. IV. Address the perception that the only problem with marijuana is it Is a gateway drug. Provide accurate information regarding impact of marijuana on developing brain. Address confusion about medical marijuana. See it as an endorsement of its harmlessness. Clear up misconception about prevalence. V. Enhance understanding regarding overlap between

marijuana and mental health issues. VI. What can they do if they wanted to take a stand. VII. Address fear of being seen by children as hypocritical. VIII. Challenge belief by professionals that parents will not set limits if they themselves use. IX. Teach them things to say in addition to its illegal. X. Combat I did it when I was young Conflict. Defining Addiction - Depending on something outside of yourself to help you deal with something inside of yourself that you should be dealing with by yourself. * If it causes problems.. It is a problem * If the more you use.. The more you use

* Whenever you use something outside of yourself to deal with something inside of yourself that you should be dealing with by yourself.. It is an addiction An addiction is something that allows you to avoid your world or becomes a substitution for your world * The more you use, the more you change My Marijuana Story Format: This is a discussion with client Develop its own flow with element of spontaneity Facilitator needs to be flexible Follow clients pace There are certain questions to ask and info to gather

Goal: * To provide client with an opportunity to assess and self-evaluate their relationship with Marijuana, its meaning to them, and its impact on their lives Time: * It is important to have adequate time * Most cases take most of an hour Structure: Part One: * Focus on: 1. First Use 2. Progression of use 3. Life at time of first use and 6 to 12 months previous to * Explore the following questions:

- When did you first use? - Who was with you? - Whats going on with those people now? - How were you introduced to it? - Where did you get it? * Explore the following questions (cont): - How long had you been thinking about it? - What did you think about marijuana before - What changed your opinion? - What did you think of the experience? - How did you envision yourself using in the that point?

future? * What was going on in the rest of your life? - In the 6 months before in your life, what was going on? - Family: changes, stresses, relationships, conflicts, crisis? - Friends: conflicts, alienation, isolations, changes in peer groups, reason for changes? - School: grades, motivations, relationship with teachers, attitude about school? * Activities: - Were there any changes in sports you played, teams you were on, activities in which you

participated? * Mental Health: - Did you experience any trauma or abuse, problems with mood, anxiety, temper? Part Two: - At this point the discussion focuses on the progression of use and changes occurring as a result - Focus On: - Yearly use changes - How did relationship to marijuana change - What changed in how and why they used * What else in their life changed? - Grades - Academic goals - Friendships - Family

- School - Health - Mood and anxiety - Legal issues - Have there been periods when you quit or cut back - What motivated those - How did you accomplish that - How were things going for you during that - If there were periods where you quit, why did you start again period Part Three: - Future story - Reflect on the information that has been shared

- Most clients havent talked about their personal story in such detail - Encourage the client to reflect by addressing: * Whats that like for you to think back on all this? * Whats your reaction to everything we have talked about today? * What do you think about your marijuana use? * What do you think needs to happen with your use? - This is also a good time for the therapist to summarize the story, offer observations, reflections, patterns and feedback. Discussion Points with Teens: - Promote thoughtfulness. How do you think it would go if you stopped and thought about using marijuana each and every time you were about to use weed? - Hypothetically: If you were trying to change your

marijuana use, what would you do differently? - Marijuana is a sneaky drug. - You may have to quit while you still want to use. - Healthy people adjust this behavior to accommodate their goals. Addicts adjust their goals to accommodate their behavior. - How important is it? What are 5 most important things to you? Where is marijuana on that List? Has week interfered with those most important things? RELAPSE DYNAMICS AND ADOLESCENTS 1) Teens are much more likely than adults to relapse spontaneously 2) Movement from they make me to I want to. 3) Cant move forward if they cant be honest. Wont be

honest if they fear punishment. 4) Relapse prevention models utilize cognitive therapy; unfortunately, addicted teens dont think. 5) There is a long journey from active addiction to recovery with much gray area in between. 6) The relapse process and recovery process are overlapping 7) The focus needs to be on movement forward vs. mistakes made. Treating Substance Use and Co-occurring Psychiatric Disorders Both issues need to be treated simultaneously Clients need to understand relationship between the two. Clients need to understand applicability of skills which help with psychiatric and

addiction issues The dynamics of addiction, the thinking process for addiction, the long term process of recovery, and the valuable role of self help have to be adequately addressed when treating addictive behavior. SUBSTANCE USE SELF ASSESSMENT Even though two people can use the same drug, each individual like alcohol and drugs for different reasons. It is important to be honest with yourself about what it is you like about the drugs you use. The payoffs for your use depends on your brain, your personality and the circumstances of your current life. It is important to understand your motivation SOCIAL MOTIVATIONS

