CSCI 2670 Introduction to Theory of Computing October 13, 2004 Agenda Yesterday Variants of Turing machines Allow stay put state Multiple tapes Nondeterministic Today Prove equivalence of deterministic and nondeterministic Turing machines Enumerators October 13, 2004
2 Announcements Quiz tomorrow High-level description of TM Trace through a TMs operation Tape notation & configuration notation High-level description of equivalences Reminder: tutorial sessions are back Office hours return to normal Tuesday 3:00 4:00 Wednesday 3:00 4:00 October 13, 2004 3
Nondeterministic Turing machines Same as standard Turing machines, but may have one of several choices at any point : Q P(Q {L,R})L,R})) October 13, 2004 4 Equivalence of machines Theorem: Every nondeterministic Turing machine has an equivalent deterministic Turing machine Proof method: construction Proof idea: Use a 3-tape Turing machine to deterministically
simulate the nondeterministic TM. First tape keeps copy of input, second tape is computation tape, third tape keeps track of choices. October 13, 2004 5 Proof idea M 0 1 0 1 ~ ~~ ~ Input tape never changes a a # 0 1 ~ ~ ~
Computation tape 1 1 2 1 3~ ~ ~ Decision path Try new decision paths until the string is accepted October 13, 2004 6 Intuition Consider the nondeterministic calculations as a tree Each node represents a configuration A node for configuration C1 has one
child for each configuration C2 such that C1 yields C2 Root of tree is configuration q1w A configuration may appear more than once in the tree October 13, 2004 7 Example Nondeterministic TM that accepts {L,R})ww | w {L,R})a,b})*}}) Use 2 tapes Copy input to tape 2 Position heads at beginning of tapes Move both heads right simultaneously October 13, 2004
8 Nondeterministic solution Nondeterministically choose the midpoint Mark this point on tape 2 and return tape 2s head to beginning Compare strings If tape head points to ~ on tape 1 and midpoint marker on tape 2 then accept Otherwise, if all possible midpoints have been tried then reject Otherwise, try a new midpoint October 13, 2004 9
Nondeterministic TM (a,~) {L,R})a,a}), {L,R})R,R}) {L,R})b,~}) {L,R})b,b}), {L,R})R,R}) (a,x) {L,R})a,a}), {L,R})R,R}) (a,~) (a,a),(R,R) {L,R})b,x}) {L,R})b,b}), (b,~)(b,b),(R,R) {L,R})R,R}) (~,~) (L,L) qaccept qreject
(a,a) (L,L) (a,a) (R,R) (b,b) (L,L) (~,~) (L,L) (b,b) (R,R) (a,a) (a,x),(S,Res) (b,b) (b,x), (S,Res) (a,b), (b,a), (a,x), (b,x), (~,a), (~,b) (Res,Res) (~,x) (S,S) October 13, 2004
10 Rig ht are mp Co t Acce pt Ac c
ep t et se Re 11 October 13, 2004 s Re Rig ht M ov
e r ig ht re pa m Co are mp Co e par Com Rig
ht Tree representation Deterministic equivalent Assume midpoint is at beginning If so accept If not Assume midpoint is after first symbol If so accept If not Assume midpoint is after second symbol If so accept If not etc. October 13, 2004
12 How should it search the tree? Breadth first search Search all possibilities involving k steps before searching any possibilities involving (k+1) steps Whats wrong with depth first search? If some sequence of choices results in no halting, we will never get to the accept state October 13, 2004
13 When does it halt? When it reaches an accept state or Return accept October 13, 2004 14 Will it halt on strings in the language? Yes if the TM accepts the input string Let b be the largest number of children of any node Can we be sure b is finite?
Let k be the minimum number of steps it takes to get to the accept state This method will take at most bk steps to get to the accept state October 13, 2004 15 What about strings not in the language? Wont halt Thats okay October 13, 2004 16
Equivalence of approaches Corollary: A language is Turingrecognizable if and only if some nondeterministic Turing machine recognizes it. October 13, 2004 17 Equivalence of approaches Corollary: A language is Turingdecidable if and only if some nondeterministic Turing machine decides it. Proof: Homework Modify proof in the book October 13, 2004
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