SOCIAL: I find it easier to talk to people when I am drinking or using drugs Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 It is easier to have a good time with friends when I am drinking or getting high Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I talk about things with friends when I am drinking or high that I would not talk about otherwise Often Sometimes Never 2 1

0 I find it easier to form friendships and bond with people that I drink or get high with Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 It is easier to talk to people I dont know or be in a large crowd when I am drinking or high Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0

I plan my social choices around the opportunity to drink or use Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I drink or get high because thats what most of my friends do Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I am more fun to be around when I drink or use Often Sometimes Never 2

1 TOTAL SCORE ________________ 0 EXCITEMENT: Drinking and using drugs are exciting for me Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 Part of the reason I like using and drinking is because it is illegal and against the rules Often Sometimes Never

2 1 0 I like the feeling of getting away with alcohol and drug use Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I enjoy finding drugs, talking about drugs, knowing a lot about how to get alcohol and drugs Often Sometimes Never 2 1

0 Drinking and getting high helps me to avoid being bored Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 Drinking and using at a party with lots of people is a good time for me Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I like the risk involved in drinking and using

Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 My parents cant control my decision to drink or get high Often Sometimes Never 2 1 TOTAL SCORE 0 ________________ COGNITIVE:

I like drinking or getting high because it gives me a break from how my head works Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 Alcohol or drugs help me sleep better at night Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I feel like I can think better when I am drinking or using drugs Often Sometimes Never 2

1 0 When I am drinking or using drugs it feels like I can control my thoughts Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I like to drink or use drugs because it gives me a break from my racing thoughts Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0

I feel that I can focus better when I drink or use drugs Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I think about things at a deeper level when I am drinking or using drugs Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I am able to figure things out about life when I am drinking or getting high Often Sometimes Never

2 1 TOTAL SCORE 0 _______________ EMOTIONS AND STRESS: I enjoy drinking or getting high because it helps me blow off stress Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I enjoy drinking or being high because it makes me not worry about things that are bothering me

Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I like drinking or getting high because it puts me in a better mood Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I think more about drinking or using drugs when I am in a conflict with someone Often Sometimes Never 2 1

0 I like drinking or getting high because it chills me out Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 I feel more like drinking or getting high when I am upset or angry Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0

Sometimes I drink or use drugs because I just dont care what happens to me Often Sometimes Never 2 1 0 Sometimes I drink or use drugs because I am upset with myself Often Sometimes Never 2 1 TOTAL SCORE __________________ 0

Please shade in the area that reflects your total score in each: Social 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 Excitement Cognitive 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7

Stress/Emotions 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 16 15 14 13

12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4

3 2 4 3 2 1 (Relapse prevention based on risk factor) Copyright Janice Gabe 2009 6 5 1 Relapse Prevention Based on Risk Factors:

Social: - Realistic and honest evaluation of friends - Honesty about influence of friend - Deceasing social anxiety and increasing social skills Excitement: - Health, thrill based alternatives - Channel needs for power and influence - Challenge thinking - Remove power struggle around using Cognitive: - Teach thought stopping techniques - Promote mindfulness - Teach them what to think - Encourage them to embrace their brain Stress/Emotions: - Focus on lifestyle changes to reduce stress

- Encourage to activate frontal lobe to assist with problem solving - Teach them to track anxiety and emotional responses - Teach mood and anxiety management strategies - Normalize emotions - Encourage them to not let emotions make choices for them SUBSTANCE USE PATTERNS CO-OCCURRING DISORDER AND SUBSTANCE USE/ABUSE - Teen does not have to present with a diagnosis of addiction for the use to cause serious consequences. - A small amount of use can create serious problems with mood instability. - Use can prevent medication from being effective. - It is irrelevant which came first, the mood, anxiety, behavior, ADHD

or the use. All issues have to be addressed. - Never underestimate the stabilizing impact recovery has on psychiatric symptomology. Neurobiological Dsyregulation Pharmacotherapy Alpha-Wave Stimulation GeneSight-Pharmacogenomics Physical Sleep Vitamins Exercise Dysfunction Behavior/

Emotional Skills Support CBT/DBT Treating The Physical Dimension Of Recovery A. Sleep The serotonin your body needs to keep your mood steady is produced in sleep * * * * * * *

Drink milk Lay off the caffeine Learn to cue your body bedtime rituals Stop napping Keep patterns regular day/night cycle Melatonin Limit evening screen time B. Vitamins: Review of the research strongly suggests that vitamin deficiencies are often associated with psychiatric symptoms. - Substance users are often in high risk categories for vitamin deficiencies. - The following vitamins can help with neuro cognitive as well as physical recovery for clients with co-occurring disorders. B Vitamins - Essential for stress, depression, anxiety,

cognitive alertness, physical energy (B1 B2 B6) B-9 (Folic Acid) Requisite in synthesis of serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, and DNA. Common among patients with mood disorders. Low levels in patients experiencing first episode of psychosis. Folate can enhance antidepressant treatment Found in 50% of depressed patients Deficiency found in heavy alcohol use, 19% adolescent females B-12 Needed to produce monoamine neurotransmitters and maintain myelin. Deficiency found in up to a third of depressed patients, and compromises response to antidepressants. Vitamin C: Vital for synthesis of serotonin and norepinephrine. It is an antioxidant in the brain. Patients with poor diets as a

result of drug and alcohol use and eating disorders are at risk Vitamin D: Important role in brain function and development. Neuronal cells have vitamin D receptors in hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, thalamus. These areas are linked to pathophysiology of depression. Important in biosynthesis of dopamine, norpinephrine, epinephrine provides resistance to neurotoxins. Low vitamin D levels linked to schizophrenia, psychotic symptoms, impair mentsin memory, orientation, executive functions. Omega 3 Brain recovery, focus, attention. (Source: Vitamin D deficiency and Psychiatric Issues, Current Psychiatry Vol. 12 No. 4) C. Diet Complex Carbohydrates

Protein D. Movement 20 minutes per day for mood/anxiety 40 minutes per day for addiction recovery Brain Recovery: The Early Months Addiction is a brain disease. Addicts brains and central nervous systems are damaged. They need time, attention, and appropriate intervention to recover Treatment strategies need to match brain deficits Neurobiological Dysregulation Pharmacotherapy: GeneSight by Pharmacogenomics by Assurex DNA test to determine most effective medication for mood, anxiety, ADHD

Medication Assistance for Addiction: Naltrexone alcohol opiate cocaine Campral alcohol Vivitrol alcohol, opiates Gabapentin (Neurontin) marijuana, cocaine Medications for mood, anxiety, focusing For the First 1 3 Months I. They need information about brain recovery!! - They need to understand what can be done to help their What they are using When they started How does that substance affect brain

What does their brain need to recover II. Address Triggers and Neural Cues * Completely change room or whatever place they got high * Avoid whenever possible all triggers that you can identify * songs, movies, Netflix video games, places routes you take to get places, pictures on phone, old text, movies, high seats * Clean out phone and change your number * Have plan for unexpected cueing of neural pathways brains recover III. Cognitive Recovery: 1 to 3 months clean. Work on repairing your brain * Lower, slower, take a little longer

* Read 15-20 minutes a day (even if you cant remember what you read) * Rigorous physical activity, at least 30 minutes a day * Challenge your brain (15-20 minutes) a day * * * * * * * * Puzzles Tanagrams Word Search Word Scramble

Sudoko Memory Games Lumosity Brain Training Limit Screens Education: If you are not enrolled in school dont go back high school, ramp it down Work: Simple job 20 hours a week IV. Build A New Life * Therapy: Intensive outpatient Individual Build Recovery: *

* * * * * Daily meetings Social interaction with program people Sponsor Step One (Living the powerlessness) Find home group Do service work now. If you are in It Works: Study of 200 NA members have been clean and involved with NA for 3 years. Anxiety and

self-esteem rates similar to comparison group of 60 college students (Christo and Sutton). V. Build Structure: Every day: * Get up * Clean up * Dress up * Show up * Dont give up Daily Schedule Every Day: * What do I need to do * Who do I need to contact * When will I get this done * What are the steps I need to take

VI. Self Care: * Feed self * Take vitamins * Take medication * Sleep cycles * Physical recovery stretching, yoga, breathing * Do something fun DONT FORGET: All these things provide dopamine bumps, so does satisfaction or accomplishing, achieving and finishing VII. Emotional Skills: Only focus on skills they need to learn right Do CBT but keep it simple and direct Teach self soothing and distraction skills to manage cravings, anxiety


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